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parkin gene

Katsutoshi Mizuno, Erin E Dymek, Elizabeth F Smith
The complex waveforms characteristic of motile eukaryotic cilia and flagella are produced by the temporally and spatially regulated action of multiple dynein subforms generating sliding between subsets of axonemal microtubules. Multiple protein complexes have been identified that are associated with the doublet microtubules and that mediate regulatory signals between key axonemal structures, such as the radial spokes and central apparatus, and the dynein arm motors; these complexes include the N-DRC, MIA and CSC complexes...
October 22, 2016: Cytoskeleton
Sandra-Fausia Soukup, Sabine Kuenen, Roeland Vanhauwaert, Julia Manetsberger, Sergio Hernández-Díaz, Jef Swerts, Nils Schoovaerts, Sven Vilain, Natalia V Gounko, Katlijn Vints, Ann Geens, Bart De Strooper, Patrik Verstreken
Synapses are often far from the soma and independently cope with proteopathic stress induced by intense neuronal activity. However, how presynaptic compartments turn over proteins is poorly understood. We show that the synapse-enriched protein EndophilinA, thus far studied for its role in endocytosis, induces macroautophagy at presynaptic terminals. We find that EndophilinA executes this unexpected function at least partly independent of its role in synaptic vesicle endocytosis. EndophilinA-induced macroautophagy is activated when the kinase LRRK2 phosphorylates the EndophilinA-BAR domain and is blocked in animals where EndophilinA cannot be phosphorylated...
October 5, 2016: Neuron
Vaishali Kakkar, E F Elsiena Kuiper, Abhinav Pandey, Ineke Braakman, Harm H Kampinga
Parkinson's disease is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders and several mutations in different genes have been identified to contribute to the disease. A loss of function parkin RING1 domain mutant (C289G) is associated with autosomal-recessive juvenile-onset Parkinsonism (AR-JP) and displays altered solubility and sequesters into aggregates. Single overexpression of almost each individual member of the Hsp40 (DNAJ) family of chaperones efficiently reduces parkin C289G aggregation and requires interaction with and activity of endogenously expressed Hsp70 s...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
Chi-Jing Choong, Hideki Mochizuki
Parkinson's disease (PD) presents a relative selective localization of pathology to substantia nigra and well-defined motor symptoms caused by dopaminergic degeneration that makes it an ideal target for gene therapy. Parallel progress in viral vector systems enables the delivery of therapeutic genes directly into brain with reasonable safety along with sustained transgene expression. To date, gene therapy for PD that has reached clinical trial evaluation is mainly based on symptomatic approach that involves enzyme replacement strategy and restorative approach that depends on the addition of neurotrophic factors...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
Ya-Ping Yan, Bo Zhang, Yan-Fang Mao, Zhang-Yu Guo, Jun Tian, Guo-Hua Zhao, Jia-Li Pu, Wei Luo, Zhi-Yuan Ouyang, Bao-Rong Zhang
Dopa-responsive dystonia (DRD) comprises a heterogeneous group of movement disorders. A limited number of studies of Chinese patients with DRD have been reported. In the present study, we investigated the clinical and genetic features of 12 Chinese DRD families. Point mutation analysis of the GTP-cyclohydrolase I (GCH1), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and sepiapterin reductase (SPR) genes was conducted by direct sequencing. In addition, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification targeting GCH1 and TH was performed in "mutation-free" patients...
October 5, 2016: International Journal of Neuroscience
Gunnar F Kwakye, Rachael A McMinimy, Michael Aschner
Human disease commonly manifests as a result of complex genetic and environmental interactions. In the case of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease (PD), understanding how environmental exposures collude with genetic polymorphisms in the central nervous system to cause dysfunction is critical in order to develop better treatment strategies, therapies, and a more cohesive paradigm for future research. The intersection of genetics and the environment in disease etiology is particularly relevant in the context of their shared pathophysiological mechanisms...
September 9, 2016: Neurochemical Research
Agata Grazia D'Amico, Grazia Maugeri, Rita Reitano, Sebastiano Cavallaro, Velia D'Agata
PARK2 gene's mutations are related to the familial form of juvenile Parkinsonism, also known as the autosomic recessive juvenile Parkinsonism. This gene encodes for parkin, a 465-amino acid protein. To date, a large number of parkin isoforms, generated by an alternative splicing mechanism, have been described. Currently, Gene Bank lists 27 rat PARK2 transcripts, which matches to 20 exclusive parkin alternative splice variants. Despite the existence of these isoforms, most of the studies carried out so far, have been focused only on the originally cloned parkin...
