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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775951/retinal-blood-vessel-segmentation-using-fully-convolutional-network-with-transfer-learning
#1
Zhexin Jiang, Hao Zhang, Yi Wang, Seok-Bum Ko
Since the retinal blood vessel has been acknowledged as an indispensable element in both ophthalmological and cardiovascular disease diagnosis, the accurate segmentation of the retinal vessel tree has become the prerequisite step for automated or computer-aided diagnosis systems. In this paper, a supervised method is presented based on a pre-trained fully convolutional network through transfer learning. This proposed method has simplified the typical retinal vessel segmentation problem from full-size image segmentation to regional vessel element recognition and result merging...
April 26, 2018: Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics: the Official Journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775551/pharmacogenetic-associations-with-cytochrome-p450-in-antiretroviral-therapy-what-does-the-future-hold
#2
Gabriel Stillemans, Leila Belkhir, Dennis A Hesselink, Vincent Haufroid, Laure Elens
Several antiretroviral drugs used to treat infection with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) are substrates of enzymes belonging to the cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily, which are polymorphically expressed. It may therefore be useful to take into account the genetic variation in these enzymes to predict the likelihood of anti-HIV treatment success, toxicity and the potential for drug-drug interactions. Areas covered: In this manuscript, the authors discuss the current state of knowledge regarding pharmacogenetic associations between CYP and all major antiretrovirals, as well as the importance of these associations...
May 18, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775373/axion-plasmon-polaritons-in-strongly-magnetized-plasmas
#3
H Terças, J D Rodrigues, J T Mendonça
Axions are hypothetical particles related to the violation of the charge-parity symmetry within the strong sector of the standard model, being one of the most prone candidates for dark matter. Multiple attempts to prove their existence are currently performed in different physical systems. Here, we predict that axions may couple to the electrostatic (Langmuir) modes of a strongly magnetized plasma, and show that a new quasiparticle can be defined, the axion-plasmon polariton. The excitation of axions can be inferred from the pronounced modification of the dispersion relation of the Langmuir waves, a feature that we estimate to be accessible in state-of-the-art plasma-based experiments...
May 4, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775337/effective-inertial-frame-in-an-atom-interferometric-test-of-the-equivalence-principle
#4
Chris Overstreet, Peter Asenbaum, Tim Kovachy, Remy Notermans, Jason M Hogan, Mark A Kasevich
In an ideal test of the equivalence principle, the test masses fall in a common inertial frame. A real experiment is affected by gravity gradients, which introduce systematic errors by coupling to initial kinematic differences between the test masses. Here we demonstrate a method that reduces the sensitivity of a dual-species atom interferometer to initial kinematics by using a frequency shift of the mirror pulse to create an effective inertial frame for both atomic species. Using this method, we suppress the gravity-gradient-induced dependence of the differential phase on initial kinematic differences by 2 orders of magnitude and precisely measure these differences...
May 4, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775282/confined-liquid-phase-growth-of-crystalline-compound-semiconductors-on-any-substrate
#5
Debarghya Sarkar, Wei Wang, Matthew Mecklenburg, Andrew J Clough, Matthew Yeung, Chenhao Ren, Qingfeng Lin, Louis Blankemeier, Shanyuan Niu, Huan Zhao, Haotian Shi, Han Wang, Stephen B Cronin, Jayakanth Ravichandran, Mitul Luhar, Rehan Kapadia
The growth of crystalline compound semiconductors on amorphous and non-epitaxial substrates is a fundamental challenge for state-of-the-art thin-film epitaxial growth techniques. Direct growth of materials on technologically relevant amorphous surfaces, such as nitrides or oxides results in nanocrystalline thin-films, or nanowire type structures, preventing growth and integration of high-performance devices and circuits on these surfaces. Here we show crystalline compound semiconductors grown directly on technologically relevant amorphous and non-epitaxial substrates in geometries compatible with standard microfabrication technology...
May 18, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774720/-pharmacological-switching-in-observational-studies-state-of-the-art
#6
Valeria Belleudi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774187/multimodality-imaging-for-the-quantitative-assessment-of-mitral-regurgitation
#7
REVIEW
Pei G Chew, Katrina Bounford, Sven Plein, Dominik Schlosshan, John P Greenwood
The natural history of mitral regurgitation (MR) results in significant morbidity and mortality. Innovations in non-invasive imaging have provided new insights into the pathophysiology and quantification of MR, in addition to early detection of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and prognostic assessment in asymptomatic patients. Transthoracic (TTE) and transesophageal (TOE) echocardiography are the mainstay for diagnosis, assessment and serial surveillance. However, the advance from 2D to 3D imaging leads to improved assessment and characterization of mitral valve (MV) disease...
