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Qiong Wu, Meng Niu, Xiaowei Chen, Longfei Tan, Changhui Fu, Xiangling Ren, Jun Ren, Laifeng Li, Ke Xu, Hongshan Zhong, Xianwei Meng
Zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) have attracted great interest as pH-sensitive drug carrier because of high drug loading and intrinsic biodegradability. In this work, a biocompatible NIR and pH-responsive drug delivery nanoplatform based on ZIFs (PDA-PCM@ZIF-8/DOX) is synthesized for in vivo cancer therapy. The biocompatibility of ZIFs is greatly improved by polydopamine (PDA) modifying and proved by cytotoxicity and in vivo acute toxicity evaluation. The degradability is also regulated in an appropriate rate...
February 9, 2018: Biomaterials
Dominique Charron, Jonathan St-Yves, Omid Jafari, Sophie LaRochelle, Wei Shi
Manipulating the coupling coefficient at subwavelength scales provides an additional degree of freedom in designing integrated Bragg gratings. We demonstrate asymmetric contradirectional couplers (contra-DCs) using sidewall-corrugated subwavelength grating (SWG) waveguides for broadband add-drop Bragg filters. We show that a SWG can effectively increase the overlap of coupled modes and thus the photonic band gap. The measured spectra show good agreement with the prediction of photonic band structure simulations...
February 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Zongbing Li, Ning Xue, Haiyan Ma, Zhiyuan Cheng, Xiangmin Miao
Graphene oxide-gold nanocomposites (GO/AuNCs) were prepared and used as a novel fluorescence quenching platform for ultrasensitive detection of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) coupled with hybridization chain reaction (HCR) amplification. In the designed system, two fluorophore labeled hairpin probes (HP1/HP2) were introduced, and the fluorescence signals of them were effectively quenched due to the adsorption on GO/AuNCs. Associate probe (AP) was used for the specific recognition of AFB1, and the stem-loop structure of it was opened...
May 1, 2018: Talanta
Raymond S W Tsang, Tauqeer Ahmad, Shaun Tyler, Brigitte Lefebvre, Shelley L Deeks, Rodica Gilca, Linda Hoang, Gregory Tyrrell, Paul Van Caeseele, Gary Van Domselaar, Frances B Jamieson
OBJECTIVE: We analyzed the Canadian invasive MenW ST-11 cc isolates by whole genome typing and compared Canadian isolates with similar isolates elsewhere. METHODS: Whole genome typing of 30 MenW ST-11 cc, 20 meningococcal group C (MenC) ST-11 cc and 31 MenW ST-22 cc isolates were carried out on the Bacterial Isolate Genome Sequence database platform. Canadian MenW ST-11 cc isolates were compared with the 2000 MenW Hajj outbreak strain, as well as with MenW ST-11 cc from other countries...
February 4, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Thorsten Sellerer, Peter B Noël, Manuel Patino, Anushri Parakh, Sebastian Ehn, Sascha Zeiter, Jasmin A Holz, Johannes Hammel, Alexander A Fingerle, Franz Pfeiffer, David Maintz, Ernst J Rummeny, Daniela Muenzel, Dushyant V Sahani
OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of imaging performance across dual-energy CT (DECT) platforms, including dual-layer CT (DLCT), rapid-kVp-switching CT (KVSCT) and dual-source CT (DSCT). METHODS: A semi-anthropomorphic abdomen phantom was imaged on these DECT systems. Scans were repeated three times for CTDIvol levels of 10 mGy, 20 mGy, 30 mGy and different fat-simulating extension rings. Over the available range of virtual-monoenergetic images (VMI), noise as well as quantitative accuracy of hounsfield units (HU) and iodine concentrations were evaluated...
February 5, 2018: European Radiology
Gargi Roy, Tom Martin, Arnita Barnes, Jihong Wang, Rod Brian Jimenez, Megan Rice, Lina Li, Hui Feng, Shu Zhang, Raghothama Chaerkady, Herren Wu, Marcello Marelli, Diane Hatton, Jie Zhu, Michael A Bowen
The conserved glycosylation site Asn297 of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) can be decorated with a variety of sugars that can alter mAb pharmacokinetics and recruitment of effector proteins. Antibodies lacking the core fucose at Asn297 (afucosylated mAbs) show enhanced antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and increased efficacy. Here, we describe the development of a robust platform for the manufacture of afucosylated therapeutic mAbs by engineering a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) host cell line to co-express a mAb with GDP-6-deoxy-D-lyxo-4-hexulose reductase (RMD), a prokaryotic enzyme that deflects an intermediate in the de novo synthesis of fucose to a dead-end product, resulting in the production of afucosylated mAb (GlymaxX™ Technology, ProBioGen)...
