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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941387/management-protocols-for-status-epilepticus-in-the-pediatric-emergency-room-systematic-review-article
#1
REVIEW
Cheuk C Au, Ricardo G Branco, Robert C Tasker
OBJECTIVE: This systematic review of national or regional guidelines published in English aimed to better understand variance in pre-hospital and emergency department (ED) treatment of status epilepticus. SOURCES: Systematic search of national or regional guidelines (January 2000 to February 2017) contained within PubMed and Google Scholar databases, and article reference lists. The search keywords were status epilepticus, prolonged seizure, treatment, and guideline...
September 20, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939258/novel-calcium-related-targets-of-insulin-in-hippocampal-neurons
#2
Shaniya Maimaiti, Hilaree N Frazier, Katie L Anderson, Adam O Ghoweri, Lawrence D Brewer, Nada M Porter, Olivier Thibault
Both insulin signaling disruption and Ca(2+) dysregulation are closely related to memory loss during aging and increase the vulnerability to Alzheimer's disease (AD). In hippocampal neurons, aging-related changes in calcium regulatory pathways have been shown to lead to higher intracellular calcium levels and an increase in the Ca(2+)-dependent afterhyperpolarization (AHP), which is associated with cognitive decline. Recent studies suggest that insulin reduces the Ca(2+)-dependent AHP. Given the sensitivity of neurons to insulin and evidence that brain insulin signaling is reduced with age, insulin-mediated alterations in calcium homeostasis may underlie the beneficial actions of insulin in the brain...
September 19, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939237/brief-isoflurane-administration-as-a-post-exposure-treatment-for-organophosphate-poisoning
#3
Jishnu K S Krishnan, Taíza H Figueiredo, John R Moffett, Peethambaran Arun, Abhilash P Appu, Narayanan Puthillathu, Maria F Braga, Thomas Flagg, Aryan M Namboodiri
Organophosphate chemical threat agents (OP-CTA) exert toxic effects through cholinergic over-activation. However, after the initial cholinergic phase, the pathophysiology shifts to a non-cholinergic phase which leads to prolonged status epilepticus (SE), irreversible neuronal degeneration and long-term damage to the central nervous system. The efficacy of delayed treatments against OP-CTA is generally low due to the fact that most drugs fail to inhibit the later phase of non-cholinergic activation. Recently, we reported that intranasal brain delivery of obidoxime (OBD) provides complete neuroprotection against a lethal dose of paraoxon when administered 5minutes after intoxication...
September 19, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936773/intranasal-delivery-of-duox2-dna-using-cationic-polymer-can-prevent-acute-influenza-a-viral-infection-in-vivo-lung
#4
Bong Jik Kim, Sung Woo Cho, Yung Jin Jeon, Sujin An, Ara Jo, Jae Hyun Lim, Dong-Young Kim, Tae-Bin Won, Doo Hee Han, Chae-Seo Rhee, Hyun Jik Kim
We studied the contribution of Duox2 in mucosal host defense against influenza A virus (IAV) infection in in vivo lung. We found that Duox2 was required for the induction of type I and III interferon (IFN)s and transient Duox2 overexpression using cationic polymer polyethyleneimine (PEI) leads to suppression of IAV infection in in vivo lung. Twenty mice (C57BL/6J) were anesthetized and challenged by intranasal administration of 213 pfu/30 μl of IAV (WS/33/H1N1), and IAV-infected mice were euthanized at 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14 days post infection (dpi)...
September 21, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929339/intranasal-insulin-ameliorates-cerebral-hypometabolism-neuronal-loss-and-astrogliosis-in-streptozotocin-induced-alzheimer-s-rat-model
#5
Yanxing Chen, Zhangyu Guo, Yan-Fang Mao, Tingting Zheng, Baorong Zhang
Intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin (ICV-STZ) in rodents leads to cognitive impairments and several pathological changes like Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, there is hardly any research about the effect of ICV-STZ on regional cerebral glucose metabolism in rodents. Previous studies have demonstrated that intranasal insulin improves cognition in AD patients. However, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here, we treated the ICV-STZ rats with daily intranasal delivery of insulin (2 U/day) for 6 consecutive weeks, then monitored (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) uptake using a high-resolution small-animal positron emission tomography (microPET) and studied the expression of neuronal nuclei (NeuN) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) using immunohistochemical staining...