September 6, 2016: Protein Journal
Cornelia Rüb, Anne Wilkening, Wolfgang Voos
Mitochondrial dysfunction represents a prominent pathological feature in many neurodegenerative diseases, particularly in Parkinson's disease (PD). Mutations in the genes encoding the proteins Pink1 and Parkin have been identified as genetic risk factors in familiar cases of PD. Research during the last decade has identified both proteins as crucial components of an organellar quality control system that contributes to the maintenance of mitochondrial function in healthy cells. The Pink1/Parkin system acts as a sensor for mitochondrial quality and is activated, in particular, after the loss of the electric potential across the inner mitochondrial membrane...
September 2, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
K Gaweda-Walerych, F Mohagheghi, C Zekanowski, E Buratti
We have analyzed the impact of Parkinson's disease (PD)-related genetic variants on splicing using dedicated minigene assays. Out of 14 putative splicing variants in 5 genes (PINK1, [PTEN induced kinase 1]; LRPPRC, [leucine-rich pentatricopeptide repeat containing protein]; TFAM, [mitochondrial transcription factor A]; PARK2, [parkin RBR E3 ubiquitin protein ligase]; and HSPA9, [heat shock protein family A (Hsp70) member 9]) 4 LRPPRC variants, (IVS32-3C>T, IVS35+14C>T, IVS35+15C>T, and IVS9+30A>G) influenced pre-messenger RNA splicing by modulating the inclusion of the respective exons...
July 28, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
Lisa J Strug, Tanja Gonska, Gengming He, Katherine Keenan, Wan Ip, Pierre-Yves Boëlle, Fan Lin, Naim Panjwani, Jiafen Gong, Weili Li, David Soave, Bowei Xiao, Elizabeth Tullis, Harvey Rabin, Michael D Parkins, April Price, Peter C Zuberbuhler, Harriet Corvol, Felix Ratjen, Lei Sun, Christine E Bear, Johanna M Rommens
Cystic fibrosis is realizing the promise of personalized medicine. Recent advances in drug development that target the causal CFTR directly result in lung function improvement, but variability in response is demanding better prediction of outcomes to improve management decisions. The genetic modifier SLC26A9 contributes to disease severity in the CF pancreas and intestine at birth and here we assess its relationship with disease severity and therapeutic response in the airways. SLC26A9 association with lung disease was assessed in individuals from the Canadian and French CF Gene Modifier consortia with CFTR-gating mutations and in those homozygous for the common Phe508del mutation...
August 29, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
Lisa Bowman, Jonathan Balbach, Julia Walton, Frank Sargent, Alison Parkin
A subset of bacterial [NiFe]-hydrogenases have been shown to be capable of activating dihydrogen-catalysis under aerobic conditions; however, it remains relatively unclear how the assembly and activation of these enzymes is carried out in the presence of air. Acquiring this knowledge is important if a generic method for achieving production of O2-resistant [NiFe]-hydrogenases within heterologous hosts is to be developed. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium synthesizes the [NiFe]-hydrogenase-5 (Hyd-5) enzyme under aerobic conditions...
October 2016: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
Joseph R Patterson, Elizabeth J Kim, John L Goudreau, Keith J Lookingland
Parkinson disease (PD) is characterized by progressive neuronal degeneration, in particular nigrostriatal dopamine (NSDA) neurons and consequent deficits in movement. In mice and non-human primates, NSDA neurons preferentially degenerate following exposure to the neurotoxicant 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Tuberoinfundibular (TI) DA neurons, in contrast, appear to be unaffected in PD and recover following acute MPTP exposure-induced injury (Behrouz et al., 2007; Benskey et al., 2012)...
August 23, 2016: Brain Research
Eunju Im, Lang Yoo, Minju Hyun, Woo Hyun Shin, Kwang Chul Chung
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the pars compacta of the substantia nigra and accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins in aggregates called Lewy bodies. Several mutated genes have been found in familial PD patients, including SNCA (α-synuclein), PARK2 (parkin), PINK1, PARK7 (DJ-1), LRRK2 and ATP13A2 Many pathogenic mutations of PARK2, which encodes the ubiquitin E3 ligase parkin, result in loss of function, leading to accumulation of parkin substrates and consequently contributing to dopaminergic cell death...
