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Non-invasive cardiac monitoring

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103829/a-comparison-of-the-effects-of-oral-vs-intravenous-hydration-on-subclinical-acute-kidney-injury-in-living-kidney-donors-a-protocol-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#1
Shona Mackinnon, Emma Aitken, Ryan Ghita, Marc Clancy
BACKGROUND: Optimal treatment for established renal failure is living donor kidney transplantation. However this pathway exposes healthy individuals to significant reduction in nephron mass via major surgical procedure. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy is now the most common method for live donor transplantation, reducing both donor post-operative pain and recovery time. However this procedure exposes kidneys to additional haemodynamic stresses. It has been suggested that donor hydration-particularly the use of preoperative intravenous fluids-may counteract these stresses, reducing subclinical acute kidney injury and ultimately improving long-term renal function...
January 19, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099168/a-non-invasive-approach-to-investigation-of-ventricular-blood-pressure-using-cardiac-sound-features
#2
Hong Tang, Jinghui Zhang, Huaming Chen, Ashok Mondal, Yongwan Park
Heart sounds (HSs) are produced by the interaction of the heart valves, great vessels, and heart wall with blood flow. Previous researchers have demonstrated that blood pressure can be predicted by exploring the features of cardiac sounds. These features include the amplitude of the HSs, the ratio of the amplitude, the systolic time interval, and the spectrum of the HSs. A single feature or combinations of several features have been used for prediction of blood pressure with moderate accuracy. Experiments were conducted with three beagles under various levels of blood pressure induced by different doses of epinephrine...
January 18, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091604/polyglucose-nanoparticles-with-renal-elimination-and-macrophage-avidity-facilitate-pet-imaging-in-ischaemic-heart-disease
#3
Edmund J Keliher, Yu-Xiang Ye, Gregory R Wojtkiewicz, Aaron D Aguirre, Benoit Tricot, Max L Senders, Hannah Groenen, Francois Fay, Carlos Perez-Medina, Claudia Calcagno, Giuseppe Carlucci, Thomas Reiner, Yuan Sun, Gabriel Courties, Yoshiko Iwamoto, Hye-Yeong Kim, Cuihua Wang, John W Chen, Filip K Swirski, Hsiao-Ying Wey, Jacob Hooker, Zahi A Fayad, Willem J M Mulder, Ralph Weissleder, Matthias Nahrendorf
Tissue macrophage numbers vary during health versus disease. Abundant inflammatory macrophages destruct tissues, leading to atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction and heart failure. Emerging therapeutic options create interest in monitoring macrophages in patients. Here we describe positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with (18)F-Macroflor, a modified polyglucose nanoparticle with high avidity for macrophages. Due to its small size, Macroflor is excreted renally, a prerequisite for imaging with the isotope flourine-18...
January 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068288/monitoring-of-breath-vocs-and-electrical-impedance-tomography-under-pulmonary-recruitment-in-mechanically-ventilated-patients
#4
Beate Brock, Svend Kamysek, Josephine Silz, Phillip Trefz, Jochen K Schubert, Wolfram Miekisch
Analysis of exhaled VOCs can provide information on physiology, metabolic processes, oxidative stress and lung diseases. In critically ill patients, VOC analysis may be used to gain complimentary information beyond global clinical parameters. This seems especially attractive in mechanically ventilated patients frequently suffering from impairment of gas exchange. This study was intended to assess (a) the effects of recruitment maneuvers onto VOC profiles, (b) the correlations between electrical impedance tomography (EIT) data and VOC profiles and (c) the effects of recruitment onto distribution of ventilation...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065933/non-contact-hemodynamic-imaging-reveals-the-jugular-venous-pulse-waveform
#5
Robert Amelard, Richard L Hughson, Danielle K Greaves, Kaylen J Pfisterer, Jason Leung, David A Clausi, Alexander Wong
Cardiovascular monitoring is important to prevent diseases from progressing. The jugular venous pulse (JVP) waveform offers important clinical information about cardiac health, but is not routinely examined due to its invasive catheterisation procedure. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that the JVP can be consistently observed in a non-contact manner using a photoplethysmographic imaging system. The observed jugular waveform was strongly negatively correlated to the arterial waveform (r = -0.73 ± 0...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065673/spectral-analysis-of-reflex-cutaneous-vasodilatation-during-passive-heat-stress
#6
Matthew M Mallette, Gary J Hodges, Gregory W McGarr, David A Gabriel, Stephen S Cheung
Previous work has demonstrated that spectral analysis is a useful tool to non-invasively ascertain the mechanisms of control of the cutaneous circulation. The majority of work using spectral analysis has focused on local control mechanisms, with none examining reflex control. Skin blood flow was analysed using spectral analysis on the dorsal aspect of the forearm of 7 males and 7 females during passive heat stress, with mean forearm and local temperature at the site of measurement maintained at thermoneutral (33°C) to minimize the effect of local control mechanisms...