September 19, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924346/co-delivery-of-polyinosinic-polycytidylic-acid-and-flagellin-by-poly-lactic-co-glycolic-acid-mps-synergistically-enhances-immune-response-elicited-by-intranasally-delivered-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen
#6
Xiaojing Dai, Jintian He, Ruxia Zhang, Guanghao Wu, Fangfang Xiong, Baohua Zhao
The aim of the present work was to investigate the synergistic effect between toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 ligand polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (pI:C) and TLR5 ligand flagellin (FLN) on immune responses induced by nasally delivered hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg). Mannan and chitosan oligosaccharide-modified, pH-responsive poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (MC-PLGA) microparticles (MPs) containing HBsAg, FLN, pI:C or both ligands were prepared with a double-emulsion method. In vitro uptake experiments show that cellular uptake of MC-PLGA MPs by macrophages was through energy-dependent, receptor-mediated endocytosis mechanism...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923321/nose-to-brain-delivery-of-rivastigmine-by-in-situ-gelling-cationic-nanostructured-lipid-carriers-enhanced-brain-distribution-and-pharmacodynamics
#7
Preeti Wavikar, Rohan Pai, Pradeep Vavia
Present investigation explores the potential of Nanostructured Lipid Carriers (NLCs) for nose to brain delivery of Rivastigmine (RV), which is further enhanced by incorporating into an in-situ gelling system, increasing retention in nasal cavity. NLC's having particle size of 123.2±2.3 nm, entrapment efficiency of 68.3±3.4% and zeta potential of 32±1.2 mV was fabricated by a scalable method. Pharmacokinetics showed sustained release of intranasal (IN) and intravenous (IV) NLC's compared to RV solution by same route, with significantly higher AUC and Thalf...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917988/a-comprehensive-screening-platform-for-aerosolizable-protein-formulations-for-intranasal-and-pulmonary-drug-delivery
#8
Martina Röhm, Stefan Carle, Frank Maigler, Johannes Flamm, Viktoria Kramer, Chrystelle Mavoungou, Otmar Schmid, Katharina Schindowski
Aerosolized administration of biopharmaceuticals to the airways is a promising route for nasal and pulmonary drug delivery, but - in contrast to small molecules - little is known about the effects of aerosolization on safety and efficacy of biopharmaceuticals. Proteins are sensitive against aerosolization-associated shear stress. Tailored formulations can shield proteins and enhance permeation, but formulation development requires extensive screening approaches. Thus, the aim of this study was to develop a cell-based in vitro technology platform that includes screening of protein quality after aerosolization and transepithelial permeation...
September 13, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895435/intranasal-delivery-of-stem-cell-based-therapies-for-the-treatment-of-brain-malignancies
#9
Gina Li, Nicolas Bonamici, Mahua Dey, Maciej S Lesniak, Irina V Balyasnikova
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive malignant brain cancer in adults, and its poor prognosis and resistance to the existing standard of care require the development of innovative therapeutic modalities. The local delivery of stem cells as therapeutic carriers against glioma has produced encouraging results, but encounters obstacles with regards to the repeatability and invasiveness of administration. Intranasal delivery of therapeutic stem cells could overcome these obstacles, among others, as a noninvasive and easily repeatable mode of administration...
