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Corpus collosum

Gretchen M Thomsen, Annie Ma, Ara Ko, Megan Y Harada, Livia Wyss, Patricia Haro, Jean-Philippe Vit, Oksana Shelest, Peter Rhee, Clive N Svendsen, Eric J Ley
BACKGROUND: Concussion injury is the most common form of traumatic brain injury (TBI). How recurrent concussions alter long-term outcomes is poorly understood especially as related to the development of neurodegenerative disease. We evaluated the functional and pathological consequences of repeated TBI over time in wild type (WT) rats as well as rats harboring the human SOD1 mutation ("SOD1") - a model of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). METHODS: A total of 42 rats, 26 WT and 16 SOD1, were examined over a study period of 25 weeks (or endpoint)...
September 3, 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Osama Sabri, Georg-Alexander Becker, Philipp M Meyer, Swen Hesse, Stephan Wilke, Susanne Graef, Marianne Patt, Julia Luthardt, Gudrun Wagenknecht, Alexander Hoepping, René Smits, Annegret Franke, Bernhard Sattler, Bernd Habermann, Petra Neuhaus, Steffen Fischer, Solveig Tiepolt, Winnie Deuther-Conrad, Henryk Barthel, Peter Schönknecht, Peter Brust
α4β2* nicotinic receptors (α4β2* nAChRs) could provide a biomarker in neuropsychiatric disorders (e.g., Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, depressive disorders, and nicotine addiction). However, there is a lack of α4β2* nAChR specific PET radioligands with kinetics fast enough to enable quantification of nAChR within a reasonable time frame. Following on from promising preclinical results, the aim of the present study was to evaluate for the first time in humans the novel PET radioligand (-)-[(18)F]Flubatine, formerly known as (-)-[(18)F]NCFHEB, as a tool for α4β2* nAChR imaging and in vivo quantification...
September 2015: NeuroImage
Maxim A Shevtsov, Konstantin A Senkevich, Alexander V Kim, Kseniia A Gerasimova, Tatyana N Trofimova, Galina V Kataeva, Sviatoslav V Medvedev, Olga I Smirnova, Zhanna I Savintseva, Marina G Martynova, Olga A Bystrova, Emil Pitkin, Galina Y Yukina, William A Khachatryan
BACKGROUND: To study the integrity of white matter, we investigated the correlation between the changes in neuroradiological and morphological parameters in an animal model of acute obstructive hydrocephalus. METHODS: Hydrocephalus was induced in New Zealand rabbits (n = 10) by stereotactic injection of kaolin into the lateral ventricles. Control animals received saline in place of kaolin (n = 10). The progression of hydrocephalus was assessed using magnetic resonance imaging...
April 2015: Acta Neurochirurgica
Heng Zhao, Su-Jing Chan, Yee-Kong Ng, Peter T-H Wong
3-Mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3MST) is an important enzyme for the synthesis of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the brain. We present here data that indicate an exclusively localization of 3MST in astrocytes. Regional distribution of 3MST activities is even and unremarkable. Following permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO), 3MST was down-regulated in both the cortex and striatum, but not in the corpus collosum. It appears that the down-regulation of astrocytic 3MST persisted in the presence of astrocytic proliferation due to gliosis...
