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Platform switching

Nicolas P D Sawaya, Dmitrij Rappoport, Daniel P Tabor, Alán Aspuru-Guzik
Regulating energy transfer pathways through materials is a central goal of nanotechnology, as a greater degree of control is crucial for developing sensing, spectroscopy, microscopy, and computing applications. Such control necessitates a toolbox of actuation methods that can direct energy transfer based on user input. Here we introduce a proposal for a molecular exciton gate, analogous to a traditional transistor, for regulating exciton flow in chromophoric systems. The gate may be activated with an input of light or an input flow of excitons...
June 19, 2018: ACS Nano
Hui Xu, Pingping Song, Jin Wang, Yukou Du
Well-defined noble metal nanomaterials are attractive as catalysts for various applications due to abundant surface active sites. However, the shape-controlled synthesis of high-performance Pt-based nanocatalysts remains a forbidden challenge. We herein demonstrate a versatile approach for realizing the systemically controlled syntheses of bimetallic Pt-Cu nanocrystals from concave nanocubes (CNCs), to excavated nanocubes (ENCs), to tripods (TRPs) via simply switching the amount of glycine (reducing agent)...
June 19, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Katja Kolar, Christian Knobloch, Hendrik Stork, Matej Žnidarič, Wilfried Weber
OptoBase is an online platform for molecular optogenetics. At its core is a hand-annotated and ontology-supported database that aims to cover all existing optogenetic switches and publications, which is further complemented with a collection of convenient optogenetics-related web tools. OptoBase is meant for both expert optogeneticists, to easily keep track of the field, as well as for all researchers who find optogenetics inviting as a powerful tool to address their biological questions of interest. It is available at https://www...
June 18, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
Emily R Burnside, Fred De Winter, Athanasios Didangelos, Nicholas D James, Elena-Cristina Andreica, Hugo Layard-Horsfall, Elizabeth M Muir, Joost Verhaagen, Elizabeth J Bradbury
Chondroitinase ABC is a promising preclinical therapy that promotes functional neuroplasticity after CNS injury by degrading extracellular matrix inhibitors. Efficient delivery of chondroitinase ABC to the injured mammalian spinal cord can be achieved by viral vector transgene delivery. This approach dramatically modulates injury pathology and restores sensorimotor functions. However, clinical development of this therapy is limited by a lack of ability to exert control over chondroitinase gene expression. Prior experimental gene regulation platforms are likely to be incompatible with the non-resolving adaptive immune response known to occur following spinal cord injury...
June 14, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Rui Peng, Yandong Ma, Shuai Zhang, Baibiao Huang, Ying Dai
Two-dimensional valleytronic systems can provide information storage and processing advantages that complement or surpass those of conventional charge- and spin-based semiconductor technologies. The major challenge currently is to realize valley polarization for manipulating the valley degree of freedom. Here, we propose that valley polarization can be readily achieved in Janus single-layer MoSSe through magnetic doping, which is highly feasible in experiment. Due to inversion symmetry breaking combined with strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC), the pure single-layer MoSSe harbors an intriguing multivalleyed band structure and strong coupled spin and valley physics...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Tessema K Kassaw, Alberto J Donayre-Torres, Mauricio S Antunes, Kevin J Morey, June I Medford
Plant synthetic biology is a rapidly emerging field that aims to engineer genetic circuits to function in plants with the same reliability and precision as electronic circuits. These circuits can be used to program predictable plant behavior, producing novel traits to improve crop plant productivity, enable biosensors, and serve as platforms to synthesize chemicals and complex biomolecules. Herein we introduce the importance of developing orthogonal plant parts and the need for quantitative part characterization for mathematical modeling of complex circuits...
August 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Girja S Shukla, Yu-Jing Sun, Stephanie C Pero, Giselle S Sholler, David N Krag
The aim of this preclinical study was to evaluate T7 bacteriophage as a nanoparticle platform for expression of neoantigens that could allow rapid generation of vaccines for potential studies in human cancer patients. We have generated recombinant T7 phage vaccines carrying neoepitopes derived from mutated proteins of B16-F10 melanoma tumor cells. With the single mutated amino acid (AA) centered, peptides were expressed on the outer coat of T7 phage. All peptides with 11 and 34 AAs were successfully expressed...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Immunological Methods
Alfonso Rodríguez, Juan Valverde, Jorge Portilla, Andrés Otero, Teresa Riesgo, Eduardo de la Torre
Cyber-Physical Systems are experiencing a paradigm shift in which processing has been relocated to the distributed sensing layer and is no longer performed in a centralized manner. This approach, usually referred to as Edge Computing, demands the use of hardware platforms that are able to manage the steadily increasing requirements in computing performance, while keeping energy efficiency and the adaptability imposed by the interaction with the physical world. In this context, SRAM-based FPGAs and their inherent run-time reconfigurability, when coupled with smart power management strategies, are a suitable solution...