September 12, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887135/progress-in-brain-targeting-drug-delivery-system-by-nasal-route
#10
REVIEW
Abdur Rauf Khan, Mengrui Liu, Muhammad Wasim Khan, Guangxi Zhai
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) restricts the transport of potential therapeutic moieties to the brain. Direct targeting the brain via olfactory and trigeminal neural pathways by passing the BBB has gained an important consideration for delivery of wide range of therapeutics to brain. Intranasal route of transportation directly delivers the drugs to brain without systemic absorption, thus avoiding the side effects and enhancing the efficacy of neurotherapeutics. Over the last several decades, different drug delivery systems (DDSs) have been studied for targeting the brain by the nasal route...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884876/intranasal-insulin-treatment-restores-cognitive-deficits-and-insulin-signaling-impairment-induced-by-repeated-methamphetamine-exposure
#11
Elmira Beirami, Shahrbanoo Oryan, Seyedeh Masoumeh Seyedhoseini Tamijani, Abolhassan Ahmadiani, Leila Dargahi
Long-term use of methamphetamine (MA) causes a broad range of cognitive deficits. Recently, it has been reported insulin signaling and mitochondrial biogenesis are involved in cognitive processes. This study aimed to examine whether MA induces cognitive deficits concomitant with insulin signaling impairment and mitochondrial dysfunctions and also intranasal (IN) insulin treatment can reverse cognitive deficits caused by MA. Rats were repeatedly treated with increasing doses of MA (1-10 mg/kg) twice a day for 10 days, and their cognitive functions were assessed using Y-maze, novel object recognition and passive avoidance tasks...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880380/faster-improvement-in-migraine-pain-intensity-and-migraine-related-disability-at-early-time-points-with-avp-825-sumatriptan-nasal-powder-delivery-system-versus-oral-sumatriptan-a-comparative-randomized-clinical-trial-across-multiple-attacks-from-the-compass
#12
Richard B Lipton, James S McGinley, Kenneth J Shulman, R J Wirth, Dawn C Buse
BACKGROUND: Fast relief of migraine pain, associated symptoms, and migraine-related disability are priorities in the acute treatment of migraine. Efforts to improve the pharmacokinetic profiles of acute migraine treatments with the aim of providing faster relief include the development of non-oral routes of administration. AVP-825 (ONZETRA(®) Xsail(®) ) is a delivery system containing 22 mg sumatriptan powder that uses a patient's own breath to deliver medication intranasally, targeting the upper posterior nasal cavity beyond the narrow nasal valve, an area lined with vascular mucosa conducive to rapid drug absorption into the systemic circulation...
September 7, 2017: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877030/radiation-mitigating-properties-of-intranasally-administered-kl4-surfactant-in-a-murine-model-of-radiation-induced-lung-damage
#13
Melpo Christofidou-Solomidou, Ralph A Pietrofesa, Evguenia Arguiri, Constantinos Koumenis, Robert Segal
The threat of exposure to ionizing radiation from a nuclear reactor accident or deliberate terrorist actions is a significant public health concern. The lung is particularly susceptible to radiation-induced injury from external sources or inhalation of radioactive particles from radioactive fallout. Radiation-induced lung disease can manifest with an acute radiation pneumonitis and/or delayed effects leading to pulmonary fibrosis. As prior warning of radiation exposure is unlikely, medical countermeasures (MCMs) to mitigate radiation-induced lung disease that can be given in mass-casualty situations many hours or days postirradiation are needed to prevent both early and late lung damage...
September 6, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868789/the-phenylephrine-concentration-response-relationship-for-blood-pressure-after-nasal-delivery-in-children
#14
Brian J Anderson, Lisa K Christensen, Valerie E Armstead, David P Bilyeu, Kenneth E Johnson, Robert H Friesen
BACKGROUND: Intranasal phenylephrine is commonly used to vasoconstrict the nasal mucosa, reducing bleeding associated with nasotracheal intubation or endoscopic sinus surgery. There are few data quantifying either absorption pharmacokinetics or phenylephrine concentration effect on blood pressure in children. METHODS: Published observations of plasma concentration and blood pressure changes after phenylephrine nasal administration (0.1 mL kg(-1) , 0.25% or 0.5%) in children (n = 52, 2-12 years, 10-40 kg) were pooled with those in adults (23-81 years) given phenylephrine 2...
September 4, 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865359/thermosensitive-in-situ-nanocomposite-of-rivastigmine-hydrogen-tartrate-as-an-intranasal-delivery-system-development-characterization-ex-vivo-permeation-and-cellular-studies
#15
S Salatin, J Barar, M Barzegar-Jalali, Kh Adibkia, M Jelvehgari
Intranasal administration of pharmaceutical compounds is gaining considerable attention as an alternative route for localized/systemic drug delivery. However, insufficient therapeutic efficacy of drugs via this route seems to be a major challenge for development of de novo intranasal formulations. This shortcoming can be overcome by simultaneous utilization of a nanoparticulate delivery system with a polymeric gel network. Therefore, the main aim of the present study was to develop erodible in-situ gel forming systems of poloxamer 407(®) (P407) as a promising platform, capable of prolonging rivastigmine hydrogen tartrate (RHT) release from the embedded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs)...