April 2018: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774041/report-on-the-current-inventory-of-the-toolbox-for-plant-cell-wall-analysis-proteinaceous-and-small-molecular-probes
#8
REVIEW
Maja G Rydahl, Aleksander R Hansen, Stjepan K Kračun, Jozef Mravec
Plant cell walls are highly complex structures composed of diverse classes of polysaccharides, proteoglycans, and polyphenolics, which have numerous roles throughout the life of a plant. Significant research efforts aim to understand the biology of this cellular organelle and to facilitate cell-wall-based industrial applications. To accomplish this, researchers need to be provided with a variety of sensitive and specific detection methods for separate cell wall components, and their various molecular characteristics in vitro as well as in situ ...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773811/coherent-control-schemes-for-the-photoionization-of-neon-and-helium-in-the-extreme-ultraviolet-spectral-region
#9
Luca Giannessi, Enrico Allaria, Kevin C Prince, Carlo Callegari, Giuseppe Sansone, Kiyoshi Ueda, Toru Morishita, Chien Nan Liu, Alexei N Grum-Grzhimailo, Elena V Gryzlova, Nicolas Douguet, Klaus Bartschat
The seeded Free-Electron Laser (FEL) FERMI is the first source of short-wavelength light possessing the full coherence of optical lasers, together with the extreme power available from FELs. FERMI provides longitudinally coherent radiation in the Extreme Ultraviolet and soft x-ray spectral regions, and therefore opens up wide new fields of investigation in physics. We first propose experiments exploiting this property to provide coherent control of the photoionization of neon and helium, carry out numerical calculations to find optimum experimental parameters, and then describe how these experiments may be realized...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773659/modeling-leaderless-transcription-and-atypical-genes-results-in-more-accurate-gene-prediction-in-prokaryotes
#10
Alexandre Lomsadze, Karl Gemayel, Shiyuyun Tang, Mark Borodovsky
In a conventional view of the prokaryotic genome organization, promoters precede operons and RBS sites with Shine-Dalgarno consensus precede genes. However, recent experimental research suggesting a more diverse view motivated us to develop an algorithm with improved gene-finding accuracy. We describe GeneMarkS 2, an ab initio algorithm that uses a model derived by self-training for finding species-specific (native) genes, along with an array of pre-computed "heuristic" models designed to identify harder-to-detect genes (likely horizontally transferred)...
May 17, 2018: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773069/high-altitude-pulmonary-hypertension
#11
Maurizio Bussotti, Giovanni Marchese
The effects of hypoxia on the human organism has been considered doubly fascinating by the scientific community: the knowledge of the discrete mechanisms allowing the acclimatization both at the genetic level or through the cell mediators production in addition to the macroscopic responses of the cardio-circulatory and ventilatory systems to a hypoxic environment has been progressively developed since the last century; moreover granting a safer stay in hypoxic conditions not only for the residents but also for the different cathegories of workers, sportsmen and tourists has been considered a worthy aim of the medical activity...
May 17, 2018: Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773065/copper-catalyzed-azide-alkyne-cycloaddition-cuaac-mediated-macrocylization-of-peptides-impact-on-conformation-and-biological-activity
#12
Chiara Testa, Anna Maria Papini, Michael Chorev, Paolo Rovero
The long lasting impetus to design novel modes of macrocyclization, and their implementation into a wide range of bioactive peptides, originates from their contributions to the restriction of conformational space and the stabilization of preferential bioactive conformations that support higher efficacy and binding affinity to cognate macromolecular targets, improved specificity and lowering susceptibility to enzymatic degradation processes. Introducing CuI-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloadditon (CuAAC), a prototypical click reaction, to the field of peptide sciences as a bio-orthogonal reaction that generates a disubstituted-[1,2,3]triazol-1-yl moiety as a pseudopeptidic bond that is peptidomimetic in nature, paved the way to its wide spread application as a new and promising mode of macrocyclization...
May 17, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772664/the-cholinergic-anti-inflammatory-response-and-the-role-of-macrophages-in-hiv-induced-inflammation
#13
REVIEW
Manuel Delgado-Vélez, José A Lasalde-Dominicci
Macrophages are phagocytic immune cells that protect the body from foreign invaders and actively support the immune response by releasing anti- and proinflammatory cytokines. A seminal finding revolutionized the way macrophages are seen. The expression of the neuronal alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR) in macrophages led to the establishment of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory response (CAR) in which the activation of this receptor inactivates macrophage production of proinflammatory cytokines...
May 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772475/impact-of-cu-ii-doping-on-the-vulnerability-of-escherichia-coli-atcc-10536-revealed-by-atomic-force-microscopy
#14
Wasia Rasheed, Samina Perveen, Ghulam Mustafa, Muhammad Raza Shah, Shakil Ahmed, Sami Uzzaman
E. coli strain is a gram-negative bacterium known to induce both extra-intestinal infections and intestinal infections. For survival of microbes, metal intake and accessibility should be according to their physiological requirements. Peculiarly, copper homeostasis is critical for E. coli survival and growth. Therefore in this study, an extensive work is conducted to investigate the impact of Cu(II)-doping on the susceptibility of Escherichia coli ATCC 10536 against Cu(II)-selective Cefaclor-silver nanoconjugates (i...