August 2016: Open Biology
Sateesh Kagale, John Nixon, Yogendra Khedikar, Asher Pasha, Nicholas J Provart, Wayne E Clarke, Venkatesh Bollina, Stephen J Robinson, Cathy Coutu, Dwayne D Hegedus, Andrew G Sharpe, Isobel A P Parkin
Camelina sativa is currently being embraced as a viable industrial bio-platform crop due to a number of desirable agronomic attributes and the unique fatty acid profile of the seed oil that has applications for food, feed and biofuel. The recent completion of the reference genome sequence of C. sativa identified a young hexaploid genome. To complement this work, we have generated a genome-wide developmental transcriptome map by RNA sequencing of 12 different tissues covering major developmental stages during the life cycle of C...
August 11, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Laxmi Kirola, Madhuri Behari, Chandan Shishir, B K Thelma
BACKGROUND: A novel homozygous missense mutation (c.773G > A, p.Arg258Gln) in Synaptojanin 1 (SYNJ1, 21q22.2) has recently been reported in two Italian and one Iranian consanguineous families with autosomal recessive juvenile Parkinsonism (ARJP). Contribution of this synaptic gene related to Parkinsonism phenotypes in other populations still remains unidentified. METHODS: An ARJP family with two affected siblings characterized by frequent tremor with bradykinesia and rigidity was recruited in this study...
October 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Zaira Aversa, Fabrizio Pin, Simone Lucia, Fabio Penna, Roberto Verzaro, Maurizio Fazi, Giuseppina Colasante, Andrea Tirone, Filippo Rossi Fanelli, Cesarina Ramaccini, Paola Costelli, Maurizio Muscaritoli
Basal rates of autophagy can be markedly accelerated by environmental stresses. Recently, autophagy has been involved in cancer-induced muscle wasting. Aim of this study has been to evaluate if autophagy is induced in the skeletal muscle of cancer patients. The expression (mRNA and protein) of autophagic markers has been evaluated in intraoperative muscle biopsies. Beclin-1 protein levels were increased in cachectic cancer patients, suggesting autophagy induction. LC3B-I protein levels were not significantly modified...
2016: Scientific Reports
Sevda Erer, Unal Egeli, Mehmet Zarifoglu, Gulcin Tezcan, Gulsah Cecener, Berrin Tunca, Secil Ak, Elif Demirdogen, Gulay Kenangil, Hakan Kaleagası, Okan Dogu, Esen Saka, Bulent Elibol
OBJECTIVE: Variations in PARK genes (PRKN, PINK1, DJ-1, and SNCA) cause early-onset Parkinson's disease (EOPD) in different populations. In the current study, we aimed to evaluate the frequencies of variations in PARK genes and the effects of these variations on the phenotypes of Turkish EOPD patients. METHODS: All coding regions and exon-intron boundaries of the PRKN, PINK1, DJ-1, and SNCA genes were screened by heteroduplex analysis followed by direct sequencing of the detected variants in 50 Turkish EOPD patients...
September 2016: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Qingsong Hu, Guanghui Wang
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease, which is characterized by loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta and the formation of Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites in surviving DA neurons in most cases. Although the cause of PD is still unclear, the remarkable advances have been made in understanding the possible causative mechanisms of PD pathogenesis. Numerous studies showed that dysfunction of mitochondria may play key roles in DA neuronal loss...
2016: Translational Neurodegeneration
Lori M Buhlman
Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases (PD and AD, respectively) are considered to be diseases of advanced brain ageing, which seems to involve high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). AD neurodegeneration is initially apparent in the hippocampus; as AD progresses, many more brain regions are affected. PD-associated neurodegeneration is relatively limited to dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), especially in cases in which patients inherit particular disease-causing mutations...
June 29, 2016: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Jin-Mo Kim, Seon-Heui Cha, Yu Ree Choi, Ilo Jou, Eun-Hye Joe, Sang Myun Park
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common chronic and progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Although the cause of PD is still poorly understood, mutations in many genes including SNCA, parkin, PINK1, LRRK2, and DJ-1 have been identified in the familial forms of PD. It was recently proposed that alterations in lipid rafts may cause the neurodegeneration shown in PD. Here, we observe that DJ-1 deficiency decreased the expression of flotillin-1 (flot-1) and caveolin-1 (cav-1), the main protein components of lipid rafts, in primary astrocytes and MEF cells...
2016: Scientific Reports
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