August 24, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862072/intranasal-delivery-of-tapentadol-hydrochloride-loaded-chitosan-nanoparticles-formulation-characterization-and-its-in-vivo-evaluation
#16
Ankit Javia, Hetal Thakkar
The aim of the present investigation was to formulate Tapentadol Hydrochloride loaded chitosan nanoparticles (CS-NPs) for nose to brain delivery. Chitosan nanoparticles were prepared using ionotropic gelation technique. Optimization of the formulation and process parameters was done using Box-Behnken Design. The entrapment efficiency, drug loading, Z-average size and zeta potential of the optimized batch were 63.49±1.61%, 17.25±1.38%w/w, 201.2±1.5 nm and +49.3 mV respectively. In-vitro release study showed 84...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Microencapsulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861450/data-describing-ifn%C3%AE-mediated-viral-clearance-in-an-adult-mouse-model-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv
#17
Katherine M Eichinger, Kerry M Empey
The data presented here are related to the research article entitled "Age predicts cytokine kinetics and innate immune cell activation following intranasal delivery of IFNγ and GM-CSF in a mouse model of RSV infection" (Eichinger et al., 2017) [1]. The cited manuscript demonstrated that the macrophage-stimulating cytokine, interferon gamma (IFNγ), but not granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), effectively enhanced viral clearance in infant mice infected with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) following intranasal delivery...
October 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855590/intranasally-administered-in-situ-gelling-nanocomposite-system-of-dimenhydrinate-preparation-characterization-and-pharmacodynamic-applicability-in-chemotherapy-induced-emesis-model
#18
Sara S Barakat, Maha Nasr, Rania F Ahmed, Sabry S Badawy, Samar Mansour
The aim of the current manuscript was to test the applicability of a nanocomposite system of penetration enhancer vesicles (PEVs) within polymeric in situ forming gel network composed of poloxamer and hyaluronic acid for the intranasal delivery of the antiemetic dimenhydrinate (DMH). PEVs were prepared using phospholipids and labrasol/transcutol/PEG 400 as penetration enhancers, and characterized for entrapment efficiency (EE%), particle size, zeta potential and morphology. The nanocomposite in situ forming gel system was characterized for its sol-gel temperature, viscosity and mucoadhesiveness, and was pharmacodynamically tested on a cisplatin induced emesis model in rats in terms of food, water, kaolin intake and stomach weight content...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845761/lipid-nanoparticles-for-nasal-intranasal-drug-delivery
#19
S Cunha, M H Amaral, J M Sousa Lobo, Ana C Silva
Studies on the development of drug delivery systems have increased because these systems have particular characteristics that allow them to improve therapeutics. Among these, lipid nanoparticles (solid lipid nanoparticles, SLNs; and nanostructured lipid carriers, NLCs) have demonstrated suitability for drug targeting. The nasal administration of drug-loaded lipid nanoparticles showed effectiveness in treating central nervous system (CNS) disorders, particularly neurodegenerative diseases, because the nasal route (also called intranasal route) allows direct nose-to-brain drug delivery by means of lipid nanoparticles...
2017: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830557/membrane-anchored-ccl20-augments-hiv-env-specific-mucosal-immune-responses
#20
Xianliang Sun, Han Zhang, Shuiling Xu, Lili Shi, Jingjian Dong, Dandan Gao, Yan Chen, Hao Feng
BACKGROUND: Induction of broad immune responses at mucosal site remains a primary goal for most vaccines against mucosal pathogens. Abundance of evidence indicates that the co-delivery of mucosal adjuvants, including cytokines, is necessary to induce effective mucosal immunity. In the present study, we set out to evaluate the role of a chemokine, CCL20, as an effective mucosal adjuvant for HIV vaccine. METHODS: To evaluate the role of CCL20 as a potent adjuvant for HIV vaccine, we examined its effects on antigen-specific antibody responses, level of antibody-secreting cells, cytokine production and intestinal homing of plasma cells in vaccine immunized mice...
August 23, 2017: Virology Journal
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