May 8, 2018: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772268/determination-and-regulation-of-hepatotoxic-pyrrolizidine-alkaloids-in-food-a-critical-review-of-recent-research
#15
Chuanhui Ma, Yang Liu, Lin Zhu, Hong Ji, Xun Song, Hui Guo, Tao Yi
Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are secondary metabolites of plants. PAs have been reported to be hepatotoxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic; they are a significant group of natural toxins affecting livestock, wildlife, and humans. To date, over 10,000 PAs poisoning cases have been reported worldwide. In recent years, many articles have reported the detection of PAs in various foods, including honey, milk, meat, eggs, tea and salad. This review summarized the contamination of PAs in foods, state of the art detection methods and regulations by different countries and authorities, hoping to propose effective solutions to minimize the consumption of PAs in food...
May 14, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772177/capture-ferment-upgrade-a-three-step-approach-for-the-valorization-of-sewage-organics-as-commodities
#16
Abbas Alloul, Ramon Ganigue, Marc Spiller, Francis A Meerburg, Cristina Cagnetta, Korneel Rabaey, Siegfried E Vlaeminck
This critical review outlines a roadmap for the conversion of chemical oxygen demand (COD) contained in sewage to commodities based on three-steps: capture COD as sludge, ferment it to volatile fatty acids (VFA), and upgrade VFA to products. The article analyzes the state-of-the-art of this three-step approach and discusses the bottlenecks and challenges. The potential of this approach is illustrated for the European Union's 28 member states (EU-28) through Monte Carlo simulations. High-rate contact stabilization captures the highest amount of COD (66-86 gCOD person equivalent-1 day-1 in 60% of the iterations)...
May 17, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771918/a-hybrid-q-learning-sine-cosine-based-strategy-for-addressing-the-combinatorial-test-suite-minimization-problem
#17
Kamal Z Zamli, Fakhrud Din, Bestoun S Ahmed, Miroslav Bures
The sine-cosine algorithm (SCA) is a new population-based meta-heuristic algorithm. In addition to exploiting sine and cosine functions to perform local and global searches (hence the name sine-cosine), the SCA introduces several random and adaptive parameters to facilitate the search process. Although it shows promising results, the search process of the SCA is vulnerable to local minima/maxima due to the adoption of a fixed switch probability and the bounded magnitude of the sine and cosine functions (from -1 to 1)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771871/trends-in-antiretroviral-therapy-eligibility-and-coverage-among-children-aged-15-years-with-hiv-infection-20-pepfar-supported-sub-saharan-african-countries-2012-2016
#18
Amanda Burrage, Monita Patel, Kelsey Mirkovic, Eric Dziuban, Wondimu Teferi, Laura Broyles, Emilia Rivadeneira
Rapid disease progression and associated opportunistic infections contribute to high mortality rates among children aged <15 years with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (1). Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has decreased childhood HIV-associated morbidity and mortality rates over the past decade (2). As accumulating evidence revealed lower HIV-associated mortality with early ART initiation, the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines broadened ART eligibility for children with HIV infection (2)...
May 18, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771785/cutaneous-melanoma-risk-among-people-with-hiv-in-the-united-states-and-canada
#19
Elizabeth L Yanik, Raúl U Hernández-Ramírez, Li Qin, Haiqun Lin, Wendy Leyden, Romain S Neugebauer, Michael A Horberg, Richard D Moore, W Christopher Mathews, Amy C Justice, Nancy A Hessol, Angel M Mayor, M John Gill, John T Brooks, Jing Sun, Keri N Althoff, Eric A Engels, Michael J Silverberg, Robert Dubrow
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous melanoma incidence may be modestly elevated in people with HIV (PWH) versus people without HIV. However, little is known about the relationship of immunosuppression, HIV replication, and antiretroviral treatment (ART) with melanoma risk. METHODS: PWH of white race in the North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design were included. A standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was calculated comparing risk with the white general population, standardizing by age, sex, and calendar period...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771675/action-driven-visual-object-tracking-with-deep-reinforcement-learning
#20
Sangdoo Yun, Jongwon Choi, Youngjoon Yoo, Kimin Yun, Jin Young Choi
In this paper, we propose an efficient visual tracker, which directly captures a bounding box containing the target object in a video by means of sequential actions learned using deep neural networks. The proposed deep neural network to control tracking actions is pretrained using various training video sequences and fine-tuned during actual tracking for online adaptation to a change of target and background. The pretraining is done by utilizing deep reinforcement learning (RL) as well as supervised learning...
June 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
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