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Slippery slope

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080302/the-road-to-bribery-and-corruption
#1
Nils C Köbis, Jan-Willem van Prooijen, Francesca Righetti, Paul A M Van Lange
Major forms of corruption constitute a strong threat to the functioning of societies. The most frequent explanation of how severe corruption emerges is the slippery-slope metaphor-the notion that corruption occurs gradually. While having widespread theoretical and intuitive appeal, this notion has barely been tested empirically. We used a recently developed paradigm to test whether severely corrupt acts happen gradually or abruptly. The results of four experimental studies revealed a higher likelihood of severe corruption when participants were directly given the opportunity to engage in it (abrupt) compared with when they had previously engaged in minor forms of corruption (gradual)...
January 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062650/euthanasia-embedded-in-palliative-care-responses-to-essentialistic-criticisms-of-the-belgian-model-of-integral-end-of-life-care
#2
Jan L Bernheim, Kasper Raus
The Belgian model of 'integral' end-of-life care consists of universal access to palliative care (PC) and legally regulated euthanasia. As a first worldwide, the Flemish PC organisation has embedded euthanasia in its practice. However, some critics have declared the Belgian-model concepts of 'integral PC' and 'palliative futility' to fundamentally contradict the essence of PC. This article analyses the various essentialistic arguments for the incompatibility of euthanasia and PC. The empirical evidence from the euthanasia-permissive Benelux countries shows that since legalisation, carefulness (of decision making) at the end of life has improved and there have been no significant adverse 'slippery slope' effects...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000092/the-slippery-slope-argument-in-the-ethical-debate-on-genetic-engineering-of-humans
#3
Douglas Walton
This article applies tools from argumentation theory to slippery slope arguments used in current ethical debates on genetic engineering. Among the tools used are argumentation schemes, value-based argumentation, critical questions, and burden of proof. It is argued that so-called drivers such as social acceptance and rapid technological development are also important factors that need to be taken into account alongside the argumentation scheme. It is shown that the slippery slope argument is basically a reasonable (but defeasible) form of argument, but is often flawed when used in ethical debates because of failures to meet the requirements of its scheme...
December 20, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995446/public-perceptions-of-ethical-legal-and-social-implications-of-pre-implantation-genetic-diagnosis-pgd-in-malaysia
#4
Angelina P Olesen, Siti Nurani Mohd Nor, Latifah Amin, Anisah Che Ngah
Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) became well known in Malaysia after the birth of the first Malaysian 'designer baby', Yau Tak in 2004. Two years later, the Malaysian Medical Council implemented the first and only regulation on the use of Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis in this country. The birth of Yau Tak triggered a public outcry because PGD was used for non-medical sex selection thus, raising concerns about PGD and its implications for the society. This study aims to explore participants' perceptions of the future implications of PGD for the Malaysian society...
December 19, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966011/-factors-which-influence-the-position-towards-euthanasia-results-of-a%C3%A2-representative-survey-among-older-people-in-germany
#5
Mathias Roesinger, Laura Prudlik, Sara Pauli, Ingrid Hendlmeier, Alexander Noyon, Martina Schäufele
BACKGROUND: Until now older adults have not been a target group for surveys regarding their personal attitudes towards euthanasia, although they are closest to chronic illness and death. OBJECTIVE: To determine the attitudes of older adults towards euthanasia and controversial topics in the context of illness, euthanasia and care (e. g. palliative care) on the basis of a representative sample. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was based on a postal survey of a representative random sample of the population aged 65 years and older (n = 3500) from a city in southern Germany using a standardized questionnaire...
December 13, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898084/the-slippery-slope-of-dishonesty
#6
Jan B Engelmann, Ernst Fehr
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 29, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896873/identifying-fallacious-arguments-in-a-qualitative-study-of-antipsychotic-prescribing-in-dementia
#7
Parastou Donyai
BACKGROUND: Dementia can result in cognitive, noncognitive and behavioural symptoms which are difficult to manage. Formal guidelines for the care and management of dementia in the UK state that antipsychotics should only be prescribed where fully justified. This is because inappropriate use, particularly problematic in care-home settings, can produce severe side effects including death. The aim of this study was to explore the use of fallacious arguments in professionals' deliberations about antipsychotic prescribing in dementia in care-home settings...
November 29, 2016: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847034/heart-transplantation-on-a-desert-island-self-sacrifice-and-slippery-slopes
#8
Margaret P Battin, Jennifer H Edwards, Roger A Freedman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845485/physician-assisted-suicide-and-clinical-vulnerability-a-slippery-slope
#9
F Monacelli, M Martini, P Odetti, R Ciliberti
AIMS: The Belgian case of a 24 years' woman affected by resistant depression, who obtained the legal right to assisted suicide rehearsed ethical issues. From the famous Chabot case of the Dutch court in 1994, accumulating legal evidence indicates that the unbearable psychiatric suffering may be equate to the physical struggle of end of life patients. The Belgian law has addressed assisted suicide as an option in case of unbearable psychic suffering with no future prospective. DESIGN: It is unlikely that the practice of euthanasia may be mechanistically reduced to the provision of a suicide as alleviating the burden of suffering in depression is a long life commitment; moreover, the principle of patient's self determination and autonomy is highly debatable: the closure to the future, the hopelessness and the suicidal ideation represent per se core features of depression...
