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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432464/insights-into-autosomal-dominant-polycystic-kidney-disease-by-quantitative-mass-spectrometry-based-proteomics
#1
REVIEW
Britta Diedrich, Jörn Dengjel
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a common monogenetic disorder that is caused by mutations in the genes PKD1 and PKD2 encoding polycystin-1 and polycystin-2, respectively. Polycystin-1 and -2 form a complex, interact with several proteins involved in signal transduction and localize to discrete subcellular positions, most importantly the primary cilium. Whereas the causative mutations leading to ADPKD are known, the underlying deregulated cellular pathways are not well understood. In the current review, we introduce state-of-the-art mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic techniques and summarize their use in kidney and ADPKD research...
April 21, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432182/toward-a-direct-and-scalable-identification-of-reduced-models-for-categorical-processes
#2
Susanne Gerber, Illia Horenko
The applicability of many computational approaches is dwelling on the identification of reduced models defined on a small set of collective variables (colvars). A methodology for scalable probability-preserving identification of reduced models and colvars directly from the data is derived-not relying on the availability of the full relation matrices at any stage of the resulting algorithm, allowing for a robust quantification of reduced model uncertainty and allowing us to impose a priori available physical information...
April 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431303/circular-shape-constrained-fuzzy-clustering-ciscfc-for-nucleus-segmentation-in-pap-smear-images
#3
Ratna Saha, Mariusz Bajger, Gobert Lee
Accurate detection and segmentation of cell nucleus is the precursor step towards computer aided analysis of Pap smear images. This is a challenging and complex task due to degree of overlap, inconsistent staining and poor contrast. In this paper, a novel nucleus segmentation method is proposed by incorporating a circular shape function in fuzzy clustering. The proposed method was evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively using the Overlapping Cervical Cytology Image Segmentation Challenge - ISBI 2014 challenge dataset comprised of 945 overlapping Pap smear images...
April 14, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431275/learning-non-rigid-deformations-for-robust-constrained-point-based-registration-in-image-guided-mr-trus-prostate-intervention
#4
John A Onofrey, Lawrence H Staib, Saradwata Sarkar, Rajesh Venkataraman, Cayce B Nawaf, Preston C Sprenkle, Xenophon Papademetris
Accurate and robust non-rigid registration of pre-procedure magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to intra-procedure trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS) is critical for image-guided biopsies of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer is one of the most prevalent forms of cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in men in the United States. TRUS-guided biopsy is the current clinical standard for prostate cancer diagnosis and assessment. State-of-the-art, clinical MR-TRUS image fusion relies upon semi-automated segmentations of the prostate in both the MR and the TRUS images to perform non-rigid surface-based registration of the gland...
April 12, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430844/effects-of-antiretroviral-therapy-and-depressive-symptoms-on-all-cause-mortality-among-hiv-infected-women
#5
Jonathan V Todd, Stephen R Cole, Brian W Pence, Catherine R Lesko, Peter Bacchetti, Mardge H Cohen, Daniel J Feaster, Stephen Gange, Michael E Griswold, Wendy Mack, Anna Rubtsova, Cuiwei Wang, Jeremy Weedon, Kathryn Anastos, Adaora A Adimora
Depression affects up to 30% of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. We estimated joint effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and depressive symptoms on time to death using a joint marginal structural model and data from a cohort of HIV-infected women from the Women's Interagency HIV Study (conducted in the United States) from 1998-2011. Among 848 women contributing 6,721 years of follow-up, 194 participants died during follow-up, resulting in a crude mortality rate of 2.9 per 100 women-years...
April 18, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430560/database-centric-method-for-automated-high-throughput-deconvolution-and-analysis-of-kinetic-antibody-screening-data
#6
R Paul Nobrega, Michael Brown, Cody Williams, Chris Sumner, Patricia Estep, Isabelle Caffry, Yao Yu, Heather Lynaugh, Irina Burnina, Asparouh Lilov, Jordan Desroches, John Bukowski, Tingwan Sun, Jonathan P Belk, Kirt Johnson, Yingda Xu
The state-of-the-art industrial drug discovery approach is the empirical interrogation of a library of drug candidates against a target molecule. The advantage of high-throughput kinetic measurements over equilibrium assessments is the ability to measure each of the kinetic components of binding affinity. Although high-throughput capabilities have improved with advances in instrument hardware, three bottlenecks in data processing remain: (1) intrinsic molecular properties that lead to poor biophysical quality in vitro are not accounted for in commercially available analysis models, (2) processing data through a user interface is time-consuming and not amenable to parallelized data collection, and (3) a commercial solution that includes historical kinetic data in the analysis of kinetic competition data does not exist...
