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Slippery slope

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767539/medicolegal-investigations-into-deaths-due-to-crush-asphyxia-after-tractor-side-rollovers
#1
Carlo Moreschi, Ugo Da Broi, Antonia Fanzutto, Sirio Cividino, Rino Gubiani, Gianfranco Pergher
Farm tractors are large, heavy, powerful vehicles with a high center of gravity. When driven carelessly on sloping, irregular, or slippery ground, tractors can overturn sideways and cause the death by crush asphyxia of the driver or passengers, especially if appropriate safety equipment is not fitted or used. The aim of this review is to focus on the diagnostic difficulties with which coroners and forensic pathologists have to cope when a confirmation of crush asphyxia after tractor side rollover is required by judicial authorities...
August 1, 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728786/the-slippery-slope-of-nonoperative-therapy-in-early-stage-lung-cancer
#2
EDITORIAL
Lara W Schaheen, Jonathan D'Cunha
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 10, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716621/healthcare-professionals-attitudes-about-physician-assisted-death-an-analysis-of-their-justifications-and-the-roles-of-terminology-and-patient-competency
#3
Derek W Braverman, Brian S Marcus, Paul G Wakim, Mark R Mercurio, Gary S Kopf
CONTEXT: Healthcare professionals (HCPs) are crucial to physician-assisted death (PAD) provision. OBJECTIVES: To quantitatively assess the favorability of justifications for or against PAD legalization among HCPs, the effect of the terms "suicide" and "euthanasia" on their views, and their support for three forms of PAD. METHODS: Our questionnaire presented three cases: physician-assisted suicide, euthanasia for a competent patient, and euthanasia for an incompetent patient with an advance directive for euthanasia...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537093/facilitating-resident-community-in-nursing-homes-a-slippery-slope-an-analysis-on-collectivistic-and-individualistic-approaches
#4
Gudmund Ågotnes, Christine Øye
Residents in nursing homes are old and frail and are dependent on constant care, medical, or otherwise, by trained professionals. But they are also social beings, secluded in an institutional setting which is both total and foreign. In this setting, most of the residents most of the time must relate to other residents: other residents are the nursing home residents' peers, companions, and perhaps even significant others. In this article, we will discuss how resident communities in nursing homes are influenced by the approaches of nursing home staff...
May 1, 2017: Health (London)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525526/critical-analysis-of-the-council-for-international-organizations-of-medical-sciences-2016-international-guidelines-for-health-related-research-involving-humans
#5
REVIEW
Miguel Hugo Kottow Lang
This paper presents a preliminary discussion of the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS), recently issued “International Ethical Guidelines for Health-related Research Involving Humans” (2016) that acknowledges the document’s declared concern of the protection of human subjects and awareness of their needs and interests in “low-resource settings”. Nevertheless, guideline recommendations present exceptional situations –vulnerability, mental incompetence- wherein voluntary and consented participation may be reduced or omitted under three concurrent conditions: compelling scientific value, the need to include persons that will not benefit directly from participation, exposure to minimal or slight risks...
May 15, 2017: Medwave
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315062/expansion-of-criteria-for-liver-transplantation-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-better-patient-selection-or-a-slippery-slope
#6
EDITORIAL
Adam C Yopp, Jorge A Marrero, Amit G Singal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 17, 2017: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210521/the-right-to-die-in-chronic-disorders-of-consciousness-can-we-avoid-the-slippery-slope-argument
#7
REVIEW
Rocco Salvatore Calabrò, Antonino Naro, Rosaria De Luca, Margherita Russo, Lory Caccamo, Alfredo Manuli, Alessia Bramanti, Placido Bramanti
Managing individuals with chronic disorders of consciousness raises ethical questions about the appropriateness of maintaining life-sustaining treatments and end-of-life decisions for those who are unable to make decisions for themselves. For many years, the positions fostering the "sanctity" of human life (i.e., life is inviolable in any case) have led to maintaining life-sustaining treatments (including artificial nutrition and hydration) in patients with disorders of consciousness, allowing them to live for as long as possible...
