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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031221/effects-of-particulate-matter-from-straw-burning-on-lung-fibrosis-in-mice
#1
Yang Hu, Liu-Sheng Wang, Yan Li, Qiu-Hong Li, Chun-Lin Li, Jian-Min Chen, Dong Weng, Hui-Ping Li
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impacts of particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) from straw burning on the acute exacerbation of lung fibrosis in mice and the preventive effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC). METHODS: The composition, particle size, and 30-min concentration change in an exposure system of the PM2.5 from straw-burning were determined. Forty C57BL male mice were equally randomized to two groups: bleomycin (BLM)-induced lung fibrosis with an exposure to air (BLM+air) and BLM+PM2...
October 7, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026363/highly-accelerated-onset-of-hydroxychloroquine-macular-retinopathy
#2
Ethan M Stern, Jordan S Johnson, Donald A Mazzulla
BACKGROUND: Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ, Plaquenil) is often prescribed in lieu of other sulfate antimalarials to treat rheumatologic diseases because of its pharmacologic efficacy and few reported side effects. However, a known potential side effect of HCQ is retinal toxicity. CASE REPORT: A 61-year-old black female presented for screening of ophthalmic disease 2 months after initiation of HCQ for the treatment of polyarthralgia with a positive rheumatoid factor. At the time of the examination, she had taken a cumulative total of 19...
2017: Ochsner Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025731/macrophage-depletion-using-clodronate-liposomes-decreases-tumorigenesis-and-alters-gut-microbiota-in-the-aom-dss-mouse-model-of-colon-cancer
#3
Jackie E Bader, Reilly T Enos, Kandy T Velazquez, Meredith S Carson, Mitzi Nagarkatti, Prakash S Nagarkatti, Ioulia Chatzistamou, J Mark Davis, James A Carson, Cory Robinson, E Angela Murphy
We examined the role of macrophages in inflammation associated colorectal cancer (CRC). Given the emerging evidence on immune-microbiota interactions in CRC, we also sought to examine the interaction between macrophages and gut microbiota. To induce CRC, male C57BL/6 mice (n=32) received a single injection of azoxymethane (AOM) followed by three cycles of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) supplemented water at weeks 1, 4, and 7, respectively. Prior to the final DSS cycle (week 7) and twice weekly until sacrifice, mice (n=16/group) received either 200μl i...
October 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024819/a-modular-metabolic-engineering-approach-for-the-production-of-1-2-propanediol-from-glycerol-by-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#4
Zia-Ul Islam, Mathias Klein, Maximilian R Aßkamp, Anders S R Ødum, Elke Nevoigt
Compared to sugars, a major advantage of using glycerol as a feedstock for industrial bioprocesses is the fact that this molecule is more reduced than sugars. A compound whose biotechnological production might greatly profit from the substrate's higher reducing power is 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PDO). Here we present a novel metabolic engineering approach to produce 1,2-PDO from glycerol in S. cerevisiae. Apart from implementing the heterologous methylglyoxal (MG) pathway for 1,2-PDO formation from dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) and expressing a heterologous glycerol facilitator, the employed genetic modifications included the replacement of the native FAD-dependent glycerol catabolic pathway by the `DHA pathway´ for delivery of cytosolic NADH and the reduction of triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) activity for increased precursor (DHAP) supply...
October 9, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024323/excretion-of-avenanthramides-phenolic-acids-and-their-major-metabolites-following-intake-of-oat-bran
#5
Manuel Y Schar, Giulia Corona, Gulten Soycan, Clemence Dine, Angelika Kristek, Sarah N S Alsharif, Volker Behrends, Alison Lovegrove, Peter R Shewry, Jeremy P E Spencer
SCOPE: Wholegrain has been associated with reduced chronic disease mortality, with oat intake particularly notable for lowering blood cholesterol and glycemia. To better understand the complex nutrient profile of oats, we studied urinary excretion of phenolic acids and avenanthramides after ingestion of oat bran in humans. METHODS AND RESULTS: After a 2d (poly)phenol-low diet, 7 healthy men provided urine 12h before, and 48h after, consuming 60g oat bran (7.8μmol avenanthramides, 139...