April 1, 2017: SLAS Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430514/essential-conditions-for-dynamic-interference
#7
Mehrdad Baghery, Ulf Saalmann, Jan M Rost
We develop general quantitative criteria for dynamic interference, a manifestation of a double-slit interference in time which should be realizable with brilliant state-of-the-art high-frequency laser sources. Our analysis reveals that the observation of dynamic interference hinges upon maximizing the difference between the dynamic polarization of the initial bound and the final continuum states of the electron during the light pulse while keeping depletion of the initial state small. These two properties, Stark shift and depletion, can be determined from electronic structure calculations avoiding expensive propagation in time...
April 7, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430481/ultimate-limit-in-the-spectral-resolution-of-extreme-ultraviolet-frequency-combs
#8
C Corsi, I Liontos, M Bellini, S Cavalieri, P Cancio Pastor, M Siciliani de Cumis, R Eramo
We present the results of direct interferometric measurements on the pulse-to-pulse phase jitter of a metrological, fiber-based, infrared (IR) frequency comb. We show that the short-time evolution of such phase fluctuations, which cannot be actively controlled by any feedback system, imposes a stringent limit on the tooth linewidth of extreme ultraviolet (XUV) combs produced by high-order harmonic conversion, thus explaining the difference of 9 orders of magnitude between the coherence times of state-of-the-art IR and XUV frequency combs...
April 7, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430480/superconducting-grid-bus-surface-code-architecture-for-hole-spin-qubits
#9
Simon E Nigg, Andreas Fuhrer, Daniel Loss
We present a scalable hybrid architecture for the 2D surface code combining superconducting resonators and hole-spin qubits in nanowires with tunable direct Rashba spin-orbit coupling. The backbone of this architecture is a square lattice of capacitively coupled coplanar waveguide resonators each of which hosts a nanowire hole-spin qubit. Both the frequency of the qubits and their coupling to the microwave field are tunable by a static electric field applied via the resonator center pin. In the dispersive regime, an entangling two-qubit gate can be realized via a third order process, whereby a virtual photon in one resonator is created by a first qubit, coherently transferred to a neighboring resonator, and absorbed by a second qubit in that resonator...
April 7, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430109/acquisition-of-electrocardiogram-signals-during-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#10
Julien Oster, Gari Clifford
The recording of the electrocardiogram (ECG) during Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) acquisition is of great interest and importance. Firstly, MRI acquisition is a relatively slow process, which therefore complicates the imaging of moving organs. Cardiac MRI requires the development of strategies for acquiring high quality images, which is mainly achieved by synchronising the image acquisition with a specific time during the cardiac cycle. The ECG is used to monitor the heart's activity, and the detection of the largest and steepest peak in the cardiac cycle (the QRS complex) triggers the acquisition of slices of the k-space...
April 21, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429831/one-step-fabrication-of-monolithic-electrodes-comprising-co9s8-particles-supported-on-cobalt-foam-for-efficient-and-durable-oxygen-evolution-reaction
#11
Dehua Xiong, Qingqing Zhang, Sitaramanjaneya Mouli Thalluri, Junyuan Xu, Wei Li, Xiuli Fu, Lifeng Liu
We report a very easy and cost-effective approach to the fabrication of monolithic Co9S8 water oxidation electrodes (Co@Co9S8), which is fabricated by one-step hydrothermal treatment of commercially available cobalt foam in the presence of thiourea. The morphology, crystal structure, microstructure, and composition of as-fabricated Co@Co9S8 electrodes are examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and their electrochemical properties are investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronopotentiometry (CP), chronoamperometry (CA), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)...
April 21, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429819/effects-of-dielectrophoresis-on-thrombogenesis-in-human-whole-blood
#12
Steven Kinio, James Mills
Thrombogenesis (blood clot formation) is a major barrier to the development of biomedical devices that interface with blood. Although state-of-the-art chemically and pharmacologically mediated clot mitigation strategies are effective, some limitations of such approaches include depletion of active agents, or adverse reactions in patients. Increased clotting protein adsorption and platelet adhesion, which occurs when artificial surfaces are exposed to blood, results in enhanced clot formation on artificial surfaces...
April 21, 2017: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429739/a-large-scale-benchmark-of-gene-prioritization-methods
#13
Dimitri Guala, Erik L L Sonnhammer
In order to maximize the use of results from high-throughput experimental studies, e.g. GWAS, for identification and diagnostics of new disease-associated genes, it is important to have properly analyzed and benchmarked gene prioritization tools. While prospective benchmarks are underpowered to provide statistically significant results in their attempt to differentiate the performance of gene prioritization tools, a strategy for retrospective benchmarking has been missing, and new tools usually only provide internal validations...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427542/recurrent-respiratory-papillomatosis-a-state-of-the-art-review
#14
REVIEW
Helena Ribeiro Fortes, Felipe Mussi von Ranke, Dante Luiz Escuissato, Cesar Augusto Araujo Neto, Gláucia Zanetti, Bruno Hochhegger, Carolina Althoff Souza, Edson Marchiori
Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is a benign disease of the upper aero-digestive tract caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, which affects children and young adults. The aim of this review is to describe the main etiological, epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic, and treatment aspects of RRP. Most infections in children occur at birth, during passage through the birth canals of contaminated mothers. In adults, HPV is transmitted sexually. Papillomas usually appear as exophytic nodules, primarily in the larynx, but occasionally involving the nasopharynx, tracheobronchial tree, and pulmonary parenchyma...
