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pneumoniae in children

Elena S Don, Alexandra G Emelyanova, Natalia N Yakovleva, Nataliia V Petrova, Marina V Nikiforova, Evgeniy A Gorbunov, Sergey A Tarasov, Sergey G Morozov, Oleg I Epstein
The assessment of dose-response is an essential part of drug development in terms of the determination of a drug's effective dose, finding the safety endpoint, estimation of the pharmacokinetic profile and even validation of drug activity, especially for therapeutic agents with a principally novel mechanism of action. Drugs based on released-active forms of antibodies are a good example of such a target. In this study, the efficacy of the antiviral drug Anaferon for children (released-active form of antibodies to interferon-gamma) was tested in a dose-dependent manner (at doses of 0...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Lesley J Scott
Intravenous ceftaroline fosamil (Zinforo™), a prodrug that is rapidly converted to its active metabolite ceftaroline, is approved for use in adults and children (from 2 months of age) with complicated skin and soft tissue infections (cSSTIs) or community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). In several multinational trials, ceftaroline fosamil was an effective and generally well tolerated treatment in adult and paediatric patients with cSSTIs or CAP. In the phase 3 CANVAS trials, ceftaroline fosamil treatment was noninferior to vancomycin plus aztreonam in adults with cSSTIs...
October 20, 2016: Drugs
Magda Yehia El Seify, Eman Mahmoud Fouda, Hanan Mohamed Ibrahim, Maha Muhammad Fathy, Asmaa Al Husseiny Ahmed, Walaa Shawky Khater, Noha Nagi Mohammed Salah El Deen, Heba Galal Mohamed Abouzeid, Nancy Riyad Ahmed Hegazy, Heba Salah Sayed Elbanna
BACKGROUND: While recognizing the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia is necessary for formulating local antimicrobial guidelines, limited data is published about this etiology in Egyptian pediatric patients. OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of bacterial and viral pathogens causing community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) among immunocompetent Egyptian infants and preschool children. METHODS: Ninety infants and preschool-age children admitted to our hospital with CAP were prospectively included in the study...
September 29, 2016: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
J A Bohn, B M Kassaye, D Record, B C Chou, I L Kraft, J C Purdy, K A Hilton, D A Miller, S Getachew, A Addissie, J A Robison
BACKGROUND: Global childhood mortality rates remain high. Millennium Development Goal 4 focused efforts on reducing rates by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. In Ethiopia, child mortality rates dropped 71 % from 1990 to 2015, however it is estimated that 184,000 Ethiopian children die each year. There is limited information about pediatric hospital admissions in Ethiopia. Our aims were to examine the temporal relationship of mortality to admission, describe the demographics, and identify cause mortality of children admitted to the Zewditu Memorial Hospital (ZMH)...
October 21, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
Wei-Ju Lee, Eng-Yen Huang, Chih-Min Tsai, Kuang-Che Kuo, Yi-Chuan Huang, Kai-Sheng Hsieh, Chen-Kuang Niu, Hong-Ren Yu
Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) is an important causative pathogen of community-acquired pneumonia in children. Rapid and reliable laboratory diagnosis of M. pneumoniae infection is important so that appropriate antibiotic treatment can be initiated to reduce the misuse of drugs and resistance rates. Anti-M. pneumoniae immunoglobulin M (IgM) is an indicator of recent primary infection, but can persist for several months after initial infection. It has been suggested that anti-M. pneumoniae immunoglobulin A (IgA) can be a reliable indicator for recent M...
October 19, 2016: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
Małgorzata Gajewska, Katarzyna Lewtak, Jacques Scheres, Piotr Albrecht, Paweł Goryński
AIM: The aim of the study was to evaluate the hospitalization trends in children aged 0-6 suffering from bacterial pneumonia in the years 2007-2011 in Poland. METHODS: The data pertained to the hospitalized patients diagnosed with the diseases registered as J13-J15 according to ICD-10. RESULTS: In the years 2007-2011, the hospitalization rate increased from 16.3/10,000 to 44.1/10,000 for boys and from 13.8/10,000 to 33.0/10,000 for girls. The most frequently hospitalized children were between 1 and 2 years of age (90...
