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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773561/postnatal-brain-growth-assessed-by-sequential-cranial-ultrasonography-in-infants-born-30-weeks-gestational-age
#1
R Cuzzilla, A J Spittle, K J Lee, S Rogerson, F M Cowan, L W Doyle, J L Y Cheong
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Brain growth in the early postnatal period following preterm birth has not been well described. This study of infants born at <30 weeks' gestational age and without major brain injury aimed to accomplish the following: 1) assess the reproducibility of linear measures made from cranial ultrasonography, 2) evaluate brain growth using sequential cranial ultrasonography linear measures from birth to term-equivalent age, and 3) explore perinatal predictors of postnatal brain growth...
May 17, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768249/detection-of-cytomegalovirus-in-saliva-from-infants-undergoing-sepsis-evaluation-in-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-the-virion-c-study
#2
Andrea Ronchi, Christopher P Ouellette, Asuncion Mejías, Douglas Salamon, Amy Leber, Lorenza Pugni, Fabio Mosca, Pablo J Sánchez
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of detection of cytomegalovirus (CMV) among infants evaluated for late-onset sepsis in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). STUDY DESIGN: This study was a prospective cohort study. RESULTS: During the 13-month study, 84 infants underwent 116 sepsis evaluations, and CMV DNA was detected in saliva in three (4%) infants (median: gestational age 28 weeks, birth weight 950 g), representing 5% (n=6) of all sepsis evaluations...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756708/hypercalcemia-and-hypophosphatemia-among-preterm-infants-receiving-aggressive-parenteral-nutrition
#3
Pablo H Brener Dik, María F Galletti, Leticia T Bacigalupo, Silvia Fernández Jonusas, Gonzalo L Mariani
INTRODUCTION: Aggressive parenteral nutrition is the standard of care among very-low-birth weight preterm infants. However, in recent studies, its impact on short-term outcomes, has been evaluated. The objective was to compare the prevalence of hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia among preterm infants receiving aggressive or standard parenteral nutrition. METHODS: Observational, retrospective study comparing a group of preterm infants weighing less than 1250 grams who received aggressive parenteral nutrition with a historical control group...
June 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756424/incomplete-kawasaki-disease-with-coronary-aneurysms-in-a-young-infant-of-45-days-presented-as-neonatal-sepsis
#4
K Dayasiri, A Kariyawasam, R Dissanayaka, D Samarasinghe, H De Silva
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 31, 2018: Ceylon Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748205/cerebral-perfusion-is-perturbed-by-preterm-birth-and-brain-injury
#5
E S Mahdi, M Bouyssi-Kobar, M B Jacobs, J Murnick, T Chang, C Limperopoulos
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Early disturbances in systemic and cerebral hemodynamics are thought to mediate prematurity-related brain injury. However, the extent to which CBF is perturbed by preterm birth is unknown. Our aim was to compare global and regional CBF in preterm infants with and without brain injury on conventional MR imaging using arterial spin-labeling during the third trimester of ex utero life and to examine the relationship between clinical risk factors and CBF. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We prospectively enrolled preterm infants younger than 32 weeks' gestational age and <1500 g and performed arterial spin-labeling MR imaging studies...
May 10, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746374/direct-saliva-real-time-polymerase-chain-reaction-assay-shows-low-birth-prevalence-of-congenital-cmv-infection-in-urban-western-india
#6
Rajlakshmi Viswanathan, Sanjay Bafna, Ravikanth Mergu, Gururajrao Deshpande, Rashmi Gunjikar, Shivshankar Gaikwad, Jayati Mullick
BACKGROUND: Congenital cytomegalovirus infection is the leading infectious cause of mental retardation, developmental delay and sensorineural deafness. Non primary infection plays a major role in transmission of this infection in countries with high maternal seroprevalence. Non invasive sampling and testing is a useful alternative to traditional methods of laboratory detection of congenital CMV infection. The present study was conducted to understand birth prevalence of congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection using molecular techniques, in an urban setting of a developing country with evidence of high maternal seroprevalence...