November 2016: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126658/pluripotency-of-embryo-derived-stem-cells-from-rodents-lagomorphs-and-primates-slippery-slope-terrace-and-cliff
#8
REVIEW
Pierre Savatier, Pierre Osteil, Patrick P L Tam
The diverse cell states and in vitro conditions for the derivation and maintenance of the mammalian embryo-derived pluripotent stem cells raise the questions of whether there are multiple states of pluripotency of the stem cells of each species, and if there are innate species-specific variations in the pluripotency state. We will address these questions by taking a snapshot of our knowledge of the properties of the pluripotent stem cells, focusing on the maintenance of pluripotency and inter-conversion of the different types of pluripotent stem cells from rodents, lagomorphs and primates...
March 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109423/moving-beyond-the-debate-over-restricting-sugary-drinks-in-the-supplemental-nutrition-assistance-program
#9
EDITORIAL
Marlene B Schwartz
To address the dual problem of food insecurity and poor nutrition, the U.S. Department of Agriculture has recently revised the nutrition standards for nearly all of its federal food programs to align with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. One notable exception is the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). Policy proposals to restrict SNAP benefits based on nutrition quality (e.g., excluding sugary drinks) have generated controversy and have polarized previous research and advocacy allies. This essay presents many of the issues that have emerged, which include challenges about the feasibility, justification, and effectiveness of restricting benefits; the risk of a slippery slope; concerns about participant dignity; and finally, distrust about the motives behind promoting and opposing a policy change...
February 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080302/the-road-to-bribery-and-corruption
#10
Nils C Köbis, Jan-Willem van Prooijen, Francesca Righetti, Paul A M Van Lange
Major forms of corruption constitute a strong threat to the functioning of societies. The most frequent explanation of how severe corruption emerges is the slippery-slope metaphor-the notion that corruption occurs gradually. While having widespread theoretical and intuitive appeal, this notion has barely been tested empirically. We used a recently developed paradigm to test whether severely corrupt acts happen gradually or abruptly. The results of four experimental studies revealed a higher likelihood of severe corruption when participants were directly given the opportunity to engage in it (abrupt) compared with when they had previously engaged in minor forms of corruption (gradual)...
March 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062650/euthanasia-embedded-in-palliative-care-responses-to-essentialistic-criticisms-of-the-belgian-model-of-integral-end-of-life-care
#11
Jan L Bernheim, Kasper Raus
The Belgian model of 'integral' end-of-life care consists of universal access to palliative care (PC) and legally regulated euthanasia. As a first worldwide, the Flemish PC organisation has embedded euthanasia in its practice. However, some critics have declared the Belgian-model concepts of 'integral PC' and 'palliative futility' to fundamentally contradict the essence of PC. This article analyses the various essentialistic arguments for the incompatibility of euthanasia and PC. The empirical evidence from the euthanasia-permissive Benelux countries shows that since legalisation, carefulness (of decision making) at the end of life has improved and there have been no significant adverse 'slippery slope' effects...
August 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000092/the-slippery-slope-argument-in-the-ethical-debate-on-genetic-engineering-of-humans
#12
Douglas Walton
This article applies tools from argumentation theory to slippery slope arguments used in current ethical debates on genetic engineering. Among the tools used are argumentation schemes, value-based argumentation, critical questions, and burden of proof. It is argued that so-called drivers such as social acceptance and rapid technological development are also important factors that need to be taken into account alongside the argumentation scheme. It is shown that the slippery slope argument is basically a reasonable (but defeasible) form of argument, but is often flawed when used in ethical debates because of failures to meet the requirements of its scheme...
December 20, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995446/public-perceptions-of-ethical-legal-and-social-implications-of-pre-implantation-genetic-diagnosis-pgd-in-malaysia
#13
Angelina P Olesen, Siti Nurani Mohd Nor, Latifah Amin, Anisah Che Ngah
Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) became well known in Malaysia after the birth of the first Malaysian 'designer baby', Yau Tak in 2004. Two years later, the Malaysian Medical Council implemented the first and only regulation on the use of Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis in this country. The birth of Yau Tak triggered a public outcry because PGD was used for non-medical sex selection thus, raising concerns about PGD and its implications for the society. This study aims to explore participants' perceptions of the future implications of PGD for the Malaysian society...
