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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634574/reducing-viability-bias-in-analysis-of-gut-microbiota-in-preterm-infants-at-risk-of-nec-and-sepsis
#1
Gregory R Young, Darren L Smith, Nicholas D Embleton, Janet E Berrington, Edward C Schwalbe, Stephen P Cummings, Christopher J van der Gast, Clare Lanyon
Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) and sepsis are serious diseases of preterm infants that can result in feeding intolerance, the need for bowel resection, impaired physiological and neurological development, and high mortality rates. Neonatal healthcare improvements have allowed greater survival rates in preterm infants leading to increased numbers at risk of developing NEC and sepsis. Gut bacteria play a role in protection from or propensity to these conditions and have therefore, been studied extensively using targeted 16S rRNA gene sequencing methods...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632946/emerging-biomarkers-of-illness-severity-urinary-metabolites-associated-with-sepsis-and-necrotizing-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-pneumonia
#2
Lilliam Ambroggio, Todd A Florin, Samir S Shah, Richard Ruddy, Larisa Yeomans, Julie Trexel, Kathleen A Stringer
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To illustrate the potential of metabolomics to identify novel biomarkers of illness severity in a child with fatal necrotizing pneumonia caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). DESIGN: Case report with two control groups and a metabolomics analysis. PATIENTS: An infant with fatal MRSA pneumonia, four children with influenza pneumonia (pneumonia control group), and seven healthy children with no known infections (healthy control group)...
June 20, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631494/a-study-on-preterm-births-during-2013-2015-shiraz-iran
#3
Elham Jaberi, Mirkazemi Roksana
Preterm birth is the leading cause of neonatal and infant mortality and a substantial portion of neonatal morbidities. The perinatal mortality and morbidity statistics in developing countries are inadequate. In this study, we assessed prevalence and health outcomes of preterm deliveries in tertiary care university hospitals. A retrospective study of hospital records of premature babies born in all the five governmental tertiary care settings during the time interval of 2013-2015 in Shiraz was conducted. Result of this study showed that there was an overall 127...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629714/-clinical-observation-of-newborns-with-infection-risk-a-safe-practice
#4
Carla Escribano García, María Del Mar Montejo Vicente, Raquel Izquierdo Caballero, Carmen María Samaniego Fernández, Sara Isabel Marín Urueña, María Elena Infante López, Sonia Caserío Carbonero
INTRODUCTION: Early-onset neonatal sepsis refers to an infection which starts during the first 72hours of birth, and can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Scientific evidence shows that infected infants present with symptoms during the first hours after delivery. There has been a significant decrease in this condition with the implementation of guidelines for its prevention. However, International guidelines still recommend the evaluation of these infants using painful tests...
June 16, 2017: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617764/oropharyngeal-colostrum-administration-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Yuxia Zhang, Futing Ji, Xiaojing Hu, Yun Cao, Jos M Latour
OBJECTIVES: Studies have confirmed the safety of oropharyngeal administration of colostrum in very low birth weight infants. However, the effect of oropharyngeal administration of colostrum on immune system is inconclusive. This study aims to evaluate the effect of oropharyngeal administration of colostrum on secretory immunoglobulin A and lactoferrin in very low birth weight infants. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Forty-bedded neonatal ICU in a university children's hospital in the People's Republic of China...
June 14, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592313/impact-of-community-initiated-kangaroo-mother-care-on-survival-of-low-birth-weight-infants-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Sarmila Mazumder, Sunita Taneja, Suresh Kumar Dalpath, Rakesh Gupta, Brinda Dube, Bireshwar Sinha, Kiran Bhatia, Sachiyo Yoshida, Ole Frithjof Norheim, Rajiv Bahl, Halvor Sommerfelt, Nita Bhandari, Jose Martines
BACKGROUND: Around 70% neonatal deaths occur in low birth weight (LBW) babies. Globally, 15% of babies are born with LBW. Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) appears to be an effective way to reduce mortality and morbidity among LBW babies. KMC comprises of early and continuous skin-to-skin contact between mother and baby as well as exclusive breastfeeding. Evidence derived from hospital-based studies shows that KMC results in a 40% relative reduction in mortality, a 58% relative reduction in the risk of nosocomial infections or sepsis, shorter hospital stay, and a lower risk of lower respiratory tract infections in babies with birth weight <2000 g...
June 7, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588168/randomized-controlled-trial-of-slow-versus-rapid-enteral-feeding-advancements-on-the-clinical-outcomes-in-very-low-birth-weight-neonates
#7
F Ahmed, M A Mannan, A C Dey, N Nahar, Z Hasan, I Jahan, S K Dey, M Shahidullah
Starting and advancement of feeding in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants are big challenges for the neonatal practitioners. Wide variations in volume of feed advancement have observed in earlier trials both in slow and rapid advancement groups. Volume advancement in slow advancement groups have ranged from 10ml/kg/day to 23ml/kg/day and in rapid advancement groups have ranged from 15ml/kg/day to 45ml/kg/day in earlier different studies. This randomized controlled trial was conducted in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) from April 2013 to July 2014 to evaluate the effects of slow versus rapid rates of feeding advancements on the clinical outcomes in very low birth weight infants...
