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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775717/temozolomide-loaded-nano-lipid-based-chitosan-hydrogel-for-nose-to-brain-delivery-characterization-nasal-absorption-histopathology-and-cell-line-study
#1
Anam Khan, Mohd Aqil, Syed Sarim Imam, Abdul Ahad, Yasmin Sultana, Asgar Ali, Khalid Khan
The present study was designed to develop and optimize Temozolomide nano lipid chitosan gel delivery (TMZNLCHG) to target the brain through nasal route. The formulation was developed using chitosan as a gelling agent and Vit E: gelucire 44/14 blend as lipid. The formulations were evaluated for particle size, drug loading, morphology, drug release, nasal diffusion, cell line study, and histopathology study. The average particle size, PDI, %EE, loading, drug release, and % permeation were found to be 134 nm, 0...
May 15, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772289/nose-to-brain-drug-delivery-an-update-on-clinical-challenges-and-progress-towards-approval-of-anti-alzheimer-drugs
#2
REVIEW
Mukta Agrawal, Swarnlata Saraf, Shailendra Saraf, Sophia G Antimisiaris, Mahavir Chougule, Sunday A Shoyele, Amit Alexander
According to the Alzheimer Association Report (2017), Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the 6th primary cause of death in the USA, which affects nearly 5.5 million people. In the year 2017 itself, the cost of AD treatment in the USA has been reported to rise to $259 billion. This statistic shows the severity of the disease in the USA which is very much similar across the globe. On the other hand, the treatment remains limited to a few conventional oral medications (approved by FDA). These are mainly acting superficially from mild to the moderate AD...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770135/mucosal-immunity-and-protective-efficacy-of-intranasal-inactivated-influenza-vaccine-is-improved-by-chitosan-nanoparticle-delivery-in-pigs
#3
Santosh Dhakal, Sankar Renu, Shristi Ghimire, Yashavanth Shaan Lakshmanappa, Bradley T Hogshead, Ninoshkaly Feliciano-Ruiz, Fangjia Lu, Harm HogenEsch, Steven Krakowka, Chang Won Lee, Gourapura J Renukaradhya
Annually, swine influenza A virus (SwIAV) causes severe economic loss to swine industry. Currently used inactivated SwIAV vaccines administered by intramuscular injection provide homologous protection, but limited heterologous protection against constantly evolving field viruses, attributable to the induction of inadequate levels of mucosal IgA and cellular immune responses in the respiratory tract. A novel vaccine delivery platform using mucoadhesive chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs) administered through intranasal (IN) route has the potential to elicit strong mucosal and systemic immune responses in pigs...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766045/post-stroke-intranasal-naloxone-delivery-reduces-microglial-activation-and-improves-behavioral-recovery-from-ischemic-injury
#4
Jenni E Anttila, Katrina Albert, Emily S Wires, Kert Mätlik, Lisa C Loram, Linda R Watkins, Kenner C Rice, Yun Wang, Brandon K Harvey, Mikko Airavaara
Ischemic stroke is the leading cause of disability, and effective therapeutic strategies are needed to promote complete recovery. Neuroinflammation plays a significant role in stroke pathophysiology, and there is limited understanding of how it affects recovery. The aim of this study was to characterize the spatiotemporal expression profile of microglial activation and whether dampening microglial/macrophage activation post-stroke facilitates the recovery. For dampening microglial/macrophage activation, we chose intranasal administration of naloxone, a drug that is already in clinical use for opioid overdose and is known to decrease microglia/macrophage activation...
March 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765168/mucosal-delivery-systems-of-antihypertensive-drugs-a-practical-approach-in-general-practice
#5
Lukasz P Bialy, Cezary Wojcik, Izabela Mlynarczuk-Bialy
Patients who are unable to receive oral medication (p.o.) are a major problem in outpatient settings, especially in home health care systems. Mucosal administration of drugs offers an alternative to the oral route, especially when the parenteral mode cannot be used. There are three main pathways of mucosal administration: sublingual/buccal, intranasal and rectal. We discuss the possibility of mucosal delivery of antihypertensive drugs. Perindopril arginine and Amlodipine besylate are registered in the EU as orodispersible tablets for oromucosal delivery, however, they are not available in all countries...