2013: PloS One
Brian R Wood, Joshua P Klein, Jennifer L Lyons, Danny A Milner, Richard E Phillips, Martin Schutten, Rebecca D Folkerth, Pedro Ciarlini, Timothy J Henrich, Jennifer A Johnson
We report the case of a 59-year-old man who moved from Cape Verde to Massachusetts at the age of 29. He had multiple sexual contacts with female partners in Cape Verde and with West African women in Massachusetts, as well as multiple past indeterminate HIV-1 antibody tests. He presented to our facility with 2-3 months of inappropriate behaviors, memory impairment, weight loss, and night sweats, at which time he was found to have an abnormal enhancing lesion of the corpus collosum on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
July 2012: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
Hoare Jacqueline, Westgarth-Taylor Jenny, Fouche Jean-Paul, Spottiswoode Bruce, Paul Robert, Thomas Kevin, Stein Dan, Joska John
HIV-associated prospective memory (ProM) impairment has emerged, in earlier studies as a significant predictor of medication management and independence in activities of daily living. The relationship between ProM and white matter integrity in HIV has not previously been investigated. Participants, including 128 HIV-infected individuals and 32 healthy controls, were assessed using a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation and both objective and subjective measures of ProM. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was utilized to investigate the relationship of white matter integrity to ProM in a randomly selected subsample of 40 HIV positive subjects, using a whole brain voxel-based approach to define fractional anisotrophy (FA) and mean diffusion (MD)...
September 2012: Metabolic Brain Disease
Rahmat Cahyanur, Wawan Setyawan, Dedy G Sudrajat, Susie Setyowati, Dyah Purnamasari, Pradana Soewondo
Acromegaly is a rare disorder caused by excessive growth hormone. Majority of acromegaly are due to pituitary adenoma. It is estimated that 5% of pituitary adenoma become invasive and may grow to gigantic sizes (>4 cm in diameter). We would like to describe a man with giant invasive adenoma. We describe the case of 52-year-old man with acromegaly. The patient was presented to medical care because of hemichorea. He also had visual field defect, uncontrolled diabetes, and dyslipidemia. Hormonal profile showed increment of GH 2-hour after a standard 75-g oral glucose load and of high IGF-1 level with low level of FSH and LH...
April 2011: Acta Medica Indonesiana
Ken Sugiyama, Takeo Kondo, Shuichi Higano, Minoru Endo, Hiroshi Watanabe, Keiichiro Shindo, Shin-Ichi Izumi
Patients with Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) frequently exhibit cognitive disorders chronically. Radiologic recognition of DAI can help understand the clinical syndrome and to make treatment decisions. However, CT and conventional MRI are often normal or demonstrate lesions that are poorly related to the cognitive disorders. Recently, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) fiber tractography has been shown to be useful in detecting various types of white matter damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using DTI fiber tractography to detect lesions in DAI patients, and to correlate the DAI lesions with the cognitive disorders...
April 2007: Brain Injury: [BI]
Yu-Hung Kuo, Mark A Edgar, Neal Luther, Theodore H Schwartz
Glioneuronal neoplasms are rare tumors that typically affect patients in the first three decades of life. Since the publication of the World Health Organization (WHO) 2000 classification of tumors, further variants of these tumors have been reported. We present an 83-year-old gentleman who presented with a history of ataxia and weight loss. MRI and CT scan revealed a ring-enhancing bihemispheric lesion in the premotor cortex consistent with a malignant primary brain tumor crossing the corpus collosum. The patient underwent a sterotactic biopsy with drainage of the cystic component...
June 2006: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
P Yossuck, M Kraszpulski, A K Salm
Exposure of the fetus to corticosteroid during brain development has been suggested to cause permanent change in brain structure and has been associated with long term cognitive, behavioral and emotional impairment. We evaluated the effect of perinatal corticosteroid, at a dose similar to that which human fetuses are exposed, on cerebral cortex, corpus collosum, hippocampus, dentate gyrus and amygdala in a rat model. Rat pups were given betamethasone at day 1 (P1). Brain sections from the rat pups at postnatal day 45 (P45) were then analyzed...
April 2006: Early Human Development
Shu-Wei Sun, Sheng-Kwei Song, Michael P Harms, Shiow-Jiuan Lin, David M Holtzman, Kalpana M Merchant, John J Kotyk
Using magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), the present study investigates changes in both gray and white matter in the APPsw transgenic mouse (Tg2576), a model of beta-amyloid plaque deposition associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). DTI analyses were performed in cross-sectional groups of transgene-positive and -negative mice at 8, 12, 16, and 18 months of age to assess the magnitude of water diffusion in gray matter (i.e., Tr(D)) and changes in diffusion in white matter that may be indicative of axonal degeneration (i...
