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Non-invasive cardiac monitoring

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127739/renal-haemodynamics-and-oxygenation-during-and-after-cardiac-surgery-and-cardiopulmonary-bypass
#1
REVIEW
Roger G Evans, Yugeesh R Lankadeva, Andrew D Cochrane, Bruno Marino, Naoya Iguchi, Michael Z L Zhu, Sally G Hood, Julian A Smith, Rinaldo Bellomo, Bruce S Gardiner, Chang-Joon Lee, David W Smith, Clive N May
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication following cardiac surgery performed on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and has important implications for prognosis. The aetiology of cardiac surgery-associated AKI is complex, but renal hypoxia, particularly in the medulla, is thought to play at least some role. There is strong evidence from studies in experimental animals, clinical observations and computational models, that medullary ischaemia and hypoxia occurs during CPB. There are no validated methods to monitor or improve renal oxygenation during CPB, and thus possibly decrease the risk of AKI...
November 11, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121915/clinical-monitoring-of-cardiac-output-assessed-by-transoesophageal-echocardiography-in-anaesthetised-dogs-a-comparison-with-the-thermodilution-technique
#2
Matheus M Mantovani, Denise T Fantoni, André M Gimenes, Jacqueline R de Castro, Patrícia B Flor, Keila K Ida, Denise S Schwartz
BACKGROUND: Cardiac output (CO) is an important haemodynamic parameter to monitor in patients during surgery. However, the majority of the techniques for measuring CO have a limited application in veterinary practice due to their invasive approach and associated complexity and risks. Transoesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is a technique used to monitor cardiac function in human patients during surgical procedures and allows CO to be measured non-invasively. This prospective clinical study aimed to compare the transoesophageal echocardiography using a transgastric view of the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) and the thermodilution (TD) technique for the assessment of CO during mean arterial pressure of 65-80 mmHg (normotension) and <65 mmHg (hypotension) in dogs undergoing elective surgery...
November 9, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120023/role-of-liver-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-hyperferritinaemia-and-the-diagnosis-of-iron-overload
#3
Axel Ruefer, Christine Bapst, Rudolf Benz, Jens Bremerich, Nathan Cantoni, Laura Infanti, Kaveh Samii, Mathias Schmid, Jean-Paul Vallée
Hyperferritinaemia is a frequent clinical problem. Elevated serum ferritin levels can be detected in different genetic and acquired diseases and can occur with or without anaemia. It is therefore important to determine whether hyperferritinaemia is due to iron overload or due to a secondary cause. The main causes of iron overload are intestinal iron hyperabsorption disorders and transfusion-dependent disorders. Iron homeostasis and iron overload are quantified by different diagnostic approaches. The evaluation of serum ferritin and transferrin saturation is the first diagnostic step to identify the cause of hyperferritinaemia...
November 9, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110883/linear-and-nonlinear-parameters-of-heart-rate-variability-in-ischemic-stroke-patients
#4
V Constantinescu, D Matei, V Costache, D Cuciureanu, C Arsenescu-Georgescu
INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular system presents cortical modulation. Post-stroke outcome can be highly influenced by autonomic nervous system disruption. Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis is a simple non-invasive method to assess sympatho-vagal balance. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate cardiac autonomic activity in ischemic stroke patients and to asses HRV nonlinear parameters beside linear ones. METHODS: We analyzed HRV parameters in 15 right and 15 left middle cerebral artery ischemic stroke patients, in rest condition and during challenge (standing and deep breathing)...
October 11, 2017: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102503/maternal-hemodynamics-a-method-to-classify-hypertensive-disorders-of-pregnancy
#5
Enrico Ferrazzi, Tamara Stampalija, Lorenzo Monasta, Daniela Di Martino, Sharona Vonck, Wilfried Gyselaers
BACKGROUND: The classification of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) is based on the time at the onset of hypertension, proteinuria, and other associated complications. Maternal hemodynamic interrogation in HDP considers not only the peripheral blood pressure but also the entire cardiovascular system, and it might help to classify the different clinical phenotypes of this syndrome. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine cardiovascular parameters in a cohort of patients affected by HDP according to the clinical phenotypes that prioritize fetoplacental characteristics and not the time at onset of HDP...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099704/diagnostic-value-of-moderate-dilatation-of-the-left-ventricle-in-asymptomatic-silent-ischemia
#6
S Zeikidze
Goal of the study - defining of diagnostic and prognostic values of the moderate dilatation of the left ventricle in theasymptomatic (Silent) ischemia. The report was based on the investigation results of 185 patients, aged 35-55, who did not have typical stenocardia pain. Out of the given contingent, 117 patients who had the mild and moderate dilatation of the left ventricle were united under the name of moderate dilatation group. Another group of 68 patients, who did not have this pathology, was used as a control group...