February 5, 2018: MAbs
Phillip Kang, Sanjay Kumar, David Schaffer
Neural stem cells (NSCs) are a valuable cell source for tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, disease modeling, and drug screening applications. Analogous to other stem cells, NSCs are tightly regulated by their microenvironmental niche, and prior work utilizing NSCs as a model system with engineered biomaterials has offered valuable insights into how biophysical inputs can regulate stem cell proliferation, differentiation, and maturation. In this review, we highlight recent exciting studies with innovative material platforms that enable narrow stiffness gradients, mechanical stretching, temporal stiffness switching, and three-dimensional culture to study NSCs...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
Anton V Ievlev, Marius Chyasnavichyus, Donovan Leondard, Joshua C Agar, Gabriel Velarde, Lane W Martin, Sergei V Kalinin, Petro Maksymovych, Olga Ovchinnikova
The ability to control thin-film growth has led to advances in our understanding of fundamental physics as well as to the emergence of novel technologies. However, common thin-film growth techniques introduce a number of limitations related to the concentration of defects on film interfaces and surfaces that limit the scope of systems that can be produced and studied experimentally. Here, we developed an ion-beam based subtractive fabrication process that enables creation and modification of thin films with pre-defined thicknesses...
February 2, 2018: Nanotechnology
Ranit Kedmi, Nuphar Veiga, Srinivas Ramishetti, Meir Goldsmith, Daniel Rosenblum, Niels Dammes, Inbal Hazan-Halevy, Limor Nahary, Shani Leviatan-Ben-Arye, Michael Harlev, Mark Behlke, Itai Benhar, Judy Lieberman, Dan Peer
Previous studies have identified relevant genes and signalling pathways that are hampered in human disorders as potential candidates for therapeutics. Developing nucleic acid-based tools to manipulate gene expression, such as short interfering RNAs1-3 (siRNAs), opens up opportunities for personalized medicine. Yet, although major progress has been made in developing siRNA targeted delivery carriers, mainly by utilizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for targeting4-8, their clinical translation has not occurred...
January 29, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
Dongwoo Lee, Sung Min Nam, Jeong-Ah Kim, Dino Di Carlo, Wonhee Lee
Inertial microfluidics has drawn much attention not only for its diverse applications but also for counterintuitive new fluid dynamic behaviors. Inertial focusing positions are determined by two lift forces, i.e., shear gradient and wall-induced lift forces, that are generally known to be opposite in direction in the flow through a channel. However, the direction of shear gradient lift force can be reversed if velocity profiles are shaped properly. We used co-flows of two liquids with different viscosities to produce complex velocity profiles which lead to inflection point focusing and alteration of inertial focusing positions; the number and the locations of focusing positions could be actively controlled by tuning flow rates and viscosities of the liquids...
January 27, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Niklas Domdei, Lennart Domdei, Jenny L Reiniger, Michael Linden, Frank G Holz, Austin Roorda, Wolf M Harmening
Due to the enormous dynamic range of human photoreceptors in response to light, studying their visual function in the intact retina challenges the stimulation hardware, specifically with regard to the displayable luminance contrast. The adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) is an optical platform that focuses light to extremely small retinal extents, approaching the size of single photoreceptor cells. However, the current light modulation techniques produce spurious visible backgrounds which fundamentally limit experimental options...
January 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Janane F Rahbani, Empar Vengut-Climent, Pongphak Chidchob, Yasser Gidi, Tuan Trinh, Gonzalo Cosa, Hanadi F Sleiman
Natural systems combine different supramolecular interactions in a hierarchical manner to build structures. In contrast, DNA nanotechnology relies almost exclusively on DNA base pairing for structure generation. Introducing other supramolecular interactions can expand the structural and functional range of DNA assemblies, but this requires an understanding of the interplay between these interactions. Here, an economic strategy to build DNA nanotubes functionalized with lipid-like polymers is reported. When these polymers are linked to the nanotube using a spacer, they fold inside to create a hydrophobic environment within the nanotube; the nanotube can encapsulate small molecules and conditionally release them when specific DNA strands are added, as monitored by single-molecule fluorescence microscopy...
January 22, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Enzo Kopperger, Jonathan List, Sushi Madhira, Florian Rothfischer, Don C Lamb, Friedrich C Simmel
The use of dynamic, self-assembled DNA nanostructures in the context of nanorobotics requires fast and reliable actuation mechanisms. We therefore created a 55-nanometer-by-55-nanometer DNA-based molecular platform with an integrated robotic arm of length 25 nanometers, which can be extended to more than 400 nanometers and actuated with externally applied electrical fields. Precise, computer-controlled switching of the arm between arbitrary positions on the platform can be achieved within milliseconds, as demonstrated with single-pair Förster resonance energy transfer experiments and fluorescence microscopy...
