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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801724/pneumococcal-meningitis-and-endocarditis-in-an-infant-possible-improved-survival-with-factor-v-leiden-mutation
#1
Sitikant Mohapatra, Assaf Doulah, Elspeth Brown
Streptococcus pneumoniae infections continue to remain associated with high morbidity and mortality. Although the incidence of invasive meningeal and/or lung disease are not uncommon, Streptococcus pneumoniae endocarditis is rare especially in healthy pediatric population. New studies have suggested a strong association between factor V leiden (FVL) mutation and favorable outcomes in critically ill children. A healthy 10 month old presented with sepsis and meningeal signs, was later confirmed to have Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis and endocarditis...
August 12, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796951/bifidobacterium-breve-m-16v-as-a-probiotic-for-preterm-infants-a-strain-specific-systematic-review
#2
Gayatri Athalye-Jape, Shripada Rao, Karen Simmer, Sanjay Patole
INTRODUCTION: Bifidobacterium breve M-16V has been used as a probiotic in preterm infants. Probiotic strain-specific data are essential to guide clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: To assess effects of B breve M-16V in preterm neonates. DESIGN: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs of B breve M-16V in preterm infants was conducted. Multiple databases, proceedings of Pediatric Academy Society, and other relevant conferences were searched in September 2016 and on January 5, 2017...
August 1, 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796065/a-scoring-system-to-predict-mortality-in-infants-with-esophageal-atresia-a-case-control-study
#3
Xiao-Wen Li, Ya-Jun Jiang, Xue-Qiu Wang, Jia-Lin Yu, Lu-Quan Li
Esophageal atresia (EA) is a rare anomaly that mandates surgical intervention. Patients with EA often have complicated medical courses due to both esophageal anomalies and related comorbidities. Although several prognostic classification systems have been developed to decrease the mortality rate in EA, most systems focus only on the influence of the major anomaly, and external risk factors that could be influenced by the neonatal caregivers to a certain extent are not included. The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors for in-hospital mortality in neonates with EA and develop a scoring model to predict mortality...
August 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792861/predictive-value-of-the-aspartate-aminotransferase-to-platelet-ratio-index-for-parenteral-nutrition-associated-cholestasis-in-premature-infants-with-intestinal-perforation
#4
Kannikar Vongbhavit, Mark A Underwood
BACKGROUND: Parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis (PNAC) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in premature infants. Early predictors of PNAC would have clinical value. We sought to evaluate risk factors and liver function testing as predictors of PNAC in premature infants with intestinal perforation. METHODS: Medical records of infants with a gestational age <34 weeks, birth weight <2000 g, and intestinal perforation due to either necrotizing enterocolitis or spontaneous intestinal perforation were reviewed...
August 1, 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780548/effect-of-single-family-rooms-for-preterm-infants-on-neurodevelopment-study-protocol-for-a-systematic-review
#5
Nicole R van Veenendaal, Sophie R D van der Schoor, Jacqueline Limpens, Anne A M W van Kempen, Johannes B van Goudoever
INTRODUCTION: Preterm infants are at an increased risk for neurodevelopmental delay. They have to endure many stressors in early life, including parent-infant separation, noise and painful procedures during hospitalisation in the highly technological environment of the modern neonatal ward. Currently, a shift is being noticed in the architectural design of neonatal wards towards single family rooms instead of the common open bay units. The influence of the hospital environment on health and specifically neurodevelopment in this vulnerable patient population remains under discussion...
August 4, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780310/outcome-of-neonates-with-gastroschisis-at-different-gestational-ages-using-a-national-database
#6
Ruby Gupta, Erwin T Cabacungan
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The optimal time for delivery of neonates with a prenatal diagnosis of gastroschisis (GS) is controversial. We compared the outcomes for GS at three different gestational ages (GAs), 33-34 weeks, 35-36 weeks, and ≥ 37 weeks. METHODS: We analyze hospital discharge data of neonates with GS using the 2006, 2009 and 2012 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Kids' Inpatient Database (HCUPKIDS). Multivariable analysis was used to compare the association between GS outcomes and the three GAs...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774360/-pathogen-distribution-risk-factors-and-outcomes-of-nosocomial-infection-in-very-premature-infants
#7
De-Shuang Zhang, Dong-Ke Xie, Na He, Wen-Bin Dong, Xiao-Ping Lei
OBJECTIVE: To study the pathogen distribution and risk factors of nosocomial infection in very preterm infants, as well as the risk of adverse outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 111 very preterm infants who were born between January and December, 2016 and had a gestational age of <32 weeks and a birth weight of <1 500 g. According to the presence or absence of nosocomial infection after 72 hours of hospitalization, the infants were divided into infection group and non-infection group...