April 2017: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587329/mosapride-combined-with-probiotics-on-gastrointestinal-function-and-growth-in-premature-infants
#8
Ai-Mei Zhang, Zhi-Qun Sun, Li-Ming Zhang
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mosapride combined with probiotics on gastrointestinal function and growth and development in premature infants. A total of 240 premature infants treated at Weifang People's Hospital between June 2012 and May 2015 who matched our criteria were randomly divided into three groups of 80 cases each. Group A received routine treatment, group B received routine treatment combined with live B. subtilis and E. faecium granules with multivitamins (Medilac-Vita), and group C received routine treatment and Saccharomyces boulardii sachets (Bioflor)...
June 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583886/risk-factors-and-clinical-outcomes-for-carbapenem-resistant-gram-negative-late-onset-sepsis-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#9
Islam Nour, Heba Elsayed Eldegla, Nehad Nasef, Basma Shouman, Hesham Abdel-Hady, Abd Elazeez Shabaan
BACKGROUND: Gram-negative (GN), carbapenem-resistant (CR), late-onset sepsis (LOS) is a serious threat in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of CR-GN-LOS in NICU patients and to identify the risk factors and outcomes associated with its acquisition. METHODS: Neonates with carbapenem-sensitive (CS)-GN-LOS were compared with those with CR-GN-LOS in a 2-year observational study. RESULTS: A total of 158 patients had GN-LOS; 100 infants had CS-GN-LOS and 58 infants had CR-GN-LOS...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579209/extended-interval-dosing-of-gentamicin-in-premature-neonates-born-at-32-weeks-gestation-and-7-days-of-age
#10
Arun Sundaram, Belal Alshaikh, Deonne Dersch-Mills, Jenna Dobry, Albert R Akierman, Kamran Yusuf
PURPOSE: Extended-interval dosing (EID) regimens of gentamicin have been validated for treating confirmed or suspected early- and late-onset sepsis in preterm infants in the first week of life. Despite the marked changes in volume of distribution and renal clearance in preterm infants after the first few days of life, few studies have validated EID regimens of gentamicin in this population. The objective of the study was to evaluate an EID regimen of gentamicin in infants born at <32 weeks' gestational age and aged >7 days...
May 31, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569141/disease-burden-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-invasive-group-b-streptococcus-among-infants-in-china-a-protocol-for-a-national-prospective-observational-study
#11
Wenjing Ji, Haiying Liu, Zhengjiang Jin, Aimin Wang, Xiaoping Mu, Xiaosong Qin, Weidong Wang, Chunyan Gao, Yuning Zhu, Xiaodan Feng, Jine Lei, Shangyang She, Lan Jiang, Jing Liu, Shuhua Yang, Zeshi Liu, Gang Li, Qiuhong Li, Dawen Guo, Muhammad Majid Aziz, Ali Hassan Gillani, Yu Fang
BACKGROUND: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a cause of neonatal sepsis, pneumonia, and meningitis that can lead to neurological sequelae in infants less than 3 months of age. The GBS disease burden is not known in China, therefore it cannot receive major attention. The main objectives of this study are the evaluation of the incidence of neonatal GBS infection, GBS case-fatality ratio, its serotypes and genotypes, bacterial resistance, clinical treatment and outcomes in China. METHODS: We are conducting a nation-wide, population-based, multi-center, prospective, observational cohort study in China from May 2016 to December 2017...
May 31, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28565900/the-impact-of-intrauterine-growth-restriction-on-respiratory-outcomes
#12
Bárbara Oliveira, Filipa Flôr-DE-Lima, Gustavo Rocha, Manuela Rodrigues, Rita Ladeiras, Hercília Guimarães
BACKGROUND: Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is caused by fetal growth below what is normal for its genetic potential. Recent studies have shown a distinct association between changes in umbilical artery flow in IUGR subjects and an increased risk of respiratory morbidity and was to find the impact of IUGR on the respiratory outcomes of premature neonates born with less than 32 weeks gestational age. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study targeted infants born with less than 32 weeks of gestation, admitted at NCIU, between January 2010 and December 2016...