October 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075895/cerebral-ischaemia-following-anterior-upper-thoracic-spinal-surgery-utilizing-a-partial-manubrial-resection
#7
David Christopher Kieser, Derek Thomas Cawley, Takashi Fujishiro, Cecile Roscop, Louis Boissiere, Ibrahim Obeid, Olivier Gille, Jean-Marc Vital, Vincent Pointillart
PURPOSE: Firstly, to describe two cases of cerebral ischaemia complicating anterior upper thoracic spinal surgery and define the likely cause of this complication. Secondly, to describe preventative measures and the effect these have had in reducing this complication within our institution. METHODS: Firstly, a review of two cases of cerebral ischaemia complicating anterior upper thoracic spinal surgery utilizing a partial manubrial resection. Secondly, cadaveric dissections of the carotid arteries to determine the effect of neck positioning and aortic arch retraction during a simulated procedure...
October 26, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060676/gamma-variate-modeling-of-indicator-dilution-curves-in-electrical-impedance-tomography
#8
Benjamin Hentze, Thomas Muders, Henning Luepschen, Steffen Leonhardt, Christian Putensen, Marian Walter
Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a non-invasive imaging technique, that can be used to monitor regional lung ventilation (V̇) in intensive care units (ICU) at bedside. This work introduces a method to extract regional lung perfusion (Q̇) from EIT image streams in order to quantify regional gas exchange in the lungs. EIT data from a single porcine animal trial, recorded during injection of a contrast agent (NaCl 10%) into a central venous catheter (CVC), are used for evaluation. Using semi-negative matrix factorization (Semi-NMF) a set of source signals is extracted from the data...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059883/monitoring-of-cardiac-output-and-lung-ventilation-by-electrical-impedance-tomography-in-a-porcine-model-of-acute-lung-injury
#9
Nadine Hochhausen, Henriette Dohmeier, Rolf Rossaint, Michael Czaplik
Adequate medical treatment of the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome is still challenging since patient-individual aspects have to be taken into account. Lung protective ventilation and hemodynamic stability have always been two of the most crucial aims of intensive care therapy. For both aspects, a continuous - preferably non-invasive - monitoring is desirable that is available at the bedside. Unfortunately, there is no technique clinically established yet, that provides both measurement of cardiac stroke volume and ventilation dynamics in real-time...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057029/transthyretin-cardiac-amyloidosis-in-older-adults-optimizing-cardiac-imaging-to-the-corresponding-diagnostic-and-management-goal
#10
Adam Castaño, Daniel K Manson, Mathew S Maurer, Sabahat Bokhari
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis is increasingly recognized as an important cause of heart failure in older adults. Many cardiac imaging modalities have evolved to evaluate transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis and include 2D echocardiography with tissue Doppler and speckle-strain imaging, nuclear scintigraphy, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography. The purpose of this review is to highlight the optimal selection of advanced cardiac imaging techniques with corresponding diagnostic goals including raising suspicion, making an early diagnosis, and subtyping transthyretin cardiac amyloid, as well as management goals including assessment of ventricular impairment, prognosticating, and monitoring disease progression...
June 2017: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034783/cerebral-and-limb-tissue-oxygenation-during-peripheral-venoarterial-extracorporeal-life-support
#11
Nousjka P A Vranken, Anouk A M A Lindelauf, Antoine P Simons, Marcel J H Ariës, Jos G Maessen, Patrick W Weerwind
Femoral access in extracorporeal life support (ECLS) has been associated with regional variations in arterial oxygen saturation, potentially predisposing the patient to ischemic tissue damage. Current monitoring techniques, however, are limited to intermittent bedside evaluation of capillary refill among other factors. The aim of this study was to assess whether cerebral and limb regional tissue oxygen saturation (rSO2) values reflect changes in various patient-related parameters during venoarterial ECLS (VA-ECLS)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029934/ability-of-pulse-wave-transit-time-to-detect-changes-in-stroke-volume-and-to-estimate-cardiac-output-compared-to-thermodilution-technique-in-isoflurane-anaesthetised-dogs
#12
H Sano, J P Chambers
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ability of pulse wave transit time (PWTT) to detect changes in stroke volume (SV) and to estimate cardiac output (CO) compared with the thermodilution technique in isoflurane-anaesthetized dogs. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, experimental study. ANIMALS: Eight adult laboratory dogs. METHODS: The dogs were anaesthetized with isoflurane and mechanically ventilated. Reference CO (TDCO) was measured via a pulmonary artery catheter using the thermodilution technique and reference SV (TDSV) was calculated...
April 26, 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948538/the-right-heart-acute-and-chronic-issues
#13
REVIEW
Timothy W Churchill, Aaron L Baggish
Cardiovascular remodeling in response to sustained moderate and high-intensity exercise is a well-established phenomenon. Following more than a century of work focused on the left ventricle (LV), remodeling of the right side of the heart has recently become a topic of considerable scientific and clinical interest. Morphologic and functional changes have now been well documented in the right ventricle (RV) after isolated bouts of endurance exercise and in association with long-term sustained training. Although exercise-induced cardiac remodeling is classically viewed as an adaptive, clinically benign process, it has recently been hypothesized that repetitive bouts of intense exercise may trigger pathologic changes in the RV characterized by patchy fibrosis and a predisposition to arrhythmia...