August 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771405/pediatric-readmissions-after-hospitalizations-for-lower-respiratory-infections
#8
Mari M Nakamura, Alan M Zaslavsky, Sara L Toomey, Carter R Petty, Maria C Bryant, Alexandra T Geanacopoulos, Ashish K Jha, Mark A Schuster
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Lower respiratory infections (LRIs) are among the most common reasons for pediatric hospitalization and among the diagnoses with the highest number of readmissions. Characterizing LRI readmissions would help guide efforts to prevent them. We assessed variation in pediatric LRI readmission rates, risk factors for readmission, and readmission diagnoses. METHODS: We analyzed 2008-2009 Medicaid Analytic eXtract data for patients <18 years of age in 26 states...
August 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768852/septic-episodes-in-a-premature-infant-after-in-utero-exposure-to-rituximab
#9
Susanne Hay, Sandra Burchett, Oreofe Odejide, Sule Cataltepe
Rituximab is an increasingly used immunotherapeutic agent for women of reproductive age for treatment of autoimmune diseases, leukemias, and lymphomas. Rituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets B-cell surface antigen CD20 and can cross the placenta. Current evidence of the impact of this medication on the developing fetus is limited, but there is little to suggest that fetal exposure to this medication places an infant at increased risk of immunosuppression and subsequent infection. Here we report a case of in utero rituximab exposure that was associated with 2 severe septic episodes with Enterococcus faecalis, in a premature infant of 29 weeks' gestational age with a birth weight of 820 g...
August 2, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768269/a-potential-role-for-the-nod1-variant-rs6958571-in-gram-positive-blood-stream-infection-in-elbw-infants
#10
Venkatesh Sampath, Neil Mulrooney, Aloka L Patel, Jonathan Cohen, Liyun Zhang, Jeffery Garland, Pascal M Lavoie, John Dagle, Pippa Simpson
BACKGROUND: The genetic basis of sepsis susceptibility in preterm infants remains understudied. Herein, we investigated the nucleotide binding-oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor (NLR) family of immune receptors as putative loci for preterm sepsis susceptibility. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in NLR genes are associated with blood stream infections (BSI) in premature infants. METHODS: An international cohort of infants with gestational age (GA) <35 weeks were genotyped for SNPs in the ATG16L1, CARD8, NLRP3, NOD2, and NOD1 genes...
August 3, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763426/epidemiology-of-sepsis-like-illness-in-young-infants-major-role-of-enterovirus-and-human-parechovirus
#11
Eveline P de Jong, Monique G A van den Beuken, Erika P M van Elzakker, K C Wolthers, Arwen J Sprij, E Lopriore, Frans J Walther, Frank Brus
BACKGROUND: Sepsis-like illness is a main cause for hospital admission in young infants. Our aim was to investigate incidence, epidemiology and clinical characteristics of enterovirus (EV) and human parechovirus (HPeV) infections in young infants with sepsis-like illness. METHODS: This is a prospective observational cohort study in which infants younger than 90 days of age, presenting with sepsis-like symptoms in a secondary care children's hospital, underwent a full sepsis work-up...
July 31, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761416/neurological-consequences-of-systemic-inflammation-in-the-premature-neonate
#12
REVIEW
Aparna Patra, Hong Huang, John A Bauer, Peter J Giannone
Despite substantial progress in neonatal care over the past two decades leading to improved survival of extremely premature infants, extreme prematurity continues to be associated with long term neurodevelopmental impairments. Cerebral white matter injury is the predominant form of insult in preterm brain leading to adverse neurological consequences. Such brain injury pattern and unfavorable neurologic sequelae is commonly encountered in premature infants exposed to systemic inflammatory states such as clinical or culture proven sepsis with or without evidence of meningitis, prolonged mechanical ventilation, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, necrotizing enterocolitis and chorioamnionitis...
June 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759393/chorioamnionitis-and-management-of-asymptomatic-infants-%C3%A2-35-weeks-without-empiric-antibiotics
#13
Amanda I Jan, Rangasamy Ramanathan, Rowena G Cayabyab
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Management of asymptomatic infants ≥35 weeks' gestation born to mothers with chorioamnionitis remains controversial, with many clinicians considering the need for changes to the current guidelines. The study objective was to evaluate the outcomes of asymptomatic chorioamnionitis-exposed neonates without the use of immediate empirical antibiotics. METHODS: A retrospective data review was conducted from May 2008 to December 2014, including asymptomatic infants ≥35 weeks' gestation with a maternal diagnosis of clinical chorioamnionitis...