June 8, 2018: Sensors
Gema Rodríguez-Moro, Sara Ramírez-Acosta, Ana Arias-Borrego, Tamara García-Barrera, José Luis Gómez-Ariza
Metallomics is the new paradigm about the metallobiomolecules related to living organisms, considering the interactions between toxic and essential metals, transport through biological fluids, passing across biological membranes and interfaces, synergic and antagonist actions among metal species, and alterations in metabolic pathways triggered by overexpression or inhibition of these metallobiomolecules. These challenging studies require the development of new analytical approaches in order to get suitable information of these species close to their native environment which has promoted the application of new tools based in mass spectrometry under the double focus of elemental (ICP-MS) and molecular (Qq-TOF-MS) mass spectrometry, generally arranged with chromatography in multidimensional platforms...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Andrew John Knappenberger, Caroline Wetherington Reiss, Scott A Strobel
Two classes of riboswitches related to the ykkC guanidine-I riboswitch bind phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate (PRPP) and guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp). Here we report the co-crystal structure of the PRPP aptamer and its ligand. We also report the structure of the G96A point mutant that prefers ppGpp over PRPP with a dramatic 40,000-fold switch in specificity. The ends of the aptamer form a helix that is not present in the guanidine aptamer and is involved in the expression platform. In the mutant, the base of ppGpp replaces G96 in three-dimensional space...
June 7, 2018: ELife
Huizhan Yang, Yunxin Kuan, Tuowen Xiang, Yuntao Zhu, Xinlun Cai, Liu Liu
A novel configuration for realizing a polarization-insensitive optical switch on silicon-on-insulator of 340nm-thick top-silicon layer is demonstrated, using submicron sized waveguides. The device is based on the Mach-Zehnder interferometer structure. By carefully designing the 3dB couplers and the delay-line waveguides in the device, it is possible to achieve a similar switching behavior for all polarizations. Theoretical analyses indicate that extinction ratios of better than -25dB and insertion losses of better than -0...
May 28, 2018: Optics Express
Qian Qian Song, Zhe Feng Hu, Kai Xin Chen
A scalable and reconfigurable on-chip optical true time delay line consisting of Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) switches and delay waveguides is proposed and demonstrated with the ultra-low-loss silica waveguide platform. The MZI switches provide the reconfiguration of the light traveling paths and hence different delays. Our proposed structure can be easily scaled to an M bit delay line with a slight increase in dimensions. The footprint of our fabricated 1 bit delay line is 33  mm×13  mm (length×width) and can provide a delay of 6...
June 1, 2018: Applied Optics
Hyunsoo Kim, Areum Sohn, Injoon Yeo, Su Jong Yu, Jung-Hwan Yoon, Youngsoo Kim
BACKGROUND: Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive fraction of α-fetoprotein (AFP-L3) is a serum biomarker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). AFP-L3 is typically measured by liquid-phase binding assay (LiBA). However, LiBA does not always reflect AFP-L3 concentrations because of its low analytical sensitivity. Thus, we aimed to develop an analytically sensitive multiple reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) assay to quantify AFP-L3 in serum. METHODS: The assay entailed the addition of a stable isotope-labeled internal standard protein analog, the enrichment of AFP using a monoclonal antibody, the fractionation of AFP-L3 using L...
June 6, 2018: Clinical Chemistry
Marianna Rossetti, Rudy Ippodrino, Bruna Marini, Giuseppe Palleschi, Alessandro Porchetta
The development of rapid, cost-effective and single step methods for the detection of small molecules is crucial for improving quality and efficiency of many applications ranging from life science to environmental analysis. Unfortunately, current methodologies still require multiple complex, time-consuming washing and incubation steps, which limit their applicability. In this work we present a competitive DNA-based platform that makes use of both programmable DNA-switches and antibodies to detect small target molecules...