January 5, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065166/the-predictive-capabilities-of-a-novel-cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-derived-marker-of-cardiopulmonary-reserve-on-established-prognostic-surrogate-markers-in-patients-with-pulmonary-vascular-disease-results-of-a-longitudinal-pilot-study
#7
Timothy J Baillie, Samuel Sidharta, Peter M Steele, Stephen G Worthley, Scott Willoughby, Karen Teo, Prashanthan Sanders, Stephen J Nicholls, Matthew I Worthley
BACKGROUND: No unified method exists to effectively predict and monitor progression of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). We assessed the longitudinal relationship between a novel marker of cardiopulmonary reserve and established prognostic surrogate markers in patients with pulmonary vascular disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty participants with confirmed (n = 14) or at high risk (n = 6) for PAH underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) at baseline and after ~6 months of guideline-appropriate management...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046063/three-dimensional-high-frequency-ultrasonography-for-early-detection-and-characterization-of-embryo-implantation-site-development-in-the-mouse
#8
Mary C Peavey, Corey L Reynolds, Maria M Szwarc, William E Gibbons, Cecilia T Valdes, Francesco J DeMayo, John P Lydon
Ultrasonography is a powerful tool to non-invasively monitor in real time the development of the human fetus in utero. Although genetically engineered mice have served as valuable in vivo models to study both embryo implantation and pregnancy progression, such studies usually require sacrifice of parous mice for subsequent phenotypic analysis. To address this issue, we used three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction in silico of high-frequency ultrasound (HFUS) imaging data for early detection and characterization of murine embryo implantation sites and their development in utero...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044331/cerebral-oximetry-and-its-role-in-adult-cardiac-non-cardiac-surgery-and-resuscitation-from-cardiac-arrest
#9
REVIEW
D W Green, G Kunst
Monitors using near-infra red spectroscopy to assess cerebral oxygenation levels non-invasively in discrete areas of the brain have been used clinically for over 20 years. Interest has intensified recently, especially during cardiac surgery, and there are now five commercially available devices. Despite the attraction of being able to measure oxygen supply/demand in such a critical area, there has been only limited uptake of this technology in overall clinical anaesthetic practice. This narrative review aims to explore not only the rationale for using this technology but also the factors which have restricted its more widespread use...
January 2017: Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009476/testing-the-efficacy-of-contrast-enhanced-ultrasound-in-detecting-transplant-rejection-using-a-murine-model-of-heart-transplantation
#10
Krisztina Fischer, Shunsuke Ohori, F Can Meral, Mayuko Uehara, Silvia Giannini, Takaharu Ichimura, R Neal Smith, Ferenc A Jolesz, Indira Guleria, Yongzhi Zhang, Philip Jason White, Nathan J McDannold, Karin Hoffmeister, Michael M Givertz, Reza Abdi
One of the key unmet needs to improve long-term outcomes of heart transplantation is to develop accurate, non-invasive and practical diagnostic tools to detect transplant rejection. Early intra-graft inflammation and endothelial cell injuries occur prior to advanced transplant rejection. We developed a novel diagnostic imaging platform to detect early declines in micro-vascular perfusion (MP) of cardiac transplants using Contrast Enhanced Ultrasonography (CEUS). The efficacy of CEUS in detecting transplant rejection was tested in a murine model of heart transplants, a standard preclinical model of solid organ transplant...