September 2016: Central European Journal of Public Health
Erin E Shaughnessy, Erika L Stalets, Samir S Shah
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review covers the outpatient management of pediatric community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), discussing the changing microbiology of CAP since the introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in 2010, and providing an overview of national guideline recommendations for diagnostic evaluation and treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Rates of invasive pneumococcal disease and pneumococcal antibiotic resistance have plummeted since widespread 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine immunization...
October 15, 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Xiuting Mo, Ruoyan Gai Tobe, Xiaoyan Liu, Rintaro Mori
BACKGROUND: Each year in China, approximately 700,000 children under 5 years old are diagnosed with pneumonia, and 30,000 die of the disease. Although 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV-23) are available in China, the costs are borne by the consumer, resulting in low coverage for PCV-7. We aimed to conduct a simulation study to assess the cost-effectiveness and health benefits of PCV-7, 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13) and PPV-23 to prevent childhood pneumonia and other vaccine-preventive diseases in China...
November 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Yun Xiang, Zai-Hua Wang, Ping Cai, Zhen Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of β-lactamase (BLs) detection and β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor (BL/BLI) on the incidence of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) in children with severe bacterial pneumonia. METHODS: The clinical data of the children with bacterial severe pneumonia were retrospectively studied. Of all the patients, 248 using amoxicillin/clavulanate but without BLs detection and 323 using amoxicillin (BLs negative) or amoxicillin/clavulanate (BLs positive) were used as the amoxicillin group; 208 patients using piperacillin/tazobactam but without BLs detection and 291 patients using piperacillin (BLs negative) or piperacillin/tazobactam (BLs positive) were used as the piperacillin group; and 191 patients using cefoperazone/sulbactam but without BLs detection and 341 patients using cefoperazone (BLs negative) or cefoperazone/sulbactam (BLs positive) were used as the cefoperazone group...
October 2016: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Hui Xie, Ji-Ming Li, Hui-Fen Zhang, Ye Wang, Li-Lin Zhong, Qing-Rong Lian, Hong-Ba Dong
OBJECTIVE: To study the role of Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) load and antibody measurements in the diagnosis of MP pneumonia. METHODS: A total of 115 children with MP pneumonia and 400 healthy children were enrolled. The MP load and total antibody level were measured at different stages, and the MP load index (MPLI) was calculated. RESULTS: The cut-off value of MPLI for MP infection was 6.12. MPLI and total antibody titer increased during the course of the disease, while MP-DNA decreased rapidly...
October 2016: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Yi-Ling Jiang, Dong-Hong Peng
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of the serum level of vitamin A (VA) with the severity of pneumonia and recurrent respiratory infection (RRI) within one year after treatment in children with pneumonia, and to provide a basis for serum VA level used as an index for judgment of the condition of pneumonia and prediction of the risk of recurrent respiratory infection. METHODS: A total of 88 children with pneumonia aged less than 3 years were enrolled as study subjects...
October 2016: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Heloise Buys, Rudzani Muloiwa, Colleen Bamford, Brian Eley
BACKGROUND: Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) is a significant paediatric bloodstream pathogen in children. There is little data from Africa. In this study we describe the epidemiology of multi-drug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae bloodstream infection (KPBSI) at Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study of KPBSI from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2011 using conventional descriptive and inferential statistical methods...
October 17, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Chen Zhan, Natalia Grundtvig, Bent Helmuth Klug
OBJECTIVES: Recent studies suggest that lung ultrasound is a good, radiation-free alternative to chest radiography in children with pneumonia. We investigated how bedside lung ultrasound performed by a pediatric resident compared with chest radiography in children with suspected pneumonia. METHODS: This was a prospective study comparing bedside lung ultrasound to chest radiography as the reference standard. Children aged 0 to 15 years with suspected pneumonia at a pediatric emergency department were included and underwent chest radiography and lung ultrasound...
