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Junko Watanabe, Mariko Watanabe, Kazue Yamaoka, Misa Adachi, Asuka Nemoto, Toshiro Tango
In this study, we aimed to assess the effectiveness of a school-based home-collaborative lifestyle education program for adolescents (PADOK) in reducing poor subjective psychosomatic symptoms (SPS). The study was designed as a two-armed parallel cluster randomised controlled trial and the study population comprised adolescent students (aged 12-14 years, n = 1,565) who were recruited from 19 middle schools in Japan. The PADOK intervention or usual school programme was provided in schools to all eligible participants...
2016: PloS One
Michael Argenyi
Applicants to medical schools who are deaf and hard of hearing (DHoH) or who have other disabilities face significant barriers to medical school admission. One commonly cited barrier to admission is medical schools' technical standards (TS) for admission, advancement, and graduation. Ethical values of diversity and equity support altering the technical standards to be more inclusive of people with disabilities. Incorporating these values into admissions, advancement, and graduation considerations for DHoH and other students with disabilities can contribute to the physician workforce being more representative of the diverse patients it serves and better able to care for them...
October 1, 2016: AMA Journal of Ethics
Patricia M Davidson, Cynda Hylton Rushton, Jennifer Dotzenrod, Christina A Godack, Deborah Baker, Marie N Nolan
The Americans with Disabilities Act prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability and requires schools to provide reasonable accommodations for persons with disabilities. The profession of nursing is striving for diversity and inclusion, but barriers still exist to realizing accommodations for people with disabilities. Promoting disclosure, a supportive and enabling environment, resilience, and realistic expectations are important considerations if we are to include among our ranks health professionals who can understand, based on similar life experiences of disability, a fuller range of perspectives of the patients we care for...
October 1, 2016: AMA Journal of Ethics
Samuel R Bagenstos
This article will discuss the legal obligations of medical schools to accommodate applicants and students with disabilities. The article begins by describing the problem of denial of medical education to such students, a problem that results from both discrimination in admissions and denial of accommodations to incumbent students with disabilities. The article then discusses the disability rights legislation that prohibits discrimination against-and requires reasonable accommodation of-qualified medical students with disabilities...
October 1, 2016: AMA Journal of Ethics
Joel A DeLisa, Jacob Jay Lindenthal
Although progress has been made in diversifying medical school admissions and faculty, this has not extended to physicians with physical disabilities. To improve our understanding of medical students and physicians with physical and sensory disabilities, the authors propose systematically gathering information on the needs and experiences of four groups: physicians who had disabilities before beginning practice, physicians whose disabilities were incurred during their medical careers, physicians drawn from those two groups, and patients of physicians with disabilities...
October 1, 2016: AMA Journal of Ethics
Michael McKee, Ben Case, Maureen Fausone, Philip Zazove, Alicia Ouellette, Michael D Fetters
Students with sensory and physical disabilities are underrepresented in medical schools despite the availability of assistive technologies and accommodations. Unfortunately, many medical schools have adopted restrictive "organic" technical standards based on deficits rather than on the ability to do the work. Compelling ethical considerations of justice and beneficence should prompt change in this arena. Medical schools should instead embrace "functional" technical standards that permit accommodations for disabilities and update their admissions policies to promote applications from qualified students with disabilities...
October 1, 2016: AMA Journal of Ethics
Frederick Romberg, Bennett A Shaywitz, Sally E Shaywitz
We examine the dilemmas faced by a medical student with dyslexia who wonders whether he should "out" himself to faculty to receive the accommodations entitled by federal law. We first discuss scientific evidence on dyslexia's prevalence, unexpected nature, and neurobiology. We then examine the experiences of medical students who have revealed their dyslexia to illustrate the point that, far too often, attending physicians who know little about dyslexia can misperceive the motives or behavior of students with dyslexia...
October 1, 2016: AMA Journal of Ethics
Hongsik Yu, Jaehee Cho
OBJECTIVE: We examined the prevalence rates of Internet gaming disorder among South Korean middle school students, the dominant symptoms of Internet gaming disorder, and the interrelationships between such disorder and non-psychotic psychological symptoms (ie, anxiety, depression, and impulsiveness) and with physical aggression. METHODS: Data were collected from a national sample of 2024 students (70.3% gamers; 50.6% boys). Gaming disorder and prevalent symptoms were measured by the 9 diagnostic criteria proposed in DSM-5...
November 2016: American Journal of Health Behavior
Hellen J Amuguni, Melissa Mazan, Robert Kibuuka
Infectious diseases of grave concern to human health are emerging from wildlife and livestock populations in multiple regions of the world. Responding effectively to these emerging pandemics requires engagement of multidisciplinary groups of professionals. Using a One Health approach, One Health Central and Eastern Africa (OHCEA), a network of seven schools of public health and seven veterinary schools, with the support of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), has engaged in curriculum review with the aim of building the skills of multidisciplinary groups of professionals to improve their capacity to respond to emerging infectious diseases...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
Lisa J Neilson, Lesley A Macaskill, Jonathan M H Luk, Navreeti Sharma, Steve M Killip, Marina I Salvadori, Jamie A Seabrook, Paula D N Dworatzek
PURPOSE: To assess the type and quantity of foods children brought and consumed at school in the balanced school day (BSD), with two 20-minute eating periods, versus the traditional schedule (TS), with one 20-minute lunch. METHODS: Direct observation identified food items and amounts in BSD and TS lunches of grade 3 and 4 students (n = 321). RESULTS: The mean (SD) servings of foods packed in BSD lunches were significantly higher than the TS lunches for milk and alternatives (0...
