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Slippery slope

Neil Garrett, Stephanie C Lazzaro, Dan Ariely, Tali Sharot
Dishonesty is an integral part of our social world, influencing domains ranging from finance and politics to personal relationships. Anecdotally, digressions from a moral code are often described as a series of small breaches that grow over time. Here we provide empirical evidence for a gradual escalation of self-serving dishonesty and reveal a neural mechanism supporting it. Behaviorally, we show that the extent to which participants engage in self-serving dishonesty increases with repetition. Using functional MRI, we show that signal reduction in the amygdala is sensitive to the history of dishonest behavior, consistent with adaptation...
October 24, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
Mark Corbett
Conceivably, in an ideal world, all patients with a life-limiting illness would receive optimal hospice and palliative care so that no one would ever wish to hasten their own death. The reality, however, is that despite provision of optimal hospice and palliative care, individuals with terminal illness experience suffering, loss of meaning, or deterioration in quality of life to the extent where they express the desire to expedite the dying process. While there has been extensive discussion surrounding physician-assisted death (PAD), there has been less attention paid to the practice of voluntary stopping eating and drinking (VSED) near the end of life...
2016: Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics
Masashi Tagaya, Shunsuke Takahashi, Morihiro Matsuda, Taiichi Takasaki, Makoto Hamaishi, Kazunobu Hara
PURPOSE: Extracorporeal circulation circuits used in cardiopulmonary bypass surgeries are increasingly being coated with polymer materials to reduce the thrombogenicity of extracorporeal devices. However, a haemoconcentrator, which corrects haematocrit and electrolyte imbalances, is not coated with polymers. In this study, we sought to assess the filtration performance of polymer-coated haemoconcentrators in order to obtain insight into their prospects for use in clinical applications...
October 10, 2016: International Journal of Artificial Organs
Gert Helgesson, Niels Lynøe, Niklas Juth
Slippery-slope arguments typically question a course of action by estimating that it will end in misery once the first unfortunate step is taken. Previous studies indicate that estimations of the long-term consequences of certain debated actions, such as legalizing physician-assisted suicide, may be strongly influenced by tacit personal values. In this paper, we suggest that to the extent that slippery-slope arguments rest on estimations of future events, they may be mere rationalizations of personal values...
August 31, 2016: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Hoang Anh Nguyen, Dena E Rifkin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
René R Sevag Packard, Ronald P Karlsberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Jeremy M Wolfe
Kristjansson (2015) suggests that standard research methods in the study of visual search should be "reconsidered." He reiterates a useful warning against treating reaction time x set size functions as simple metrics that can be used to label search tasks as "serial" or "parallel." However, I argue that he goes too far with a broad attack on the use of slopes in the study of visual search. Used wisely, slopes do provide us with insight into the mechanisms of visual search.
May 2016: I-Perception
Jurgen A H R Claassen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Arie Drugan, Amir Weissman
Multi-fetal pregnancy reduction (MFPR) is an ethically acceptable procedure aimed to increase survival and well-being of the remaining fetuses from high-order multiple gestations. In most cases we offer the procedure to triplets or quadruplets and opt to preserve twins; lately, the option to maintain a single fetus was suggested. We examined the outcomes of 140 pregnancies that underwent MFPR in our center and were followed to delivery - 105 were reduced to twins and 35 to singletons. The rate of procedure-related pregnancy loss was identical (2...
May 24, 2016: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
Karol E Watson, Philipp Wiesner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2016: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
Kyoo-Chul Park, Philseok Kim, Alison Grinthal, Neil He, David Fox, James C Weaver, Joanna Aizenberg
Controlling dropwise condensation is fundamental to water-harvesting systems, desalination, thermal power generation, air conditioning, distillation towers, and numerous other applications. For any of these, it is essential to design surfaces that enable droplets to grow rapidly and to be shed as quickly as possible. However, approaches based on microscale, nanoscale or molecular-scale textures suffer from intrinsic trade-offs that make it difficult to optimize both growth and transport at once. Here we present a conceptually different design approach--based on principles derived from Namib desert beetles, cacti, and pitcher plants--that synergistically combines these aspects of condensation and substantially outperforms other synthetic surfaces...
March 3, 2016: Nature
Matthew Haigh, Jeffrey S Wood, Andrew J Stewart
Slippery slope arguments (SSAs) of the form if A, then C describe an initial proposal (A) and a predicted, undesirable consequence of this proposal (C) (e.g., "If cannabis is ever legalized, then eventually cocaine will be legalized, too"). Despite SSAs being a common rhetorical device, there has been surprisingly little empirical research into their subjective evaluation and perception. Here, we present evidence that SSAs are interpreted as a form of consequentialist argument, inviting inferences about the speaker's (or writer's) attitudes...
July 2016: Memory & Cognition
R A Montgomery
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: American Journal of Transplantation
Michael J Barry, William E Palmer, Alex J Petruska
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: JAMA Internal Medicine
T Fulop, G Dupuis, S Baehl, A Le Page, K Bourgade, E Frost, J M Witkowski, G Pawelec, A Larbi, S Cunnane
Aging is accompanied by many physiological changes including those in the immune system. These changes are designated as immunosenescence indicating that age induces a decrease in immune functions. However, since many years we know that some aspects are not decreasing but instead are increasing like the pro-inflammatory activity by the innate immune cells, especially by monocytes/macrophages. Recently it became evident that these cells may possess a sort of memory called trained memory sustained by epigenetic changes occurring long after even in the absence of the initiator aggressor...
February 2016: Biogerontology
Dijendra Nath Roy, Ritobrata Goswami
Substances of abuse induce alteration in neurobehavioral symptoms, which can lead to simultaneous exacerbation of liver injury. The biochemical changes of liver are significantly observed in the abused group of people using illicit drugs or drugs that are abused. A huge amount of work has been carried out by scientists for validation experiments using animal models to assess hepatotoxicity in cases of drugs of abuse. The risk of hepatotoxicity from these psychostimulants has been determined by different research groups...
August 5, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
Daniel Lawrence, Sarah Domone, Ben Heller, Timothy Hendra, Susan Mawson, Jon Wheat
Falls that occur as a result of a slip are one of the leading causes of injuries, particularly in the elderly population. Previous studies have focused on slips that occur on a flat surface. Slips on a laterally sloping surface are important and may be related to different mechanisms of balance recovery. This type of slip might result in different gait adaptations to those previously described on a flat surface, but these adaptations have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to assess whether, when walking on a cross-slope, young adults adapted their gait when made aware of a potential slip, and having experienced a slip...
October 2015: Gait & Posture
Rebecca Dimond
INTRODUCTION OR BACKGROUND: The UK is at the forefront of mitochondrial science and is currently the only country in the world to legalize germ-line technologies involving mitochondrial donation. However, concerns have been raised about genetic modification and the 'slippery slope' to designer babies. SOURCES OF DATA: This review uses academic articles, newspaper reports and public documents. AREAS OF AGREEMENT: Mitochondrial donation offers women with mitochondrial disease an opportunity to have healthy, genetically related children...
September 2015: British Medical Bulletin
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2015: EBioMedicine
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