May 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427481/triage-and-the-lost-art-of-decoding-vital-signs-restoring-physiologically-based-triage-skills-in-complex-humanitarian-emergencies
#15
Frederick M Burkle
Triage management remains a major challenge, especially in resource-poor settings such as war, complex humanitarian emergencies, and public health emergencies in developing countries. In triage it is often the disruption of physiology, not anatomy, that is critical, supporting triage methodology based on clinician-assessed physiological parameters as well as anatomy and mechanism of injury. In recent times, too many clinicians from developed countries have deployed to humanitarian emergencies without the physical exam skills needed to assess patients without the benefit of remotely fed electronic monitoring, laboratory, and imaging studies...
April 21, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426660/exhaustive-search-of-linear-information-encoding-protein-peptide-recognition
#16
Abdellali Kelil, Benjamin Dubreuil, Emmanuel D Levy, Stephen W Michnick
High-throughput in vitro methods have been extensively applied to identify linear information that encodes peptide recognition. However, these methods are limited in number of peptides, sequence variation, and length of peptides that can be explored, and often produce solutions that are not found in the cell. Despite the large number of methods developed to attempt addressing these issues, the exhaustive search of linear information encoding protein-peptide recognition has been so far physically unfeasible...
April 20, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426464/comparative-effectiveness-in-urology-a-state-of-the-art-review-utilizing-a-systematic-approach
#17
Jathin Bandari, Charles B Wessel, Bruce L Jacobs
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Comparative effectiveness research plays a vital role in healthcare delivery by guiding evidence-based practices. We performed a state-of-the-art review of comparative effectiveness research in the urology literature for 2016, utilizing a systematic approach. Seven high-impact papers are reviewed in detail. RECENT FINDINGS: Across the breadth of urology, there were several important studies in comparative effectiveness research, of which we will highlight two randomized controlled trials and five observational trials: radiotherapy, prostatectomy, and active monitoring have equivalent mortality outcomes in patients with localized prostate cancer; the ideal modality of patient education is yet to be determined, and written education has minimal effect on patient perception of prostate specific antigen screening; robotic prostatectomy is associated with higher perioperative complication rates on a population basis; racial disparities exist in incontinence rates after treatment for localized prostate cancer, but not in irritative, bowel, or sexual function; androgen deprivation therapy is associated with higher fracture, peripheral artery disease, and cardiac-related complications than bilateral orchiectomy; robotic and open cystectomy offer comparable cancer-specific mortality and perioperative outcomes; and bonuses for low-cost hospitals can inadvertently reward low-quality hospitals...
April 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426462/high-resolution-esophageal-manometry-interpretation-in-clinical-practice
#18
Rena Yadlapati
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Esophageal high-resolution manometry (HRM) is the current state-of-the-art diagnostic tool to evaluate esophageal motility patterns and, as such, is widely adopted in clinical practice. This article will review the interpretation of esophageal HRM in clinical practice. RECENT FINDINGS: HRM uses a high-resolution catheter to transmit intraluminal pressure data that are subsequently converted into dynamic esophageal pressure topography (EPT) plots...
April 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426435/surface-plasmon-resonance-in-gold-nanoparticles-a-review
#19
Vincenzo Amendola, Roberto Pilot, Marco Frasconi, Onofrio M Maragò, Maria Antonia Iatì
In the last two decades, plasmon resonance in gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) has been the subject of intense research efforts. Plasmon physics is intriguing and its precise modelling proved to be challenging. In fact, plasmons are highly responsive to a multitude of factors, either intrinsic to the Au NPs or from the environment, and recently the need emerged for the correction of standard electromagnetic approaches with quantum effects. Applications related to plasmon absorption and scattering in Au NPs are impressively numerous, ranging from sensing to photothermal effects to cell imaging...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426028/-groping-in-the-dark-unheard-pain-2
#20
D J F Lambregts-van Marrewijk
For a very severely mentally disabled, deaf and blind man, it was always very difficult to carry out dental check-ups, diagnosis and treatment, even with pharmacologic support. The man cannot communicate pain. When caries and calculus were diagnosed, the man was treated under general anaesthesia. During this treatment session he was also found to have severe periodontal disease and peri-apical problems. The legal representative of the patient was unavailable for consultation on changes to the pre-prepared preliminary treatment plan...
April 2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Tandheelkunde
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