October 11, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023478/regeneration-of-glycocalyx-by-heparan-sulfate-and-sphingosine-1-phosphate-restores-inter-endothelial-communication
#6
Solomon A Mensah, Ming J Cheng, Homa Homayoni, Brian D Plouffe, Arthur J Coury, Eno E Ebong
Vasculoprotective endothelium glycocalyx (GCX) shedding plays a critical role in vascular disease. Previous work demonstrated that GCX degradation disrupts endothelial cell (EC) gap junction connexin (Cx) proteins, likely blocking interendothelial molecular transport that maintains EC and vascular tissue homeostasis to resist disease. Here, we focused on GCX regeneration and tested the hypothesis that vasculoprotective EC function can be stimulated via replacement of GCX when it is shed. We used EC with [i] intact heparan sulfate (HS), the most abundant GCX component; [ii] degraded HS; or [iii] HS that was restored after enzyme degradation, by cellular self-recovery or artificially...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022513/discrepancies-in-animal-models-of-preterm-birth
#7
Clarence R Manuel, Charles R Ashby, Sandra E Reznik
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth (PTB) is a multifactorial syndrome occurring before the 37th week of full-term pregnancy [1]. Babies delivered preterm experience short-term and long-term complications affecting multiple organ systems, and serious maternal complications include hemorrhage and infection. Each year, an estimated 15 million babies are born preterm, and complications from prematurity are the leading cause of death among children up to 5 years of age [2]. With another increase in PTB rates over the last several years, the United States continues to have the highest incidence of any industrialized country [3]...
October 12, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020640/bridging-spatially-segregated-redox-zones-with-a-microbial-electrochemical-snorkel-triggers-biogeochemical-cycles-in-oil-contaminated-river-tyne-uk-sediments
#8
Carolina Cruz Viggi, Bruna Matturro, Emanuela Frascadore, Susanna Insogna, Alessio Mezzi, Saulius Kaciulis, Angela Sherry, Obioma K Mejeha, Ian M Head, Eleni Vaiopoulou, Korneel Rabaey, Simona Rossetti, Federico Aulenta
Marine sediments represent an important sink for a number of anthropogenic organic contaminants, including petroleum hydrocarbons following an accidental oil spill. Degradation of these compounds largely depends on the activity of sedimentary microbial communities linked to biogeochemical cycles, in which abundant elements such as iron and sulfur are shuttled between their oxidized and reduced forms. Here we show that introduction of a small electrically conductive graphite rod ("the electrochemical snorkel") into an oil-contaminated River Tyne (UK) sediment, so as to create an electrochemical connection between the anoxic contaminated sediment and the oxygenated overlying water, has a large impact on the rate of metabolic reactions taking place in the bulk sediment...
October 3, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018816/comparative-evaluation-between-sulfasalazine-alone-and-in-combination-with-herbal-medicine-on-dss-induced-ulcerative-colitis-mice
#9
Mi-Rae Shin, Kyeong Jo Kim, Soo Hyun Kim, Su Ji Kim, Bu-Il Seo, Hyo-Jin An, Seong-Soo Roh
The present study aimed to investigate the comparative evaluation of pharmacological efficacy between sulfasalazine alone and sulfasalazine in combination with herbal medicine on dextran sodium sulfate- (DSS-) induced UC in mice. Balb/c mice received 5% DSS in drinking water for 7 days to induce colitis. Animals were divided into five groups (n = 9): Group I (normal group), Group II (DSS control group), Group III (DSS + sulfasalazine (30 mg/kg)), Group IV (DSS + sulfasalazine (60 mg/kg)), and Group V (DSS + sulfasalazine (30 mg/kg) + Cinnamomi Cortex and Bupleuri Radix mixture (30 mg/kg) (SCB))...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018418/microbial-diversity-in-a-hypersaline-sulfate-lake-a-terrestrial-analog-of-ancient-mars
#10
Alexandra Pontefract, Ting F Zhu, Virginia K Walker, Holli Hepburn, Clarissa Lui, Maria T Zuber, Gary Ruvkun, Christopher E Carr
Life can persist under severe osmotic stress and low water activity in hypersaline environments. On Mars, evidence for the past presence of saline bodies of water is prevalent and resulted in the widespread deposition of sulfate and chloride salts. Here we investigate Spotted Lake (British Columbia, Canada), a hypersaline lake with extreme (>3 M) levels of sulfate salts as an exemplar of the conditions thought to be associated with ancient Mars. We provide the first characterization of microbial structure in Spotted Lake sediments through metagenomic sequencing, and report a bacteria-dominated community with abundant Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes, as well as diverse extremophiles...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016740/a-novel-fibroblast-growth-factor-1-ligand-with-reduced-heparin-binding-protects-the-heart-against-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-the-presence-of-heparin-co-administration
#11
Chahua Huang, Yang Liu, Andrew Beenken, Lin Jiang, Xiang Gao, Zhifeng Huang, Anna Hsu, Garrett J Gross, Yi-Gang Wang, Moosa Mohammadi, Jo El J Schultz
Aims: Fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1), a heparin/heparan sulfate-binding growth factor, is a potent cardioprotective agent against myocardial infarction (MI). The impact of heparin, the standard of care for MI patients entering the emergency room, on cardioprotective effects of FGF1 is unknown, however. Methods and results: To address this, a rat model of MI was employed to compare cardioprotective potentials (lower infarct size and improve post-ischemic function) of native FGF1 and an engineered FGF1 (FGF1ΔHBS) with reduced heparin-binding affinity when given at the onset of reperfusion in the absence or presence of heparin...