July 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758429/a-rare-complication-of-campylobacter-sepsis-in-an-infant
#14
Tanyaporn Kaenkumchorn, Anil Kesavan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2017: Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754611/transdermal-delivery-of-gentamicin-using-dissolving-microneedle-arrays-for-potential-treatment-of-neonatal-sepsis
#15
Patricia González-Vázquez, Eneko Larrañeta, Maelíosa T C McCrudden, Courtney Jarrahian, Annie Rein-Weston, Manjari Quintanar-Solares, Darin Zehrung, Helen McCarthy, Aaron J Courtenay, Ryan F Donnelly
Neonatal infections are a leading cause of childhood mortality in low-resource settings. World Health Organization guidelines for outpatient treatment of possible serious bacterial infection (PSBI) in neonates and young infants when referral for hospital treatment is not feasible include intramuscular gentamicin (GEN) and oral amoxicillin. GEN is supplied as an aqueous solution of gentamicin sulphate in vials or ampoules and requires health care workers to be trained in dose calculation or selection of an appropriate dose based on the patient's weight band and to have access to safe injection supplies and appropriate sharps disposal...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741035/biomarkers-of-hepatic-injury-and-function-in-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy-and-with-therapeutic-hypothermia
#16
Hemananda Muniraman, Danielle Gardner, Jane Skinner, Anna Paweletz, Anitha Vayalakkad, Ying Hui Chee, Clare Clifford, Sunil Sanka, Vidheya Venkatesh, Anna Curley, Suresh Victor, Mark A Turner, Paul Clarke
Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is now provided as standard care to infants with moderate-severe hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). The role of TH in limiting neuronal injury is well recognized, but its effect on hepatic injury which occurs frequently in neonatal HIE is not known. Our objective was to characterize biomarkers of liver injury and function in the setting of neonatal HIE and to describe whether HIE severity and provision of TH influence these hepatic biomarkers. We performed a multicenter retrospective study and compared hepatic biomarkers obtained during the first postnatal week, according to the severity of HIE and whether treated with TH...
July 24, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739260/uses-and-misuses-of-albumin-during-resuscitation-and-in-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#17
REVIEW
Wissam Shalish, Francois Olivier, Hany Aly, Guilherme Sant'Anna
Albumin is one of the most abundant proteins in plasma and serves many vital functions. Neonatal concentrations vary greatly with gestational and postnatal age. In critically ill neonates, hypoalbuminemia occurs due to decreased synthesis, increased losses or redistribution of albumin into the extravascular space, and has been associated with increased morbidities and mortality. For that reason, infusion of exogenous albumin as a volume expander has been proposed for various clinical settings including hypotension, delivery room resuscitation, sepsis and postoperative fluid management...
July 21, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737878/-unusual-case-of-food-protein-induced-enterocolitis-syndrome
#18
M Teresa Sobrevia Elfau, Yolanda Aliaga Mazas, Gonzalo Herraiz Gastesi, Paula M Barberá Pérez, Ángela M Ascaso Matamala
Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome is a nonimmunoglobulin E mediated gastrointestinal food hypersensitivity that manifests as profuse, repetitive vomiting, pallor and hypotonia, often with diarrhea leading to severe dehydration and lethargy (sepsis-like symptoms) in the acute setting. An oral food challenge is sometimes performed to confirm the diagnosis and treatment consists of elimination of the food trigger(s) from the diet. We report a case of a 3-monthsold infant with several episodes of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome after taking infant formula milk with tolerance of another trademark...
August 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737626/perinatal-chikungunya-virus-associated-encephalitis-leading-to-postnatal-onset-microcephaly-and-optic-atrophy
#19
Regina Ramos, Rafaela Viana, Alessandra Brainer-Lima, Telma Florêncio, Maria Durce Carvalho, Vanessa van Der Linden, Antonio Amorim, Maria Ângela Rocha, Fabíola Medeiros
Chikungunya virus is capable of affecting the nervous system of children and adults. We describe a case of sepsis and encephalitis triggered by this agent in a newborn whose mother developed symptoms of acute infection two days before delivery. Consequently, the infant had severe encephalitis that evolved with postnatal-onset microcephaly, bilateral optic atrophy, epilepsy and cerebral palsy.
July 21, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731912/assessing-infant-and-maternal-readiness-for-newborn-discharge
#20
Ling Jing, Casidhe-Nicole Bethancourt, Thomas McDonagh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review highlights the shift from prescribed length of stay (LOS) to mother-infant dyad readiness as the basis for making discharge decisions for healthy term newborns. We describe the components of readiness that should be considered in making the decision, focusing on infant clinical readiness, and maternal and familial readiness. RECENT FINDINGS: Although the Newborns' and Mothers' Health Protection Act of 1996 aimed to protect infants and mothers by establishing a minimum LOS, the American Academy of Pediatrics 2015 policy on newborn discharge acknowledges the shift from LOS-based to readiness-based discharge decision-making...
July 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
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