January 2005: Experimental Neurology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 14, 1952: New England Journal of Medicine
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1952: Neurologie a Psychiatrie C̆eskoslovenská
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1953: Rivista di Neurologia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1953: Connecticut State Medical Journal
Chad Schultz, Nancy Lemke, Shugang Ge, William A Golembieski, Sandra A Rempel
Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is highly expressed in human astrocytomas, grades II-IV. We demonstrated previously that SPARC promotes invasion in vitro using the U87MG-derived clone U87T2 and U87T2-derived SPARC-transfected clones, A2b2, A2bi, and C2a4, in the spheroid confrontation assay. Additional in vitro studies demonstrated that SPARC delays growth, increases attachment, and modulates migration of tumor cells in extracellular matrix-specific and concentration-dependent manners. Therefore, we propose that SPARC functionally contributes to brain tumor invasion and delays tumor growth in vivo, and that the effects of SPARC are related to the level of SPARC secreted into the extracellular matrix...
November 1, 2002: Cancer Research
D S Im, J Clemens, T L Macdonald, K R Lynch
Five G protein-coupled receptors (S1P(1)/Edg-1, S1P(3)/Edg-3, S1P(2)/Edg-5, S1P(4)/Edg-6, and S1P(5)/Edg-8) for the intercellular lipid mediator sphingosine 1-phosphate have been cloned and characterized. We found human and mouse sequences closely related to rat S1P(5) (97% identical amino acids) and report now the characterization of the human and mouse S1P(5) gene products as encoding sphingosine 1-phosphate receptors. When HEK293T cells were cotransfected with S1P(5) and G protein DNAs, prepared membranes showed sphingosine 1-phosphate concentration-dependent increases in [gamma-(35)S]GTP binding (EC(50) = 12...
November 20, 2001: Biochemistry
E A Korneva, S V Barabanova, O I Golovko, M A Nosov, N S Novikova, T B Kazakova
Immunostimulatory or immunosuppressive stress models were used: (1) rotation stress (RS) and (2) immobilization (restraint) stress (IS). Intravenous injection of tetanus toxoid (anatoxin) (TT) was chosen as the antigenic stimulus (500 micrograms/kg weight), and intravenous injection of saline solution was used as the control. Splenic lymphocytes (CBA mice) or different brain structures (Wistar and Sprague-Dawley rats) were analyzed. The c-fos and interleukin-2 (IL-2) mRNA expression was measured using a digoxigenin (Dig)-labeled cDNA probe by spot or in situ hybridization...
2000: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
E A Franz, K E Waldie, M J Smith
The corpus collosum is the large band of fibers that connects the two cerebral hemispheres of the brain. Individuals who have had the fibers of these tracts surgically severed by callosotomy are able to draw two different spatial figures simultaneously using the left and right hands, without evidence of interactions in the spatial planning processes. Paradoxically, tasks (e.g., tying shoes) that appear to depend on spatial interactions between the left and right hands, each of which is controlled by a separate cerebral hemisphere, pose little difficulty...
January 2000: Psychological Science
P C Guest, K Salim, H A Skynner, S E George, J N Bresnick, G McAllister
We have identified an alternatively spliced 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A receptor (5-HT(2A)-R) transcript by PCR of human brain cDNA using degenerate oligonucleotide primers to transmembrane (TM) domains 3 and 7 of the 5-HT(2)-R subfamily. The variant contains a 118-bp insertion at the exon II/III boundary of the 5-HT(2A)-R, which produces a frame shift in the coding sequence and a premature stop codon. PCR analysis showed that the truncated receptor (5-HT(2A-tr)) and native 5-HT(2A)-R were co-expressed in most brain tissues, with the highest levels being found in hippocampus, corpus collosum, amygdala and caudate nucleus...
September 8, 2000: Brain Research
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