December 23, 2016: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003877/hemodynamic-monitoring-in-the-critically-ill-an-overview-of-current-cardiac-output-monitoring-methods
#11
REVIEW
Johan Huygh, Yannick Peeters, Jelle Bernards, Manu L N G Malbrain
Critically ill patients are often hemodynamically unstable (or at risk of becoming unstable) owing to hypovolemia, cardiac dysfunction, or alterations of vasomotor function, leading to organ dysfunction, deterioration into multi-organ failure, and eventually death. With hemodynamic monitoring, we aim to guide our medical management so as to prevent or treat organ failure and improve the outcomes of our patients. Therapeutic measures may include fluid resuscitation, vasopressors, or inotropic agents. Both resuscitation and de-resuscitation phases can be guided using hemodynamic monitoring...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943114/predictors-of-serious-arrhythmic-events-in-patients-with-nonischemic-heart-failure
#12
Mauricio Pimentel, André Zimerman, Diego Chemello, Vanessa Giaretta, Michael Andrades, Daiane Silvello, Leandro Zimerman, Luis E Rohde
PURPOSE: Risk stratification of serious arrhythmic events in patients with nonischemic heart failure (HF), beyond estimates of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), remains an important clinical challenge. This study aims to determine the clinical value of different noninvasive and invasive tests as predictors of serious arrhythmic events in patients with nonischemic HF. METHODS: A prospective observational study was conducted including 106 nonischemic HF patients who underwent a comprehensive clinical and laboratory evaluation including two-dimensional echocardiography, 24-h Holter monitoring, cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX), and an invasive electrophysiological study...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology: An International Journal of Arrhythmias and Pacing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941227/comparison-of-cardiac-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-bio-impedance-spectroscopy-for-the-assessment-of-fluid-displacement-induced-by-external-leg-compression
#13
Salvatore Saporito, Silviu Dovancescu, Ingeborg H F Herold, Harrie C M van den Bosch, Hans C van Assen, Ronald M Aarts, Hendrikus H M Korsten, Massimo Mischi
Heart failure is marked by frequent hospital admissions, often as a consequence of pulmonary congestion. Current gold standard techniques for thoracic fluid measurement require invasive heamodynamic access and therefore they are not suitable for continuous monitoring. Changes in thoracic impedance (TI) may enable non-invasive early detection of congestion and prevention of unplanned hospitalizations. However, the usefulness of TI to assess thoracic fluid status is limited by inter-subject variability and by the lack of reliable normalization methods...
January 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939485/postpartum-physiology-psychology-and-paediatric-follow-up-study-p4-study-study-protocol
#14
Gregory K Davis, Lynne Roberts, George Mangos, Amanda Henry, Franziska Pettit, Anthony O'Sullivan, Caroline S E Homer, Maria Craig, Samuel B Harvey, Mark A Brown
BACKGROUND: Women who have had hypertension in pregnancy are at greater risk of long term cardiovascular disease (CVD). Little is known about their cardiovascular risk postpartum or the effects on the woman's mental health and the outcomes of their infants. In this project we will study the physiological and psychological health of women and the physical health and development of their infants six months, two years and five years after birth. We will establish normal blood pressure (BP) and metabolic function for women who were normotensive in pregnancy and use these to assess women who had gestational hypertension (GH) or preeclampsia (PE)...
