Read by QxMD icon Read

stereology and epilepsy

Smriti Patodia, Alyma Somani, Megan O'Hare, Ranjana Venkateswaran, Joan Liu, Zuzanna Michalak, Matthew Ellis, Ingrid E Scheffer, Beate Diehl, Sanjay M Sisodiya, Maria Thom
Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is a leading cause of premature death in patients with epilepsy. One hypothesis proposes that sudden death is mediated by post-ictal central respiratory depression, which could relate to underlying pathology in key respiratory nuclei and/or their neuromodulators. Our aim was to investigate neuronal populations in the ventrolateral medulla (which includes the putative human pre-Bötzinger complex) and the medullary raphe. Forty brainstems were studied comprising four groups: 14 SUDEP, six epilepsy controls, seven Dravet syndrome cases and 13 non-epilepsy controls...
March 28, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Ismini E Papageorgiou, Nektarios A Valous, Bernd Lahrmann, Hana Janova, Zin-Juan Klaft, Arend Koch, Ulf C Schneider, Peter Vajkoczy, Frank L Heppner, Niels Grabe, Niels Halama, Uwe Heinemann, Oliver Kann
Human mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) features subregion-specific hippocampal neurodegeneration and reactive astrogliosis, including up-regulation of the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and down-regulation of glutamine synthetase (GS). However, the regional astrocytic expression pattern of GFAP and GS upon MTLE-associated neurodegeneration still remains elusive. We assessed GFAP and GS expression in strict correlation with the local neuronal number in cortical and hippocampal surgical specimens from 16 MTLE patients using immunohistochemistry, stereology and high-resolution image analysis for digital pathology and whole-slide imaging...
May 2018: Glia
Yi-Chen Lai, J Scott Baker, Taraka Donti, Brett H Graham, William J Craigen, Anne E Anderson
Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a central role in the neuropathology associated with status epilepticus (SE) and is implicated in the development of epilepsy. While excitotoxic mechanisms are well-known mediators affecting mitochondrial health following SE, whether hyperactivation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) also contributes to SE-induced mitochondrial dysfunction remains to be examined. Here we first evaluated the temporal evolution of poly-ADP-ribosylated protein levels in hippocampus following kainic acid-induced SE as a marker for PARP-1 activity, and found that PARP-1 was hyperactive at 24 h following SE...
July 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Marigowda Vrinda, Arun Sasidharan, Sahajan Aparna, Bettadapura N Srikumar, Bindu M Kutty, Byrathnahalli S Shankaranarayana Rao
OBJECTIVE: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is commonly associated with depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment. Despite significant progress in our understanding of the pathophysiology of TLE, it remains the most common form of refractory epilepsy. Enriched environment (EE) has a beneficial effect in many neuropsychiatric disorders. However, the effect of EE on cognitive changes in chronic TLE has not been evaluated. Accordingly, the present study evaluated the effects of EE on chronic epilepsy-induced alterations in cognitive functions, electrophysiology, and cellular changes in the hippocampus...
July 2017: Epilepsia
Paul S Buckmaster, Emily Abrams, Xiling Wen
Epilepsy occurs in one of 26 people. Temporal lobe epilepsy is common and can be difficult to treat effectively. It can develop after brain injuries that damage the hippocampus. Multiple pathophysiological mechanisms involving the hippocampal dentate gyrus have been proposed. This study evaluated a mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy to test which pathological changes in the dentate gyrus correlate with seizure frequency and help prioritize potential mechanisms for further study. FVB mice (n = 127) that had experienced status epilepticus after systemic treatment with pilocarpine 31-61 days earlier were video-monitored for spontaneous, convulsive seizures 9 hr/day every day for 24-36 days...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Rocio Leal-Campanario, Luis Alarcon-Martinez, Hector Rieiro, Susana Martinez-Conde, Tugba Alarcon-Martinez, Xiuli Zhao, Jonathan LaMee, Pamela J Osborn Popp, Michael E Calhoun, Juan I Arribas, Alexander A Schlegel, Leandro L Di Stasi, Jong M Rho, Landon Inge, Jorge Otero-Millan, David M Treiman, Stephen L Macknik
Seizure-driven brain damage in epilepsy accumulates over time, especially in the hippocampus, which can lead to sclerosis, cognitive decline, and death. Excitotoxicity is the prevalent model to explain ictal neurodegeneration. Current labeling technologies cannot distinguish between excitotoxicity and hypoxia, however, because they share common molecular mechanisms. This leaves open the possibility that undetected ischemic hypoxia, due to ictal blood flow restriction, could contribute to neurodegeneration previously ascribed to excitotoxicity...