May 15, 2018: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760572/breath-powered-sumatriptan-dry-nasal-powder-an-intranasal-medication-delivery-system-for-acute-treatment-of-migraine
#6
REVIEW
Stewart J Tepper, Merrilee R Johnstone
There is a need for fast-acting, non-oral medication options for migraine because some attacks develop rapidly and some are accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and gastroparesis, which can hinder oral medication uptake and absorption. The most commonly prescribed migraine medications are oral triptans, with sumatriptan as the most common. However, oral triptans are associated with adverse events (AEs) of atypical sensations that may be problematic for patients. Subcutaneous (SC) injectable sumatriptan and conventional liquid triptan nasal spray formulations are also available, but the frequency of atypical sensations is the highest with SC sumatriptan, and the intense bitter taste of conventional liquid triptan nasal spray discourages use...
2018: Medical Devices: Evidence and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756518/the-route-by-which-intranasally-delivered-stem-cells-enter-the-central-nervous-system
#7
Carlos Galeano, Zhifang Qiu, Anuja Mishra, Steven L Farnsworth, Jacob J Hemmi, Alvaro Moreira, Peter Edenhoffer, Peter J Hornsby
Intranasal administration is a promising route of delivery of stem cells to the central nervous system (CNS). Reports on this mode of stem cell delivery have not yet focused on the route across the cribriform plate by which cells move from the nasal cavity into the CNS. In the current experiments, human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were isolated from Wharton's jelly of umbilical cords and were labeled with extremely bright quantum dots (QDs) in order to track the cells efficiently. At 2 h after intranasal delivery in immunodeficient mice, the labeled cells were found under the olfactory epithelium, crossing the cribriform plate adjacent to the fila olfactoria, and associated with the meninges of the olfactory bulb...
January 1, 2018: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750971/saliva-oxytocin-measures-do-not-reflect-peripheral-plasma-concentrations-after-intranasal-oxytocin-administration-in-men
#8
Daniel S Quintana, Lars T Westlye, Knut T Smerud, Ramy A Mahmoud, Ole A Andreassen, Per G Djupesland
Oxytocin plays an important role in social behavior. Thus, there has been significant research interest for the role of the oxytocin system in several psychiatric disorders, and the potential of intranasal oxytocin administration to treat social dysfunction. Measurement of oxytocin concentrations in saliva are sometimes used to approximate peripheral levels of oxytocin; however, the validity of the approach is unclear. In this study, saliva and plasma oxytocin was assessed after two doses of Exhalation Delivery System delivered intranasal oxytocin (8 IU and 24 IU), intravenous oxytocin (1 IU) and placebo in a double-dummy, within-subjects design with men...
May 8, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747875/young-adults-opioid-use-trajectories-from-nonmedical-prescription-opioid-use-to-heroin-drug-injection-drug-treatment-and-overdose
#9
Honoria Guarino, Pedro Mateu-Gelabert, Jennifer Teubl, Elizabeth Goodbody
INTRODUCTION: Recent research has begun to explore the transition from nonmedical use of prescription opioids (POs) to heroin and injection drug use, adding to earlier literature identifying factors that influence the transition from intranasal to injection use of heroin. However, little research has explored how these transitions are embedded within young people's broader opioid use trajectories - individual pathways that may also include experiences of nonfatal overdose and drug treatment...
May 1, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747463/thiol-activated-hydrogen-sulfide-donors-antiviral-and-anti-inflammatory-activity-in-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection
#10
Nikolay Bazhanov, Teodora Ivanciuc, Haotian Wu, Matteo Garofalo, Jianming Kang, Ming Xian, Antonella Casola
We have recently shown that endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H₂S), an important cellular gaseous mediator, exerts an antiviral and anti-inflammatory activity in vitro and in vivo, and that exogenous H₂S delivered via the synthetic H₂S-releasing compound GYY4137 also has similar properties. In this study, we sought to extend our findings to a novel class of H₂S donors, thiol-activated gem-dithiol-based (TAGDDs). In an in vitro model of human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, TAGDD-1 treatment significantly reduced viral replication, even when added up to six hours after infection...