December 19, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966011/-factors-which-influence-the-position-towards-euthanasia-results-of-a%C3%A2-representative-survey-among-older-people-in-germany
#14
Mathias Roesinger, Laura Prudlik, Sara Pauli, Ingrid Hendlmeier, Alexander Noyon, Martina Schäufele
BACKGROUND: Until now older adults have not been a target group for surveys regarding their personal attitudes towards euthanasia, although they are closest to chronic illness and death. OBJECTIVE: To determine the attitudes of older adults towards euthanasia and controversial topics in the context of illness, euthanasia and care (e. g. palliative care) on the basis of a representative sample. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was based on a postal survey of a representative random sample of the population aged 65 years and older (n = 3500) from a city in southern Germany using a standardized questionnaire...
December 13, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898084/the-slippery-slope-of-dishonesty
#15
Jan B Engelmann, Ernst Fehr
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 29, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896873/identifying-fallacious-arguments-in-a-qualitative-study-of-antipsychotic-prescribing-in-dementia
#16
Parastou Donyai
BACKGROUND: Dementia can result in cognitive, noncognitive and behavioural symptoms which are difficult to manage. Formal guidelines for the care and management of dementia in the UK state that antipsychotics should only be prescribed where fully justified. This is because inappropriate use, particularly problematic in care-home settings, can produce severe side effects including death. The aim of this study was to explore the use of fallacious arguments in professionals' deliberations about antipsychotic prescribing in dementia in care-home settings...
November 29, 2016: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847034/heart-transplantation-on-a-desert-island-self-sacrifice-and-slippery-slopes
#17
Margaret P Battin, Jennifer H Edwards, Roger A Freedman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845485/physician-assisted-suicide-and-clinical-vulnerability-a-slippery-slope
#18
F Monacelli, M Martini, P Odetti, R Ciliberti
AIMS: The Belgian case of a 24 years' woman affected by resistant depression, who obtained the legal right to assisted suicide rehearsed ethical issues. From the famous Chabot case of the Dutch court in 1994, accumulating legal evidence indicates that the unbearable psychiatric suffering may be equate to the physical struggle of end of life patients. The Belgian law has addressed assisted suicide as an option in case of unbearable psychic suffering with no future prospective. DESIGN: It is unlikely that the practice of euthanasia may be mechanistically reduced to the provision of a suicide as alleviating the burden of suffering in depression is a long life commitment; moreover, the principle of patient's self determination and autonomy is highly debatable: the closure to the future, the hopelessness and the suicidal ideation represent per se core features of depression...
September 2016: La Clinica Terapeutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833206/non-faith-based-arguments-against-physician-assisted-suicide-and-euthanasia
#19
Daniel P Sulmasy, John M Travaline, Louise A Mitchell, E Wesley Ely
This article is a complement to "A Template for Non-Religious-Based Discussions Against Euthanasia" by Melissa Harintho, Nathaniel Bloodworth, and E. Wesley Ely which appeared in the February 2015 Linacre Quarterly. Herein we build upon Daniel Sulmasy's opening and closing arguments from the 2014 Intelligence Squared debate on legalizing assisted suicide, supplemented by other non-faith-based arguments and thoughts, providing four nontheistic arguments against physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia: (1) "it offends me"; (2) slippery slope; (3) "pain can be alleviated"; (4) physician integrity and patient trust...
August 2016: Linacre Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775721/the-brain-adapts-to-dishonesty
#20
Neil Garrett, Stephanie C Lazzaro, Dan Ariely, Tali Sharot
Dishonesty is an integral part of our social world, influencing domains ranging from finance and politics to personal relationships. Anecdotally, digressions from a moral code are often described as a series of small breaches that grow over time. Here we provide empirical evidence for a gradual escalation of self-serving dishonesty and reveal a neural mechanism supporting it. Behaviorally, we show that the extent to which participants engage in self-serving dishonesty increases with repetition. Using functional MRI, we show that signal reduction in the amygdala is sensitive to the history of dishonest behavior, consistent with adaptation...
December 2016: Nature Neuroscience
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