February 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
Pragati Sharma, Stefanie Dedeurwaerdere, Michael A D Vandenberg, Ke Fang, Leigh A Johnston, Sandy R Shultz, Terence J O'Brien, Krista L Gilby
OBJECTIVE: The neurobiological factors underlying a predisposition towards developing epilepsy and its common behavioral comorbidities are poorly understood. FAST rats are a strain that has been selectively bred for enhanced vulnerability to kindling, while the SLOW strain has been bred to be resistant to kindling. FAST rats also exhibit behavioral traits reminiscent of those observed in neurodevelopmental disorders (autism spectrum disorder (ASD)/attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)) commonly comorbid with epilepsy...
December 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
David A Menassa, Carolyn Sloan, Steven A Chance
Autism Spectrum Disorder is characterized by sensory anomalies including impaired olfactory identification. Between 5 and 46 percent of individuals with autism have a clinical diagnosis of epilepsy. Primary olfactory cortex (piriform cortex) is central to olfactory identification and is an epileptogenic structure. Cytoarchitectural changes in olfactory cortex may underlie olfactory differences seen in autism. Primary olfactory cortex was sampled from 17 post-mortem autism cases with and without epilepsy, 11 epilepsy cases without autism and 11 typically developed cases...
July 2017: Brain Pathology
Victoria M Golub, Jonathan Brewer, Xin Wu, Ramkumar Kuruba, Jenessa Short, Maunica Manchi, Megan Swonke, Iyan Younus, Doodipala Samba Reddy
Neuronal injury and neurodegeneration are the hallmark pathologies in a variety of neurological conditions such as epilepsy, stroke, traumatic brain injury, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Quantification of absolute neuron and interneuron counts in various brain regions is essential to understand the impact of neurological insults or neurodegenerative disease progression in animal models. However, conventional qualitative scoring-based protocols are superficial and less reliable for use in studies of neuroprotection evaluations...
2015: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Jerzy Wegiel, Michael Flory, N Carolyn Schanen, Edwin H Cook, Krzysztof Nowicki, Izabela Kuchna, Humi Imaki, Shuang Yong Ma, Jarek Wegiel, Eric London, Manuel F Casanova, Thomas Wisniewski, W Ted Brown
INTRODUCTION: Autism is diagnosed in numerous genetic and genomic developmental disorders associated with an overlap in high-risk genes and loci that underlie intellectual disability (ID) and epilepsy. The aim of this stereological study of neuronal soma volume in 25 brain structures and their subdivisions in eight individuals 9 to 26 years of age who were diagnosed with chromosome 15q11.2-13.1 duplication syndrome [dup(15)], autism, ID and epilepsy; eight age-matched subjects diagnosed with autism of unknown etiology (idiopathic autism) and seven control individuals was to establish whether defects of neuronal soma growth are a common denominator of developmental pathology in idiopathic and syndromic autism and how genetic modifications alter the trajectory of neuronal soma growth in dup(15) autism...
October 13, 2015: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
C Isgor, C Pare, B McDole, P Coombs, K Guthrie
Structural changes that alter hippocampal functional circuitry are implicated in learning impairments, mood disorders and epilepsy. Reorganization of mossy fiber (MF) axons from dentate granule cells is one such form of plasticity. Increased neurotrophin signaling is proposed to underlie MF plasticity, and there is evidence to support a mechanistic role for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in this process. Transgenic mice overexpressing BDNF in the forebrain under the α-calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II promoter (TgBDNF mice) exhibit spatial learning deficits at 2-3months of age, followed by the emergence of spontaneous seizures at ∼6months...
March 12, 2015: Neuroscience
Ruth Yamawaki, Khushdev Thind, Paul S Buckmaster
Inhibiting the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway with rapamycin blocks granule cell axon (mossy fiber) sprouting after epileptogenic injuries, including pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. However, it remains unclear whether axons from other types of neurons sprout into the inner molecular layer and synapse with granule cell dendrites despite rapamycin treatment. If so, other aberrant positive-feedback networks might develop. To test this possibility stereological electron microscopy was used to estimate the numbers of excitatory synapses in the inner molecular layer per hippocampus in pilocarpine-treated control mice, in mice 5 days after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus, and after status epilepticus and daily treatment beginning 24 hours later with rapamycin or vehicle for 2 months...
February 1, 2015: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Lauren L Jantzie, Christopher J Corbett, Jacqueline Berglass, Daniel J Firl, Julian Flores, Rebekah Mannix, Shenandoah Robinson
BACKGROUND: Infants born preterm commonly suffer from a combination of hypoxia-ischemia (HI) and infectious perinatal inflammatory insults that lead to cerebral palsy, cognitive delay, behavioral issues and epilepsy. Using a novel rat model of combined late gestation HI and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation, we tested our hypothesis that inflammation from HI and LPS differentially affects gliosis, white matter development and motor impairment during the first postnatal month...