October 4, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Ida Glode Helmuth, Marcella Ditte Broccia, Jonathan Peter Glenthøj, Katja Harder, Lise Jensen, Marie-Louise von Linstow, Anja Poulsen, Kåre Mølbak
BACKGROUND: Varicella, common in childhood and most often self-limiting, may cause complications including bacterial superinfection, pneumonia and encephalitis. Universal childhood varicella vaccination has been introduced in several countries, but is controversial in Europe. In Denmark, varicella is not part of the national immunization program and there is no national surveillance of varicella. The primary aim of the study was to describe the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of children hospitalized with varicella in Denmark...
October 3, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Roberta Petrucci, Giulia Lombardi, Ilaria Corsini, Maria Letizia Bacchi Reggiani, Francesca Visciotti, Filippo Bernardi, Maria Paola Landini, Salvatore Cazzato, Paola Dal Monte
BACKGROUND: The diagnostic accuracy of Quantiferon-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-IT) is uncertain in the pediatric population, while tuberculin skin test (TST) is still conventionally used despite its limitations. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of QFT-IT with TST in a large cohort of children screened for TB infection because of contact tracing, suspected TB, arrival from endemic country or immunosuppressive therapy. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted on 517 children 0-14 years of age evaluated at the pediatric unit of the S...
October 3, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Yu Mi Seo, Seok Hwang-Bo, Seong Koo Kim, Seung Beom Han, Nack-Gyun Chung, Jin Han Kang
BACKGROUND: Although adenovirus (ADV) infection usually causes self-limiting respiratory disorders in immune competent children; severe and systemic ADV infection in children undergoing chemotherapy for leukemia has been continuously reported. Nevertheless, there has been no consensus on risk factors and treatment strategies for severe ADV infection in children undergoing chemotherapy. CASE SUMMARY: We report a case of a 15-year-old boy with a fatal systemic ADV infection...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Yury A Bochkov, Kelly Watters, Sarmila Basnet, Shakher Sijapati, Marchel Hill, Ann C Palmenberg, James E Gern
Viruses in the rhinovirus C species (RV-C) can cause severe respiratory illnesses in children including pneumonia and asthma exacerbations. A transduced cell line (HeLa-E8) stably expressing the CDHR3-Y529 receptor variant, supports propagation of RV-C after infection. C15 clinical or recombinant isolates replicate in HeLa-E8, however progeny yields are lower than those of related strains of RV-A and RV-B. Serial passaging of C15 in HeLa-E8 resulted in stronger cytopathic effects and increased (≥10-fold) virus binding to cells and progeny yields...
October 13, 2016: Virology
Mansour Amin, Mozhgan Ghaderpanah, Tahereh Navidifar
Meningitis is a life-threatening infection associated with a high mortality and morbidity worldwide. Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, and Streptococcus pneumoniae are the most prevalent infectious agents that cause bacterial meningitis (BM). The objective of this study was to determine the frequencies of these three bacteria using bacterial cultures and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In our cross-sectional study, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens were obtained from 196 patients who were suspected of having BM and referred to the pediatric ward of Abuzar Hospital (Ahvaz, Iran)...
October 2016: Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
Hui Pan, Binglin Cui, Yuanchun Huang, Jiacai Yang, William Ba-Thein
BACKGROUND: Nasal colonization with bacterial pathogens is associated with risk of invasive respiratory tract infections, but the related information for Chinese healthy children is scarce. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted with healthy children from 6 kindergartens in the Chaoshan region, southern China during 2011-2012. Nasal swabs were examined for five common bacterial pathogens: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Staphylococcus aureus...
September 30, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
Mario Del Piano, Francesco Coggiola, Marco Pane, Angela Amoruso, Stefania Nicola, Luca Mogna
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea accounts for 9% of the mortality among children under 5 years of age worldwide, and it is significantly associated with malnutrition. Each year, diarrhea kills around 760,000 children under 5 years of age and most of these are in sub-Saharan Africa.In Uganda, the infant mortality rate of 58 per 1000 is unacceptably high, and the major contributors include malnutrition, diarrhea, pneumonia, malaria, prematurity, sepsis, and newborn illnesses.There is an urgent need for intervention to prevent and control diarrheal diseases...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
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