May 10, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743868/insulin-resistance-as-a-therapeutic-target-in-the-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease-a-state-of-the-art-review
#11
REVIEW
Christian Benedict, Claudia A Grillo
Research in animals and humans has shown that type 2 diabetes and its prodromal state, insulin resistance, promote major pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD), such as the formation of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT). Worrisomely, dysregulated amyloid beta (Aβ) metabolism has also been shown to promote central nervous system insulin resistance; although the role of tau metabolism remains controversial. Collectively, as proposed in this review, these findings suggest the existence of a mechanistic interplay between AD pathogenesis and disrupted insulin signaling...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738851/intranasally-delivered-small-interfering-rna-mediated-suppression-of-scavenger-receptor-mac-1-attenuates-microglial-phenotype-switching-and-working-memory-impairment-following-hypoxia
#12
Sudeshna Das, K P Mishra, Lilly Ganju, S B Singh
Brain, being the highest consumer of oxygen, is prone to increased risk of hypoxia-induced neurological insults. In response to hypoxia, microglia, the major resident immune cells of brain switches to an activated phenotype and promote inflammatory responses leading to tissue damage and loss of cognitive functions including working memory impairment. Till date, no proven clinical therapeutics is available to retard the progression of neurodegenerative memory impairment. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of intranasal small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery in a mouse model of hypoxia-induced working memory impairment using microglial receptor, Mac-1 as a target gene...
May 5, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738814/mucosal-and-systemic-immune-responses-elicited-by-recombinant-lactococcus-lactis-expressing-a-fusion-protein-composed-of-pertussis-toxin-and-filamentous-hemagglutinin-from-bordetella-pertussis
#13
Ali Torkashvand, Fariborz Bahrami, Minoo Adib, Soheila Ajdary
We constructed a food-grade expression system harboring a F1S1 fusion protein of Bordetella pertussis to be produced in Lactococcus lactis NZ3900 as a new oral vaccine model against whooping cough, caused by B. pertussis. F1S1 was composed of N-terminally truncated S1 subunit of pertussis toxin and type I immunodominant domain of filamentous hemagglutinin which are both known as protective immunogens against pertussis. The recombinant L. lactis was administered via oral or intranasal routes to BALB/c mice and the related specific systemic and mucosal immune responses were then evaluated...
May 5, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734748/enhanced-homing-technique-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-using-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-by-magnetic-attraction-in-olfactory-injured-mouse-models
#14
Wan Su Yun, Jin Sil Choi, Hyun Mi Ju, Min Hee Kim, Seong Jin Choi, Eun Seol Oh, Young Joon Seo, Jaehong Key
Intranasal delivery of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to the olfactory bulb is a promising approach for treating olfactory injury. Additionally, using the homing phenomenon of MSCs may be clinically applicable for developing therapeutic cell carriers. Herein, using superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) and a permanent magnet, we demonstrated an enhanced homing effect in an olfactory model. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with rhodamine B (IRBs) had a diameter of 5.22 ± 0.9 nm and ζ-potential of +15...
May 5, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729993/vaccination-with-an-alkaline-extract-of-histoplasma-capsulatum-packaged-in-glucan-particles-confers-protective-immunity-in-mice
#15
George S Deepe, William R Buesing, Gary R Ostroff, Ambily Abraham, Charles A Specht, Haibin Huang, Stuart M Levitz
Infection with the dimorphic fungus, Histoplasma capsulatum, occurs world-wide, but North and South America are regions of high endemicity. Interventions to mitigate exposure and consequent disease are limited to remediating a habitat harboring the fungus. The development of a vaccine to prevent infection or lessen its severity is an important advance in disease prevention. Accordingly, we prepared an alkaline extract from the yeast phase of Histoplasma and encased it in glucan particles that act as an adjuvant and delivery vehicle...