May 9, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742943/comparison-between-presepsin-and-procalcitonin-in-early-diagnosis-of-neonatal-sepsis
#7
Agustin Iskandar, Maimun Z Arthamin, Kristin Indriana, Muhammad Anshory, Mina Hur, Salvatore Di Somma
BACKGROUND: Neonatal sepsis remains worldwide one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in both term and preterm infants. Lower mortality rates are related to timely diagnostic evaluation and prompt initiation of empiric antibiotic therapy. Blood culture, as gold standard examination for sepsis, has several limitations for early diagnosis, so that sepsis biomarkers could play an important role in this regard. This study was aimed to compare the value of the two biomarkers presepsin and procalcitonin in early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740190/does-duration-of-caffeine-therapy-in-preterm-infants-born-%C3%A2-1250-g-at-birth-influence-neurodevelopmental-nd-outcomes-at-3-years-of-age
#8
A Lodha, Y Rabi, A Soraisham, J Dobry, Arijit Lodha, H Amin, E Al Awad, S Tang, A Sahai, V Bhandari
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of duration of caffeine use on long-term neurodevelopmental (ND) outcomes at 3 years corrected age (CA) in preterm infants with birthweights (BW) ≤ 1250 g. DESIGN/METHODS: All surviving infants with BW ≤ 1250 g admitted to the Foothills Medical Center neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) from January 2002 to December 2009 who received the first dose of caffeine in the first week of life and were followed up at three years CA were included in the study...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735848/septicemic-listeriosis-an-emerging-food-borne-illness-in-india
#9
Angel T Miraclin, Susmitha K Perumalla, John Davis Prasad, Thambu David Sudarsanam
Listeriosis is a food borne illness of significant public health concern, caused by consumption of food contaminated by gram negative bacilli, Listeria monocytogenes. Clinical listeriosis is relatively rare and it has varying spectrum of presentation, ranging from severe sepsis in immune-compromised individuals, febrile gastroenteritis and meningo-encephalitis in infants and adults. This disease is under reported in developing nations due to the lack of awareness and inadequate laboratory facilities to promptly isolate and identify the organism...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733266/complications-during-therapeutic-hypothermia-after-perinatal-asphyxia-a-comparison-with-trial-data
#10
Carlijn M J Diederen, Frank van Bel, Floris Groenendaal
Complications of therapeutic hypothermia (HT) after perinatal asphyxia of a cohort of infants were compared with complications reported in the Cochrane review. The occurrence during moderate HT of bradycardia, arrhythmia, hypotension, use of inotropes, pulmonary hypertension requiring NO inhalation, air leak syndrome, elevated liver enzymes, necrotizing enterocolitis, sepsis, oliguria, thrombocytopenia, coagulopathy, and electrolyte disturbances was assessed in 168 infants with therapeutic HT following perinatal asphyxia and compared to the incidence of complications published previously in the Cochrane review...
May 7, 2018: Therapeutic Hypothermia and Temperature Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721246/acute-encephalopathy-with-biphasic-seizures-and-late-reduced-diffusion-associated-with-streptococcus-sanguinis-sepsis
#11
Hitoshi Awaguni, Jun Shinozuka, Shin-Ichiro Tanaka, Sayaka Kadowaki, Shigeru Makino, Rikken Maruyama, Yosuke Shigematsu, Kenji Hamaoka, Shinsaku Imashuku
Acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD) develops in association with systemic as well as central nervous system (CNS) viral or bacterial infections. AESD is most often noted with influenza or human herpesvirus 6 infection in previously healthy infants. However, AESD has also been reported in an infant with developmental retardation and in a mentally and motor-disabled adolescent. Here, we report the case of a 4- year-old female with significant development delay due to spinal muscular atrophy, who developed AESD during Streptococcus sanguinis sepsis with no apparent CNS infection...
March 22, 2018: Pediatric Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716506/parechovirus-an-important-emerging-infection-in-young-infants
#12
Philip N Britton, Cheryl A Jones, Kristine Macartney, Allen C Cheng
Epidemics of human parechovirus (HPeV) causing disease in young children have occurred every 2 years in Australia since 2013. HPeV genotype 3 caused the epidemic from late 2017 to early 2018. Most HPeV infections cause no or mild symptoms including gastroenteritis or influenza-like illness. Characteristically, young infants present with fever, irritability and on occasions a diffuse rash ("red, hot and angry" babies). Severe disease can manifest as meningoencephalitis, seizures or sepsis-like presentations (including septic shock), or less common presentations including signs of surgical abdomen...
May 7, 2018: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703848/should-empiric-antibiotic-therapy-be-withheld-when-aetiology-of-preterm-birth-is-non-infectious-a-protocol-for-a-systematic-review
#13
Joanna Seliga-Siwecka, Mohammed Toseef Ansari, Judy Aschner, Margaret Sampson, Justyna Romańska
INTRODUCTION: Preterm birth (PTB) at <37 weeks of gestation is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality in developed countries. The traditional approach has been based on the assumption that PTB is primarily a result of intrauterine infection, which triggers preterm labour and puts the newborn at risk of early onset sepsis (EOS). We are currently experiencing a rise in prematurity that results from maternal and fetal diseases unrelated to infection. We have designed a systematic review to assess whether chemoprophylaxis should be withheld when the aetiology of preterm birth is non-infectious...
April 27, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702709/neonatal-outcomes-based-on-duration-of-exposure-to-antenatal-corticosteroids-in-indicated-preterm-deliveries
#14
Chase R Cawyer, Spencer G Kuper, Lisa A Dimperio, Alan T Tita, Joseph R Biggio, Lorie M Harper
OBJECTIVE:  To evaluate how duration of exposure to antenatal corticosteroids (ACSs) prior to delivery affects neonatal outcomes in indicated preterm deliveries. STUDY DESIGN:  This is a retrospective cohort of all indicated singleton preterm deliveries (23-34 weeks) in a single tertiary center from 2011 to 2014 comparing those who received ACS 2 to 7 days versus >7 days prior to delivery. The primary neonatal outcome was a composite of arterial cord pH < 7 or base excess ≤ 12, 5-minute Apgar ≤ 3, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, culture-proven neonatal sepsis, intraventricular hemorrhage grade III/IV, necrotizing enterocolitis, and neonatal death...