October 25, 2016: Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research
Krista Lundelin, Tuija Poussa, Seppo Salminen, Erika Isolauri
BACKGROUND: Societies worldwide are faced with a progressive increase in immune-mediated health problems such as allergic, autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, as well as obesity. Perinatal administration of specific probiotic bacteria is an attractive approach in reducing the risk of these conditions, but long-term efficacy and safety data are lacking. The aim here was to evaluate the clinical benefit and long-term safety of specific probiotics administered during the perinatal period...
October 25, 2016: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Maxwell S Barnish, Nara Tagiyeva, Graham Devereux, Lorna Aucott, Steve Turner
BACKGROUND: Childhood asthma is a common condition whose prevalence is changing. We hypothesised that the relationship between asthma and associated risk factors has changed over a 50-year period. METHODS: An ecological study design was used. Children aged 8-13 attending schools in Aberdeen city were surveyed on seven occasions between 1964 and 2014. The following were determined: history of asthma, history of eczema, parental smoking, parental asthma, sex and socioeconomic status...
October 25, 2016: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Lydia Laninga-Wijnen, Zeena Harakeh, Christian Steglich, Jan K Dijkstra, René Veenstra, Wilma Vollebergh
This study examined whether peer norms for aggression within the classroom impact friendship selection, maintenance, and socialization processes related to aggression across the 1st year of secondary school (N = 1,134 students from 51 classes, Mage  = 12.66). As hypothesized, longitudinal social network analyses indicated that friendship selection and influence processes related to aggression depended on the popularity norm within the classroom (i.e., the class-level association between popularity and aggression) rather than the descriptive norm (aggregated average of aggressive behavior)...
October 25, 2016: Child Development
Rajkishen Narayanan, Hye Na Kim, Narayanan K Narayanan, Dominick Nargi, Bhagavathi Narayanan
Following the publication of this article, which was concerned with the expression of phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (pEGFR) and cyclin D1 activation independently of the expression levels of cyclo-oxygenase-2, an interested reader drew to our attention apparent anomalies associated with the western blot data shown in Fig. 2C. Following an internal investigation at the New York University School of Medicine, we were requested to produce the original film, or the scan of the image of the film, for verification...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Oncology
Kushagra Verma, Senthil T Nathan, Carly D Comer, Baron Lonner, Suken A Shah
STUDY DESIGN: Prospective Analysis OBJECTIVE.: This study aims to: 1) establish a baseline for the SRS-22 in South East Asia and 2) evaluate the influence of patient demographics on the SRS-22. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Previous studies have established a baseline for the SRS-22 in the US and described the impact of patient demographics. While the SRS-22 is used internationally, limited normative data is available. METHODS: After approval from the local hospital and school board, 1200 adolescents (age 10-18) were asked to anonymously complete the SRS-22 in English...
October 24, 2016: Spine
Mara A McAdams-DeMarco, Hao Ying, Israel Olorundare, Elizabeth A King, Christine Haugen, Brian Buta, Alden L Gross, Rita Kalyani, Niraj M Desai, Nabil N Dagher, Bonnie E Lonze, Robert A Montgomery, Karen Bandeen-Roche, Jeremy D Walston, Dorry L Segev
BACKGROUND: Frailty increases early hospital readmission and mortality risk among kidney transplant (KT) recipients. While frailty represents a high-risk state for this population, the correlates of frailty, the patterns of the 5 frailty components, and the risk associated with these patterns are unclear. METHODS: 663 KT recipients were enrolled in a cohort study of frailty in transplantation (12/2008-8/2015). Frailty, ADL/IADL disability, CESD depression, education, and HRQOL were measured...
October 25, 2016: Transplantation
Jeffrey M Adams
This department highlights emerging nursing leaders who have demonstrated leadership in advancing innovation and patient care in practice, policy, research, education, and theory. This interview profiles Casey Shillam, PhD, RN, associate dean for baccalaureate education, University of Portland School of Nursing, Oregon.
November 2016: Journal of Nursing Administration
Meghan M McConnell, Sandra Monteiro, Molly M Pottruff, Alan Neville, Geoff R Norman, Kevin W Eva, Kulamakan Kulasegaram
PURPOSE: Training to become a physician is an emotionally laden experience. Research in cognitive psychology indicates that emotions can influence learning and performance, but the materials used in such research (e.g., word lists) rarely reflect the complexity of material presented in medical school. The present study examined whether emotions influence learning of basic science principles. METHOD: Fifty-five undergraduate psychology students were randomly assigned to write about positive, negative, or neutral life events for nine minutes...
November 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Larry D Gruppen, R Brent Stansfield
PURPOSE: To examine, using a systems framework, the relative influence of individual-level and institution-level factors on student perceptions of the medical school educational environment. METHOD: A series of hierarchical linear models were fit to a large, 18-school longitudinal dataset of student perceptions of the educational environment, various demographics, and student empathy, tolerance of ambiguity, coping, and patient-provider orientation. Separate models were evaluated for individual-level factors alone, institution-level factors alone, and the combination of individual- and institution-level factors...
November 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
S Beth Bierer, Elaine F Dannefer
PURPOSE: The move toward competency-based education will require medical schools and postgraduate training programs to restructure learning environments to motivate trainees to take personal ownership for learning. This qualitative study explores how medical students select and implement study strategies while enrolled in a unique, nontraditional program that emphasizes reflection on performance and competence rather than relying on high-stakes examinations or grades to motivate students to learn and excel...
November 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
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