September 2016: La Clinica Terapeutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833206/non-faith-based-arguments-against-physician-assisted-suicide-and-euthanasia
#10
Daniel P Sulmasy, John M Travaline, Louise A Mitchell, E Wesley Ely
This article is a complement to "A Template for Non-Religious-Based Discussions Against Euthanasia" by Melissa Harintho, Nathaniel Bloodworth, and E. Wesley Ely which appeared in the February 2015 Linacre Quarterly. Herein we build upon Daniel Sulmasy's opening and closing arguments from the 2014 Intelligence Squared debate on legalizing assisted suicide, supplemented by other non-faith-based arguments and thoughts, providing four nontheistic arguments against physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia: (1) "it offends me"; (2) slippery slope; (3) "pain can be alleviated"; (4) physician integrity and patient trust...
August 2016: Linacre Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775721/the-brain-adapts-to-dishonesty
#11
Neil Garrett, Stephanie C Lazzaro, Dan Ariely, Tali Sharot
Dishonesty is an integral part of our social world, influencing domains ranging from finance and politics to personal relationships. Anecdotally, digressions from a moral code are often described as a series of small breaches that grow over time. Here we provide empirical evidence for a gradual escalation of self-serving dishonesty and reveal a neural mechanism supporting it. Behaviorally, we show that the extent to which participants engage in self-serving dishonesty increases with repetition. Using functional MRI, we show that signal reduction in the amygdala is sensitive to the history of dishonest behavior, consistent with adaptation...
December 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763399/vsed-death-with-dignity-or-without
#12
Mark Corbett
Conceivably, in an ideal world, all patients with a life-limiting illness would receive optimal hospice and palliative care so that no one would ever wish to hasten their own death. The reality, however, is that despite provision of optimal hospice and palliative care, individuals with terminal illness experience suffering, loss of meaning, or deterioration in quality of life to the extent where they express the desire to expedite the dying process. While there has been extensive discussion surrounding physician-assisted death (PAD), there has been less attention paid to the practice of voluntary stopping eating and drinking (VSED) near the end of life...
2016: Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646632/prospects-for-clinical-applications-of-polymer-coated-haemoconcentrator-on-extracorporeal-circuit-in-cardiopulmonary-bypass-surgeries
#13
Masashi Tagaya, Shunsuke Takahashi, Morihiro Matsuda, Taiichi Takasaki, Makoto Hamaishi, Kazunobu Hara
PURPOSE: Extracorporeal circulation circuits used in cardiopulmonary bypass surgeries are increasingly being coated with polymer materials to reduce the thrombogenicity of extracorporeal devices. However, a haemoconcentrator, which corrects haematocrit and electrolyte imbalances, is not coated with polymers. In this study, we sought to assess the filtration performance of polymer-coated haemoconcentrators in order to obtain insight into their prospects for use in clinical applications...
October 10, 2016: International Journal of Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581427/value-impregnated-factual-claims-and-slippery-slope-arguments
#14
Gert Helgesson, Niels Lynøe, Niklas Juth
Slippery-slope arguments typically question a course of action by estimating that it will end in misery once the first unfortunate step is taken. Previous studies indicate that estimations of the long-term consequences of certain debated actions, such as legalizing physician-assisted suicide, may be strongly influenced by tacit personal values. In this paper, we suggest that to the extent that slippery-slope arguments rest on estimations of future events, they may be mere rationalizations of personal values...
August 31, 2016: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27477356/cliff-dive-or-slippery-slope-trajectories-of-kidney-function%C3%A2-decline-and-implications-for-survival-after-hemodialysis-initiation
#15
EDITORIAL
Hoang Anh Nguyen, Dena E Rifkin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27470450/integrating-ffrct-into-routine%C3%A2-clinical%C3%A2-practice-a-solid-platform-or%C3%A2-slippery%C3%A2-slope
#16
EDITORIAL
René R Sevag Packard, Ronald P Karlsberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27433330/visual-search-revived-the-slopes-are-not-that-slippery-a-reply-to-kristjansson-2015
#17
Jeremy M Wolfe
Kristjansson (2015) suggests that standard research methods in the study of visual search should be "reconsidered." He reiterates a useful warning against treating reaction time x set size functions as simple metrics that can be used to label search tasks as "serial" or "parallel." However, I argue that he goes too far with a broad attack on the use of slopes in the study of visual search. Used wisely, slopes do provide us with insight into the mechanisms of visual search.
May 2016: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27246545/the-plateau-phase-is-a-slippery-slope-raising-blood-pressure-may-lower-brain-perfusion
#18
Jurgen A H R Claassen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27219098/multi-fetal-pregnancy-reduction-mfpr-to-twins-or-singleton-medical-justification-and-ethical-slippery-slope
#19
Arie Drugan, Amir Weissman
Multi-fetal pregnancy reduction (MFPR) is an ethically acceptable procedure aimed to increase survival and well-being of the remaining fetuses from high-order multiple gestations. In most cases we offer the procedure to triplets or quadruplets and opt to preserve twins; lately, the option to maintain a single fetus was suggested. We examined the outcomes of 140 pregnancies that underwent MFPR in our center and were followed to delivery - 105 were reduced to twins and 35 to singletons. The rate of procedure-related pregnancy loss was identical (2...
May 24, 2016: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26973583/on-the-prospect-of-an-experimental-account-of-argumentation-commentary-toward-an-experimental-account-of-argumentation-the-case-of-the-slippery-slope-and-the-ad-hominem-arguments
#20
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