April 27, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694999/novel-approaches-to-the-study-of-neonatal-infections
#15
Alessandro Borghesi, Mauro Stronati, Riccardo Castagnoli, Irene Ioimo, Cristian Achille, Paolo Manzoni, Chryssoula Tzialla
The pathogenesis of neonatal infection is incompletely understood. Neonatal immune immaturity and the microbial factors of virulence only partially explain the interindividual differences in the protective responses to the most common neonatal pathogens. Stratification of infants into high- and low-risk groups through epidemiological studies has been invaluable in designing preventive strategies and reducing the burden of neonatal infection. The discovery of the role of maternal antibodies (Abs) as, for instance, anti-capsular polysaccharide group B streptococcal (GBS) Abs, in protecting newborn infants against neonatal GBS sepsis, has been a milestone in the unraveling of the molecular underpinnings of susceptibility to infection in the neonatal age...
May 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694997/role-of-lactoferrin-in-neonates-and-infants-an-update
#16
Paolo Manzoni, Alberto Dall'Agnola, Daniel Tomé, David A Kaufman, Elena Tavella, Marta Pieretto, Alessandro Messina, Daniele De Luca, Marc Bellaiche, Alexis Mosca, Hugues Piloquet, Umberto Simeoni, Jean-Charles Picaud, Antonio Del Vecchio
Lactoferrin is one of the most represented and important bioactive proteins in human and mammal milk. In humans, lactoferrin is responsible for several actions targeting anti-infective, immunological, and gastrointestinal domains in neonates, infants, and young children. Evidence-based data vouch for the ability of supplemented lactoferrin to prevent sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants and to reduce the burden of morbidity related to gastrointestinal and respiratory pathogens in young children...
May 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684147/plasma-and-csf-pharmacokinetics-of-meropenem-in-neonates-and-young-infants-results-from-the-neomero-studies
#17
Eva Germovsek, Irja Lutsar, Karin Kipper, Mats O Karlsson, Tim Planche, Corine Chazallon, Laurence Meyer, Ursula M T Trafojer, Tuuli Metsvaht, Isabelle Fournier, Mike Sharland, Paul Heath, Joseph F Standing
Background: Sepsis and bacterial meningitis are major causes of mortality and morbidity in neonates and infants. Meropenem, a broad-spectrum antibiotic, is not licensed for use in neonates and infants below 3 months of age and sufficient information on its plasma and CSF disposition and dosing in neonates and infants is lacking. Objectives: To determine plasma and CSF pharmacokinetics of meropenem in neonates and young infants and the link between pharmacokinetics and clinical outcomes in babies with late-onset sepsis (LOS)...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681952/growth-and-neurodevelopmental-outcome-in-preterm-lbw-infants-with-sepsis-in-india-a-prospective-cohort
#18
Sunil J Pawar, Tejopratap Oleti, Siluvery Bharathi, Shyamsunder Tipparaju, Ershad Mustafa
Objective: Neonatal sepsis is associated with abnormal neurodevelopmental outcomes but not with poor growth at 9 to 15 months of corrected age in LBW infants. Design Setting and Participants: This is a prospective cohort study involving 128 eligible preterm low-birth-weight (LBW) infants admitted during the period of 2013-2014 to the Durgabai Deshmukh Hospital and Research Center. All patients were followed up in the outpatient Department of Pediatrics. They were divided into the sepsis and nonsepsis group...
2018: International Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679983/evaluation-of-a-real-time-pcr-assay-for-detection-and-quantification-of-bacterial-dna-directly-in-blood-of-preterm-neonates-with-suspected-late-onset-sepsis
#19
Marre van den Brand, Frank A M van den Dungen, Martine P Bos, Mirjam M van Weissenbruch, A Marceline van Furth, Annemieke de Lange, Anna Rubenjan, Remco P H Peters, Paul H M Savelkoul
BACKGROUND: Rapid and accurate diagnosis of neonatal sepsis is highly warranted because of high associated morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of a novel multiplex PCR assay for diagnosis of late-onset sepsis and to investigate the value of bacterial DNA load (BDL) determination as a measure of infection severity. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in a neonatal intensive care unit. Preterm and/or very low birth weight infants suspected for late-onset sepsis were included...
April 22, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678190/neonatal-and-congenital-malaria-a-case-series-in-malaria-endemic-eastern-uganda
#20
Peter Olupot-Olupot, Emma I E Eregu, Ketty Naizuli, Julie Ikiror, Linda Acom, Kathy Burgoine
BACKGROUND: Congenital malaria is the direct infection of an infant with malaria parasites from their mother prior to or during birth. Neonatal malaria is due to an infective mosquito bite after birth. Neonatal and congenital malaria (NCM) are potentially life-threatening conditions that are believed to occur at relatively low rates in malaria endemic regions. However, recent reports suggest that the number of NCM cases is increasing, and its epidemiology remains poorly described. NCM can mimic other neonatal conditions and because it is thought to be rare, blood film examinations for malaria are not always routinely performed...
April 20, 2018: Malaria Journal
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