September 7, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016732/regulation-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-calcification-by-syndecan-4-fgf-2-pkc%C3%AE-signaling-and-cross-talk-with-tgf%C3%AE
#12
Samantha J Borland, Thomas G Morris, Shona C Borland, Mark R Morgan, Sheila E Francis, Catherine L R Merry, Ann E Canfield
Aims: Vascular calcification is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) plays an instructive role in osteogenesis and bone development, but its role in vascular calcification was unknown. Therefore, we investigated the involvement of FGF-2 in vascular calcification and determined the mechanism by which it regulates this process. Methods and Results: We demonstrate that FGF-2 expression is increased in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) induced to deposit a mineralized matrix by incubation with β-glycerophosphate...
September 6, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992483/impacts-of-inorganic-anions-and-natural-organic-matter-on-thermally-activated-persulfate-oxidation-of-btex-in-water
#13
Jie Ma, Yongqi Yang, Xianchenghao Jiang, Zhuoting Xie, Xiaoxuan Li, Changzhao Chen, Hongkun Chen
The present study investigated the impacts of water matrix constituents (CO3(2-), HCO3(-), Cl(-), Br(-), PO4(3-), HPO4(2-), H2PO4(-), NO3(-), SO4(2-) and natural organic matters (NOM) on the oxidation of a mixture of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) by thermally activated persulfate (PS). In the absence of matrix constituents, the BTEX oxidation rates decreased in the following order: xylenes > toluene ≈ ethylbenzene > benzene. HCO3(-)/CO3(2-) and NOM inhibited the BTEX oxidation and the inhibiting effects became more pronounced as the HCO3(-)/CO3(2-)/NOM concentration increased...
September 30, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992067/the-uremic-toxin-indoxyl-sulfate-interferes-with-iron-metabolism-by-regulating-hepcidin-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#14
Hirofumi Hamano, Yasumasa Ikeda, Hiroaki Watanabe, Yuya Horinouchi, Yuki Izawa-Ishizawa, Masaki Imanishi, Yoshito Zamami, Kenshi Takechi, Licht Miyamoto, Keisuke Ishizawa, Koichiro Tsuchiya, Toshiaki Tamaki
Background: Hepcidin secreted by hepatocytes is a key regulator of iron metabolism throughout the body. Hepcidin concentrations are increased in chronic kidney disease (CKD), contributing to abnormalities in iron metabolism. Levels of indoxyl sulfate (IS), a uremic toxin, are also elevated in CKD. However, the effect of IS accumulation on iron metabolism remains unclear. Methods: We used HepG2 cells to determine the mechanism by which IS regulates hepcidin concentrations...
August 23, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991483/vasoactive-intestinal-peptide-nanomedicine-for-the-management-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#15
Dulari Jayawardena, Arivarasu N Anbazhagan, Grace Guzman, Pradeep K Dudeja, Hayat Onyuksel
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic relapsing disorder of the intestine, with increasing incidence worldwide. At present, the management of IBD is an unmet medical need due to the ineffectiveness of currently available drugs in treating all patients and there is strong demand for novel therapeutics. In this regard, vasoactive intestinal peptide, a potent anti-inflammatory endogenous hormone, has shown promise in managing multiple immune disorders in animal models. However, when administered in the free form, VIP undergoes rapid degradation in vivo, and with continuous infusion, causes severe dose limiting side effects...