September 25, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939647/intra-cardiac-light-catheter-for-transmural-absorbance-spectroscopy-of-perfused-myocardium-measurement-of-myoglobin-oxygenation-and-mitochondria-redox-state
#14
Armel N Femnou, Sarah Kuzmiak-Glancy, Raul Covian, Abigail V Giles, Matthew W Kay, Robert S Balaban
Absorbance spectroscopy of intrinsic cardiac chromophores provides non-destructive assessment of cytosolic oxygenation and mitochondria redox state. Isolated perfused heart spectroscopy is usually conducted by collecting reflected light from the heart surface, which represents a combination of surface scattering events and light that traversed portions of the myocardium. Reflectance spectroscopy with complex surface scattering effects in the beating heart leads to difficulty in quantitating chromophore absorbance...
September 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933208/non-st-elevation-acute-coronary-syndromes-timing-and-selection-of-early-invasive-management-ecg-monitoring-need-dapt-duration-pathogenesis-of-recurrence-and-beware-of-delirium-in-the-intensive-acute-cardiac-care-unit
#15
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925377/applied-upper-airway-resistance-instantly-affects-breath-components-a-unique-insight-into-pulmonary-medicine
#16
Pritam Sukul, Jochen Schubert, Svend Kamysek, Phillip Trefz, Wolfram Miekisch
Respiratory parameters such as flow or rate have complex effects onto exhalation of volatile substances and can hamper clinical interpretation of breath biomarkers. We investigated effects of progressively applied upper-airway resistances onto exhalation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in healthy humans. We performed real-time mass-spectrometric determination of breath volatiles in 50 subjects with parallel non-invasive hemodynamic monitoring, breath-resolved spirometry and capnometry during controlled tidal breathing (12 breaths/min)...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903760/feasibility-of-detecting-myocardial-infarction-in-the-sheep-fetus-using-late-gadolinium-enhancement-cmr-imaging
#17
An Qi Duan, Mitchell C Lock, Sunthara Rajan Perumal, Jack R Darby, Jia Yin Soo, Joseph B Selvanayagam, Christopher K Macgowan, Mike Seed, Janna L Morrison
BACKGROUND: Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging has enabled the accurate assessment of myocardial infarction (MI). However, LGE CMR has not been performed successfully in the fetus, where it could be useful for animal studies of interventions to promote cardiac regeneration. We believe that LGE imaging could allow us to document the presence, extent and effect of MI in utero and would thereby expand our capacity for conducting fetal sheep MI research...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894592/changes-in-delta-adc-reflect-intracranial-pressure-changes-in-craniosynostosis
#18
Yuko Takahashi, Masaaki Hori, Kazuaki Shimoji, Masakazu Miyajima, Osamu Akiyama, Hajime Arai, Shigeki Aoki
BACKGROUND: In patients with craniosynostosis, intracranial pressure (ICP) has been reported to increase even in the absence of overt symptoms. The early and non-invasive detection of intracranial hypertension is important for reducing the risk of abnormal brain development in pediatric patients. PURPOSE: To assess whether the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of white matter during the cardiac cycle (ΔADC) would change after surgery to relieve ICP in children with craniosynostosis...
September 2017: Acta Radiologica Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885662/differential-diagnosis-of-alterations-in-arterial-flow-and-tissue-oxygenation-on-venoarterial-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation
#19
Anna Hofer, Sylvia Leitner, Michaela Kreuzer, Jens Meier
BACKGROUND: Venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) may be life-saving in several clinical situations, but it is also one of the most invasive therapeutic procedures, with significant potential for life-threatening complications. Pulse pressure waves are typically very small or even absent at the onset of ECMO therapy, and will reappear with the improvement of cardiac function. A low pulse pressure may indicate low cardiac output due to heart failure during sustained ECMO support...
September 5, 2017: International Journal of Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884653/smartphone-electrographic-monitoring-for-atrial-fibrillation-in-acute-ischemic-stroke-and-transient-ischemic-attack
#20
Hans T Tu, Ziyuan Chen, Corey Swift, Leonid Churilov, Ruibing Guo, Xinfeng Liu, Jim Jannes, Vincent Mok, Ben Freedman, Stephen M Davis, Bernard Yan
Rationale Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation is a common and preventable cause of devastating strokes. However, currently available monitoring methods, including Holter monitoring, cardiac telemetry and event loop recorders, have drawbacks that restrict their application in the general stroke population. AliveCor™ heart monitor, a novel device that embeds miniaturized electrocardiography (ECG) in a smartphone case coupled with an application to record and diagnose the ECG, has recently been shown to provide an accurate and sensitive single lead ECG diagnosis of atrial fibrillation...
October 2017: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
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