June 6, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
T Nguyen, D B Fofana, M P Lê, C Charpentier, G Peytavin, M Wirden, S Lambert-Niclot, N Desire, M Grude, L Morand-Joubert, P Flandre, C Katlama, D Descamps, V Calvez, E Todesco, A G Marcelin
Background: Integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) are recommended by international guidelines as first-line therapy in antiretroviral-naive and -experienced HIV-1-infected patients. Objectives: This study aimed at evaluating the prevalence at failure of INSTI-resistant variants and the impact of baseline minority resistant variants (MiRVs) on the virological response to an INSTI-based regimen. Methods: Samples at failure of 134 patients failing a raltegravir-containing (n = 65), an elvitegravir-containing (n = 20) or a dolutegravir-containing (n = 49) regimen were sequenced by Sanger sequencing and ultra-deep sequencing (UDS)...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Norbert Moldován, Dóra Tombácz, Attila Szűcs, Zsolt Csabai, Zsolt Balázs, Emese Kis, Judit Molnár, Zsolt Boldogkői
The Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) is an insect-pathogen baculovirus. In this study, we applied the Oxford Nanopore Technologies platform for the analysis of the polyadenylated fraction of the viral transcriptome using both cDNA and direct RNA sequencing methods. We identified and annotated altogether 132 novel transcripts and transcript isoforms, including 4 coding and 4 non-coding RNA molecules, 47 length variants, 5 splice isoforms, as well as 23 polycistronic and 49 complex transcripts...
June 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Feng Liu, Ailing Ding, Jiushang Zheng, Jiucun Chen, Bin Wang
A label-free sensing platform is developed based on switching the structure of aptamer for highly sensitive and selective fluorescence detection of ochratoxin A (OTA). OTA induces the structure of aptamer, transforms into G-quadruplex and produces strong fluorescence in the presence of zinc(II)-protoporphyrin IX probe due to the specific bind to G-quadruplex. The simple method exhibits high sensitivity towards OTA with a detection limit of 0.03 nM and excellent selectivity over other mycotoxins. In addition, the successful detection of OTA in real samples represents a promising application in food safety...
June 1, 2018: Sensors
Caroline Y Kuo, Joseph D Long, Beatriz Campo-Fernandez, Satiro de Oliveira, Aaron R Cooper, Zulema Romero, Megan D Hoban, Alok V Joglekar, Georgia R Lill, Michael L Kaufman, Sorel Fitz-Gibbon, Xiaoyan Wang, Roger P Hollis, Donald B Kohn
X-linked hyper-immunoglobulin M (hyper-IgM) syndrome (XHIM) is a primary immunodeficiency due to mutations in CD40 ligand that affect immunoglobulin class-switch recombination and somatic hypermutation. The disease is amenable to gene therapy using retroviral vectors, but dysregulated gene expression results in abnormal lymphoproliferation in mouse models, highlighting the need for alternative strategies. Here, we demonstrate the ability of both the transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) platforms to efficiently drive integration of a normal copy of the CD40L cDNA delivered by Adeno-Associated Virus...
May 29, 2018: Cell Reports
Jaeho Choi, Ji Su Han, Kootak Hong, Soo Young Kim, Ho Won Jang
Fascinating characteristics of halide perovskites (HPs), which cannot be seen in conventional semiconductors and metal oxides, have boosted the application of HPs in electronic devices beyond optoelectronics such as solar cells, photodetectors, and light-emitting diodes. Here, recent advances in HP-based memory and logic devices such as resistive-switching memories (i.e., resistive random access memory (RRAM) or memristors), transistors, and artificial synapses are reviewed, focusing on inherently exotic properties of HPs: i) tunable bandgap, ii) facile majority carrier control, iii) fast ion migration, and iv) superflexibility...
May 30, 2018: Advanced Materials
Jun Yang, Shaodong Zhai, Huan Qin, He Yan, Da Xing, Xianglong Hu
Stimuli-responsive nanoparticles are focused to promote the pathological specificity and controlled therapeutic activation in biomedicine, but the multifunctional modulation remains challenging. Herein, size and morphology switchable phototheranostic nanoparticles are developed for photoacoustic (PA) imaging-guided photothermal-chemotherapy. Multifunctional polypyrrole (PPy) nanoparticles with the template of upper critical solution temperature (UCST) polymers are designed to achieve light-controlled pulsatile drug release and concurrent activation of photothermal therapy (PTT)...
May 21, 2018: Biomaterials
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