May 2, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720907/sedation-and-analgesia-using-medications-delivered-via-the-extravascular-route-in-children-undergoing-laceration-repair
#16
REVIEW
Jamie L Miller, Amanda C Capino, Amber Thomas, Kevin Couloures, Peter N Johnson
OBJECTIVES: To describe the method of delivery, dosage regimens, and outcomes of sedatives and analgesics administered via the extravascular route for laceration repair in children. METHODS: Medline, Embase, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts were searched using the keywords "child," "midazolam," "ketamine," dexmedetomidine," "fentanyl," "nitrous oxide" (N2 O), and "laceration repair." Articles evaluating the use of extravascular sedation in children for laceration repair published in the English language between 1946 and June 2017 were included...
March 2018: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719256/sting-activating-adjuvants-elicit-a-th17-immune-response-and-protect-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#17
Erik Van Dis, Kimberly M Sogi, Chris S Rae, Kelsey E Sivick, Natalie H Surh, Meredith L Leong, David B Kanne, Ken Metchette, Justin J Leong, Jacob R Bruml, Vivian Chen, Kartoosh Heydari, Nathalie Cadieux, Tom Evans, Sarah M McWhirter, Thomas W Dubensky, Daniel A Portnoy, Sarah A Stanley
There are a limited number of adjuvants that elicit effective cell-based immunity required for protection against intracellular bacterial pathogens. Here, we report that STING-activating cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs) formulated in a protein subunit vaccine elicit long-lasting protective immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the mouse model. Subcutaneous administration of this vaccine provides equivalent protection to that of the live attenuated vaccine strain Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Protection is STING dependent but type I IFN independent and correlates with an increased frequency of a recently described subset of CXCR3-expressing T cells that localize to the lung parenchyma...
May 1, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717617/selegiline-nanoformulation-in-attenuation-of-oxidative-stress-and-upregulation-of-dopamine-in-the-brain-for-the-treatment-of-parkinson-s-disease
#18
Shobhit Kumar, Shweta Dang, Kuldeep Nigam, Javed Ali, Sanjula Baboota
Objective of the present study was to determine whether the prepared nanoemulsion would be able to deliver selegiline to the brain by intranasal route improving its bioavailability. Antioxidant activity, pharmacokinetic parameters and dopamine concentration were determined. Oxidative stress models which had Parkinson's disease like symptoms were used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of nanoemulsion loaded with selegiline in vivo. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay and reducing power assay which showed high scavenging efficiency for selegiline nanoemulsion compared to pure selegiline...
May 2, 2018: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717122/therapeutic-potential-of-a-phospholipase-d1-inhibitory-peptide-fused-with-a-cell-penetrating-peptide-as-a-novel-anti-asthmatic-drug-in-a-der-f-2-induced-airway-inflammation-model
#19
Yun Young Lee, So Young Lee, Shin-Young Park, Hye-Jin Choi, Eung-Gook Kim, Joong-Soo Han
Asthma is a chronic lung disease that causes airflow obstruction due to airway inflammation. However, its therapeutics remain inadequate. We previously reported that phospholipase D1 (PLD1) is a key enzyme involved in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in airway inflammation induced by the house dust mite allergen Dermatophagoides farinae 2 (Der f 2). We also revealed that PLD1 is specifically inactivated by AP180 (assembly protein, 180 kDa) and identified the PLD1-specific binding motif (TVTSP) of AP180...
May 1, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707588/development-of-safe-and-non-self-immunogenic-mucosal-adjuvant-by-recombinant-fusion-of-cholera-toxin-a1-subunit-with-protein-transduction-domain
#20
Byoung-Shik Shim, In Su Cheon, Eugene Lee, Sung-Moo Park, Youngjoo Choi, Dae-Im Jung, Eunji Yang, Jung-Ah Choi, June Young Chun, Jae-Ouk Kim, Cheol-Heui Yun, Cecil Czerkinsky, Man Ki Song
Potential use of cholera toxin (CT) as a mucosal vaccine adjuvant has been documented in a variety of animal models. However, native CT is highly toxic to be used as a mucosal adjuvant in humans. Here, we demonstrate a new approach to generate a mucosal adjuvant by replacing the B subunit of CT with HIV-1 Tat protein transduction domain (PTD), which efficiently delivers fusion proteins into the cell cytoplasm by unspecific binding to cell surface. We compared the adjuvanticity and toxicity of Tat PTD-CTA1-Tat PTD (TCTA1T) with those of CT...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
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