October 2016: Pregnancy Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924170/use-of-a-respiratory-volume-monitor-to-assess-respiratory-competence-in-cardiac-surgery-patients-after-extubation
#15
Stephan Ianchulev, Diane Ladd, C Marshall MacNabb, Lizeng Qin, Nathan Marengi, Jenny Freeman
BACKGROUND: Patients who have undergone cardiac surgery are generally mechanically ventilated postoperatively. Early postoperative extubation is currently recommended in anesthesia guidelines. No current technology can accurately, non-invasively, measure respiratory competence after extubation. Pulse oximetry has been helpful, but this is a late indicator of respiratory compromise. A novel, non-invasive, respiratory volume monitor (RVM) has been shown to deliver accurate continuous, real-time minute ventilation (MV), tidal volume (TV) and respiratory rate (RR) measurements and provide an objective measure of respiratory competence...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903458/cardiac-arrest-among-patients-with-infections-causes-clinical-practice-and-research-implications
#16
REVIEW
D Leoni, J Rello
The incidence of sepsis is increasing, and the condition is now the leading cause of death in general intensive care units. Our review failed to identify studies of the causes of cardiac arrest among infected patients, even though non-cardiac causes represent 15% of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests and though one-third of events have positive blood cultures. Sudden cardiac arrest is the result of local damage to the heart and of the impact of systemic and pulmonary conditions on cardiac performance, and its danger is underestimated...
November 27, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878421/the-role-of-the-atrial-electromechanical-delay-in-predicting-atrial-fibrillation-in-beta-thalassemia-major-patients
#17
Anna Rago, Vincenzo Russo, Andrea Antonio Papa, Carmine Ciardiello, Bruno Pannone, Maria Carolina Mayer, Giovanni Cimmino, Gerardo Nigro
BACKGROUND: Paroxysmal atrial tachyarrhythmias frequently occur in beta-thalassemia major (β-TM) patients. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the atrial electromechanical delay (AEMD) in a large β-TM population with normal cardiac function and its relationship to atrial fibrillation (AF) onset. METHODS: Eighty β-TM patients (44 men, 36 women), with a mean age of 36.2 ± 11.1 years, and 80 healthy subjects used as controls, matched for age and gender, were studied for the occurrence of AF during a 5-year follow-up, through 30-day external loop recorder (ELR) monitoring performed every 6 months...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology: An International Journal of Arrhythmias and Pacing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876281/post-transplant-surveillance-for-acute-rejection-and-allograft-vasculopathy-by-echocardiography-usefulness-of-myocardial-velocity-and-deformation-imaging
#18
Michael Dandel, Roland Hetzer
Diagnosing and monitoring acute rejection (AR) and cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) is essential for graft and transplant patient survival and, consequently, a major objective for heart transplant patient surveillance. Because functionally relevant CAV can arise and progress without clinical symptoms and sub-clinical ARs can facilitate the development of CAV, standard surveillance of AR and CAV includes routine endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) and coronary angiography (CA) screenings at pre-defined time intervals...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874050/automatic-identification-of-systolic-time-intervals-in-seismocardiogram
#19
Ghufran Shafiq, Sivanagaraja Tatinati, Wei Tech Ang, Kalyana C Veluvolu
Continuous and non-invasive monitoring of hemodynamic parameters through unobtrusive wearable sensors can potentially aid in early detection of cardiac abnormalities, and provides a viable solution for long-term follow-up of patients with chronic cardiovascular diseases without disrupting the daily life activities. Electrocardiogram (ECG) and siesmocardiogram (SCG) signals can be readily acquired from light-weight electrodes and accelerometers respectively, which can be employed to derive systolic time intervals (STI)...
November 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862979/cerebral-tissue-oxygenation-index-and-lactate-at-24-hours-postoperative-predict-survival-and-neurodevelopmental-outcome-after-neonatal-cardiac-surgery
#20
Safwat A Aly, David Zurakowski, Penny Glass, Kami Skurow-Todd, Richard A Jonas, Mary T Donofrio
IMPORTANCE: There are no well-established noninvasive biomarkers for identifying patients at risk for poor outcome after surgery for congenital heart disease. Few studies have assessed prognostic accuracy of cerebral tissue oxygenation index (cTOI) measured by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). OBJECTIVE: To assess the utility of noninvasive NIRS monitoring as a predictor of outcomes after neonatal cardiac surgery through measurement of cTOI. To examine the utility of noninvasive NIRS monitoring in combination with lactate concentration and inotropic score in prediction of outcomes after neonatal cardiac surgery...
November 10, 2016: Congenital Heart Disease
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