October 9, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990146/a-preliminary-study-to-design-a-floating-treatment-wetland-for-remediating-acid-mine-drainage-impacted-water-using-vetiver-grass-chrysopogon-zizanioides
#16
Jeffrey D Kiiskila, Dibyendu Sarkar, Kailey A Feuerstein, Rupali Datta
Acid mine drainage (AMD) is extremely acidic, sulfate-rich effluent from abandoned or active mine sites that also contain elevated levels of heavy metals. Untreated AMD can contaminate surface and groundwater and pose severe ecological risk. Both active and passive methods have been developed for AMD treatment consisting of abiotic and biological techniques. Abiotic techniques are expensive and can create large amounts of secondary wastes. Passive biological treatment mainly consists of aerobic or anaerobic constructed wetlands...
October 8, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990100/low-molecular-weight-heparin-may-benefit-nephrotic-remission-in-steroid%C3%A2-sensitive-nephrotic-syndrome-via-inhibiting-elastase
#17
Songhui Zhai, Lijuan Hu, Lin Zhong, Yuhong Tao, Zheng Wang
Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) has a structure similar to heparan sulfate, which exerts anti‑inflammatory effects via inhibiting elastase (Ela) activity. Release of Ela along the glomerular capillary wall may induce glomerular injury and proteinuria. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of LMWH on steroid‑sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS) and the potential underlying mechanism. A total of 40 SSNS patients and 20 healthy controls were recruited. SSNS patients were treated with LMWH and prednisone simultaneously (LMWH+pred group) or with prednisone alone (pred group)...
October 3, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990084/neuroprotective-effect-of-chondroitin-sulfate-on-sh%C3%A2-sy5y-cells-overexpressing-wild%C3%A2-type-or-a53t-mutant-%C3%AE-%C3%A2-synuclein
#18
Chuanxia Ju, Jianjun Gao, Lin Hou, Lei Wang, Fang Zhang, Fusheng Sun, Tingting Zhang, Pingping Xu, Zhenyan Shi, Fang Hu, Congxiao Zhang
Accumulation of α‑synuclein (α‑SYN) is a common pathology for Parkinson's disease (PD). There is abundant evidence that the toxic‑gain‑of‑function of α‑SYN's is associated with aggregation and consequent effects. To assess the potential of chondroitin sulfate (CS) in this regard, the present study investigated its neuroprotective on SH‑SY5Y cells overexpressing wild‑type (WT) or A53T mutant α‑SYN. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay. Apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane potential were detected by flow cytometry...
October 4, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989827/recovery-of-volatile-fatty-acids-from-fermented-wastewater-by-adsorption
#19
Ehsan Reyhanitash, Sascha R A Kersten, Boelo Schuur
Separation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from fermented wastewater is challenging, due to low VFA concentrations in mineral-rich streams. As a result, separation capacity and selectivity with traditional solvents and adsorbents are both compromised. In this study, using a complex artificial model solution mimicking real fermented wastewaters, it is shown that a simple and robust adsorption-based separation technique can retain a remarkable capacity and selectivity for VFAs. Four types of polystyrene-divinylbenzene-based resins (primary, secondary, and tertiary amine-functionalized, and nonfunctionalized) were examined as the adsorbents...
October 2, 2017: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989102/comparative-evaluation-of-electrospraying-and-lyophilization-techniques-on-solid-state-properties-of-erlotinib-nanocrystals-assessment-of-in-vitro-cytotoxicity
#20
Shreya Thakkar, Dilip Sharma, Manju Misra
INTRODUCTION: Erlotinib is a well known FDA approved drug from category of tyrosine kinase inhibitors; used for the treatment of lung cancer. However its use is limited because of its poor water solubility. OBJECTIVE: The aim of present work was to improve solubility by developing a stable nanocrystal based drug delivery system of ERL with the aid of sodium lauryl sulfate as potential stabilizer and to carry out comparative evaluation of electrospraying and lyophilization as solidification techniques on its solid state properties...
October 6, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
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