January 19, 2018: Science
Diane Begemann, Harry Anastos, Natasha Kyprianou
Prostate cancer is a widespread problem among men, with >160 000 new cases in 2017 alone. Androgen deprivation therapy is commonly used in prostate cancer treatment to block androgens required for cancer growth, but disease relapse after androgen deprivation therapy is both common and severe. Changes in androgen receptor signaling from androgen deprivation therapy have been linked to therapeutic resistance and tumor progression. Resistant cells can become reprogrammed to undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition, a phenotypic switch from benign, epithelial cells to a mobile cell with mesenchymal traits...
January 17, 2018: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
Eun Bi Kang, Jung Eun Lee, Zihnil Adha Islamy Mazrad, Insik In, Ji Hoon Jeong, Sung Young Park
We developed nanoparticles comprising a photothermal dye (IR825)-loaded carbonized zwitterionic polymer [FNP-I] as "switch-on" pH-responsive fluorescence probes to sense intracellular cancer cells and for near-infrared (NIR) controllable photothermal therapy (PTT) in vivo and in vitro. The fluorescent "off" of FNP-I was activated after reaching the cancer cell environment, where the zwitterionic compartment of FNP lost its hydrophobicity to induce PTT-mediated heat release of IR825 under NIR irradiation in the tumor...
January 18, 2018: Nanoscale
Jan Kokert, Tobias Beckedahl, Leonhard M Reindl
In self-powered microsystems, a power management is essential to extract, transfer and regulate power from energy harvesting sources to loads such as sensors. The challenge is to consider all of the different structures and components available and build the optimal power management on a microscale. The purpose of this paper is to streamline the design process by creating a novel reconfigurable testbed called Medlay. First, we propose a uniform interface for management functions e.g., power conversion, energy storing and power routing...
January 17, 2018: Sensors
Sun-Il Chang, Sung-Yun Park, Euisik Yoon
This paper presents a minimally-invasive neural interface for distributed wireless electrocorticogram (ECoG) recording systems. The proposed interface equips all necessary components for ECoG recording, such as the high performance front-end integrated circuits, a fabricated flexible microelectrode array, and wireless communication inside a miniaturized custom-made platform. The multiple units of the interface systems can be deployed to cover a broad range of the target brain region and transmit signals via a built-in intra-skin communication (ISCOM) module...
January 17, 2018: Sensors
Jun-Wei Luo, Shu-Shen Li, Alex Zunger
The electric field manipulation of the Rashba spin-orbit coupling effects provides a route to electrically control spins, constituting the foundation of the field of semiconductor spintronics. In general, the strength of the Rashba effects depends linearly on the applied electric field and is significant only for heavy-atom materials with large intrinsic spin-orbit interaction under high electric fields. Here, we illustrate in 1D semiconductor nanowires an anomalous field dependence of the hole (but not electron) Rashba effect (HRE)...
September 22, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Jonathan Hummel, Mark Pagkaliwangan, Xhorxhi Gjoka, Terence Davidovits, Rick Stock, Thomas Ransohoff, Rene Gantier, Mark Schofield
The biopharmaceutical industry is evolving in response to changing market conditions, including increasing competition and growing pressures to reduce costs. Single-use technologies and continuous bioprocessing have attracted attention as potential facilitators of cost-optimized manufacturing for monoclonal antibodies. While disposable bioprocessing has been adopted at many scales of manufacturing, continuous bioprocessing has yet to reach the same level of implementation. In this study, the cost of goods of Pall Life Science's integrated, continuous bioprocessing platform was modeled, along with that of purification processes in stainless-steel and single-use batch formats...
January 17, 2018: Biotechnology Journal
Jeffrey P Jacobs, John E Mayer, Sara K Pasquali, Kevin D Hill, David M Overman, James D St Louis, S Ram Kumar, Carl L Backer, Charles D Fraser, James S Tweddell, Marshall L Jacobs
The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database is a comprehensive clinical outcomes registry which captures almost all pediatric cardiac surgical operations in the United States. It is the platform for all activities of The Society of Thoracic Surgeons related to the analysis of outcomes and the improvement of quality in this subspecialty. This article summarizes current aggregate national outcomes in congenital and pediatric cardiac surgery and reviews related activities in the areas of quality measurement, performance improvement, and transparency...
January 11, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
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