May 31, 2017: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562124/serum-stromal-derived-factor-1-cxcl12-and-its-alpha-chemokine-receptor-cxcr4-as-biomarkers-in-neonatal-sepsis
#13
Hassan S Badr, Fady M El-Gendy, Mohamed A Helwa
BACKGROUND: Neonatal sepsis remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality both among term and preterm infants. Advances in neonatal care improved survival and reduced complications in preterm infants. Chemokines are chemotactic cytokines that give directional guidance for leukocyte migration during inflammatory process. The chemokine CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 are now known to play an important role in inflammatory states. However, its value as a biomarker in neonatal sepsis is unclear...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558032/the-association-of-mannose-binding-lectin-2-polymorphisms-with-outcome-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants
#14
Annika Hartz, Julia Pagel, Alexander Humberg, Michael Preuss, Lena Schreiter, Jan Rupp, Julia Figge, Christian M Karsten, Peter Nürnberg, Egbert Herting, Wolfgang Göpel, Christoph Härtel
OBJECTIVES: Studies on the influence of mannose-binding lectin (MBL) deficiency on infection susceptibility in preterm infants have yielded controversial results. We investigated the association of genotype-based MBL levels with outcome in very-low-birth weight infants (VLBWI). METHODS: We genotyped 3 genetic variants of MBL2 (rs1800450, rs1800451, rs5030737) in 6878 VLBWI. MBL plasma levels were categorized as normal (wild type, A/A), low (heterozygotes, A/O) or undetectable (homozygotes, O/O)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558024/maternal-age-and-severe-maternal-morbidity-a-population-based-retrospective-cohort-study
#15
Sarka Lisonkova, Jayson Potts, Giulia M Muraca, Neda Razaz, Yasser Sabr, Wee-Shian Chan, Michael S Kramer
BACKGROUND: One of the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals of 2000 was to reduce maternal mortality by 75% in 15 y; however, this challenge was not met by many industrialized countries. As average maternal age continues to rise in these countries, associated potentially life-threatening severe maternal morbidity has been understudied. Our primary objective was to examine the associations between maternal age and severe maternal morbidities. The secondary objective was to compare these associations with those for adverse fetal/infant outcomes...
May 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556820/placebo-by-proxy-in-neonatal-randomized-controlled-trials-does-it-matter
#16
Tiziana L Burkart, Andrea Kraus, Brigitte Koller, Giancarlo Natalucci, Beatrice Latal, Jean-Claude Fauchère, Hans Ulrich Bucher, Christoph M Rüegger, For The Swiss Epo Neuroprotection Trial Group
Placebo effects emerging from the expectations of relatives, also known as placebo by proxy, have seldom been explored. The aim of this study was to investigate whether in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) there is a clinically relevant difference in long-term outcome between very preterm infants whose parents assume that verum (PAV) had been administered and very preterm infants whose parents assume that placebo (PAP) had been administered. The difference between the PAV and PAP infants with respect to the primary outcome-IQ at 5 years of age-was considered clinically irrelevant if the confidence interval (CI) for the mean difference resided within our pre-specified ±5-point equivalence margins...
May 30, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552511/maternal-tdap-vaccination-and-risk-of-infant-morbidity
#17
Malini DeSilva, Gabriela Vazquez-Benitez, James D Nordin, Heather S Lipkind, Nicola P Klein, T Craig Cheetham, Allison L Naleway, Simon J Hambidge, Grace M Lee, Michael L Jackson, Natalie L McCarthy, Elyse O Kharbanda
INTRODUCTION: An increased risk of diagnosed chorioamnionitis in women vaccinated with Tdap during pregnancy was previously detected at two Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) sites. The clinical significance of this finding related to infant outcomes remains uncertain. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of singleton live births born to women who were continuously insured from 6months prior to their last menstrual period through 6weeks postpartum, with ≥1 outpatient visit during pregnancy from January 1, 2010 to November 15, 2013 at seven integrated United States health care systems part of the VSD...
June 22, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538366/preventing-necrotizing-enterocolitis-by-food-additives-in-neonates-a-network-meta-analysis-revealing-the-efficacy-and-safety
#18
Wentao Yu, Wu Sui, Linsong Mu, Wenying Yi, Haijuan Li, Liqin Wei, Weihong Yin
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a serious multifactorial gastrointestinal disease which is often discovered in premature infants. Various additives have been used to prevent NEC; yet, their relative efficacy and safety remain disputed. This study aims to compare the efficacy and safety of 5 food additives, namely, probiotics, probiotics + fructo-oligosaccharides, pentoxifylline, arginine, and lactoferrin in preventing NEC in neonates. METHODS: Embase, PubMed, and Cochrane Library had been searched for all eligible randomized control trials...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538237/update-on-postnatal-steroids
#19
Henry L Halliday
Antenatal steroid treatment to enhance fetal lung maturity and surfactant treatment to prevent or treat respiratory distress syndrome have been major advances in perinatal medicine in the past 40 years contributing to improved outcomes for preterm infants. Use of postnatal steroids to prevent or treat chronic lung disease in preterm infants has been less successful and associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. Although early (in the first week of life) postnatal steroid treatment facilitates earlier extubation and reduces the risk of chronic lung disease, it is associated with adverse effects, such as hyperglycemia, hypertension, gastrointestinal bleeding and perforation, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, growth failure, and cerebral palsy, and cannot be recommended...
2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537511/vitamin-a-supplementation-for-the-prevention-of-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-in-preterm-infants-an-update
#20
Emily Schwartz, Rena Zelig, Anna Parker, Stephani Johnson
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a common complication of premature birth and is associated with significant morbidity. Vitamin A supplementation has been suggested as a potential preventative measure against BPD due to its role in lung maturation and because preterm infants are particularly predisposed to vitamin A deficiency. The aim of this review was to determine whether vitamin A supplementation reduces BPD risk among preterm infants. PubMed, CINAHL, and Web of Science databases were searched with the keywords "bronchopulmonary dysplasia," "vitamin A," and "preterm infants" and with the time frame of 2006-2016, and 4 studies were selected for review per the inclusion criteria...
June 2017: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
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