2014: Journal of Neuroinflammation
José Eduardo Marques-Carneiro, Jean-Baptiste Faure, Brigitte Cosquer, Estelle Koning, Arielle Ferrandon, Anne Pereira de Vasconcelos, Jean-Christophe Cassel, Astrid Nehlig
OBJECTIVE: The Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS) is a genetic model, derived from Wistar rats by selective breeding. In all previous studies, GAERS were compared to their paired selected strain not expressing spike-and-wave discharges (SWDs), namely nonepileptic controls (NECs). Because the occurrence/absence of SWDs is of polygenic origin, some other traits could have been selected along with occurrence/absence of SWDs. Therefore, we explored the importance of using a second control group consisting in Wistar rats, the strain of origin of GAERS, in addition to NECs, on locomotion and anxiety in GAERS...
September 2014: Epilepsia
Paul S Buckmaster
Many patients with temporal lobe epilepsy display structural changes in the seizure initiating zone, which includes the hippocampus. Structural changes in the hippocampus include granule cell axon (mossy fiber) sprouting. The role of mossy fiber sprouting in epileptogenesis is controversial. A popular view of temporal lobe epileptogenesis contends that precipitating brain insults trigger transient cascades of molecular and cellular events that permanently enhance excitability of neuronal networks through mechanisms including mossy fiber sprouting...
2014: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Fernando V Lobo Ladd, Aliny A B Lobo Ladd, Andrea A P da Silva, A Augusto Coppi
The superior cervical ganglion (SCG) plays an important role in neuropathies including Horner's syndrome, stroke, and epilepsy. While mammalian SCGs seem to share certain organizational features, they display natural differences related to the animal size and side and the complexity and synaptic coverage of their dendritic arborizations. However, apart from the rat SCG, there is little information concerning the number of SCG neurons and synapses, and the nature of relationships between body weight and the numbers and sizes of neurons and synapses remain uncertain...
2014: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
Joan Y W Liu, Matthew Ellis, Hannah Brooke-Ball, Jane de Tisi, Sofia H Eriksson, Sebastian Brandner, Sanjay M Sisodiya, Maria Thom
INTRODUCTION: In epilepsy, the diagnosis of mild Malformation of Cortical Development type II (mMCD II) predominantly relies on the histopathological assessment of heterotopic neurons in the white matter. The exact diagnostic criteria for mMCD II are still ill-defined, mainly because findings from previous studies were contradictory due to small sample size, and the use of different stains and quantitative systems. Advance in technology leading to the development of whole slide imaging with high-throughput, automated quantitative analysis (WSA) may overcome these differences, and may provide objective, rapid, and reliable quantitation of white matter neurons in epilepsy...
2014: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
Ismini E Papageorgiou, Andriani F Fetani, Andrea Lewen, Uwe Heinemann, Oliver Kann
Activation of microglial cells (brain macrophages) soon after status epilepticus has been suggested to be critical for the pathogenesis of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). However, microglial activation in the chronic phase of experimental MTLE has been scarcely addressed. In this study, we questioned whether microglial activation persists in the hippocampus of pilocarpine-treated, epileptic Wistar rats and to which extent it is associated with segmental neurodegeneration. Microglial cells were immunostained for the universal microglial marker, ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule-1 and the activation marker, CD11b (also known as OX42, Mac-1)...
July 2015: Brain Structure & Function
Ismail Yilmaz, Ilgaz Akdogan, Ertugrul Kaya, Goksin Nilufer Yonguc
AIM: Epileptic seizures lead to neuronal loss in the hippocampus. Experimental epilepsy can be induced by direct application of various chemicals to cerebral cortex. Nifedipine is an L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel blocker. In spite of several studies that show the seizure-suppressing effects of nifedipine, it has been shown that nifedipine does not suppress but conversely increases epileptic seizures. Similarly, contradictory effects of nifedipine have been reported, such as neuroprotection, failed neuroprotection and neurotoxicity...
2014: Turkish Neurosurgery
Paul S Buckmaster, Xiling Wen, Izumi Toyoda, Frances M D Gulland, William Van Bonn
California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) are abundant human-sized carnivores with large gyrencephalic brains. They develop epilepsy after experiencing status epilepticus when naturally exposed to domoic acid. We tested whether sea lions previously exposed to DA (chronic DA sea lions) display hippocampal neuropathology similar to that of human patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Hippocampi were obtained from control and chronic DA sea lions. Stereology was used to estimate numbers of Nissl-stained neurons per hippocampus in the granule cell layer, hilus, and pyramidal cell layer of CA3, CA2, and CA1 subfields...
May 1, 2014: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"