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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910779/survival-and-energy-producing-strategies-of-alkane-degraders-under-extreme-conditions-and-their-biotechnological-potential
#1
REVIEW
Chulwoo Park, Woojun Park
Many petroleum-polluted areas are considered as extreme environments because of co-occurrence of low and high temperatures, high salt, and acidic and anaerobic conditions. Alkanes, which are major constituents of crude oils, can be degraded under extreme conditions, both aerobically and anaerobically by bacteria and archaea of different phyla. Alkane degraders possess exclusive metabolic pathways and survival strategies, which involve the use of protein and RNA chaperones, compatible solutes, biosurfactants, and exopolysaccharide production for self-protection during harsh environmental conditions such as oxidative and osmotic stress, and ionic nutrient-shortage...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909454/inhibition-of-toll-like-receptor-4-tlr-4-improves-neurobehavioral-outcomes-after-acute-ischemic-stroke-in-diabetic-rats-possible-role-of-vascular-endothelial-tlr-4
#2
Yasir Abdul, Mohammed Abdelsaid, Weiguo Li, R Clinton Webb, Jennifer C Sullivan, Guangkuo Dong, Adviye Ergul
Diabetes increases the risk of occurrence and poor functional recovery after ischemic stroke injury. Previously, we have demonstrated greater hemorrhagic transformation (HT), edema, and more severe functional deficits after stroke in diabetic animals that also presented with cerebral vasoregression and endothelial cell death in the recovery period. Given that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) activation in microvascular endothelial cells triggers a robust inflammatory response, we hypothesized that inhibition of TLR-4 signaling prevents endothelial cell death and improves outcomes after stroke...
June 16, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908747/mercury-in-soil-vegetable-and-human-hair-in-a-typical-mining-area-in-china-implication-for-human-exposure
#3
Qin Jia, Xuemei Zhu, Yaqiong Hao, Ziliang Yang, Qi Wang, Haihui Fu, Hongjin Yu
Concentrations of total mercury (T-Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in soil, vegetables, and human hair were measured in a mercury mining area in central China. T-Hg and MeHg concentrations in soil ranged from 1.53 to 1054.97mg/kg and 0.88 to 46.52μg/kg, respectively. T-Hg concentrations was correlated with total organic carbon (TOC) content (R2 =0.50, p<0.01) and pH values (R2 =0.21, p<0.05). A significant linear relationship was observed between MeHg concentrations and the abundance of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) (R2 =0...
June 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907869/bves-is-required-for-maintenance-of-colonic-epithelial-integrity-in-experimental-colitis-by-modifying-intestinal-permeability
#4
Yash A Choksi, Vishruth K Reddy, Kshipra Singh, Caitlyn W Barrett, Sarah P Short, Bobak Parang, Cody E Keating, Joshua J Thompson, Thomas G Verriere, Rachel E Brown, M Blanca Piazuelo, David M Bader, M Kay Washington, Mukul K Mittal, Thomas Brand, Alain P Gobert, Lori A Coburn, Keith T Wilson, Christopher S Williams
Blood vessel epicardial substance (BVES), or POPDC1, is a tight junction-associated transmembrane protein that modulates epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) via junctional signaling pathways. There have been no in vivo studies investigating the role of BVES in colitis. We hypothesized that BVES is critical for maintaining colonic epithelial integrity. At baseline, Bves -/- mouse colons demonstrate increased crypt height, elevated proliferation, decreased apoptosis, altered intestinal lineage allocation, and dysregulation of tight junctions with functional deficits in permeability and altered intestinal immunity...
June 15, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907528/identification-and-characterization-of-the-fucoidanase-gene-from-luteolibacter-algae-h18
#5
Tatsuhiko Nagao, Yoshihito Arai, Mika Yamaoka, Fumika Komatsu, Hisashi Yagi, Hirokazu Suzuki, Takashi Ohshiro
Fucoidan is a hetero-sulfated polysaccharide found in brown algae and has received much attention as an ingredient in functional and health foods. The marine bacterial strain Luteolibacter algae H18 degrades fucoidan from Cladosiphon okamuranus. We purified the fucoidanase from a cell-free extract of L. algae H18, used it to decrease the molecular weight of deacetylated-fucoidan, determined the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the enzyme, and identified the gene involved in the degradation of fucoidan, fct114, in a draft genome sequence of strain H18...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907361/mesenchymal-stem-cell-expression-of-interleukin-35-protects-against-ulcerative-colitis-by-suppressing-mucosal-immune-responses
#6
Yongjia Yan, Na Zhao, Xianghui He, Hao Guo, Zhixiang Zhang, Tong Liu
BACKGROUND: Interleukin-35 (IL-35) has recently been identified as an immunosuppressive cytokine that has been used as a potential therapy for chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. However, there remains a paucity of data regarding its potential benefits after integration into mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). METHODS: We used a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mice model and treated them with IL-35-MSCs, MSCs or saline. The body weight was recorded daily and inflammatory processes were determined...
June 12, 2018: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904710/assessment-of-groundwater-quality-by-water-quality-indices-for-irrigation-and-drinking-in-south-west-delhi-india
#7
Sanigdha Acharya, S K Sharma, Vinita Khandegar
Groundwater quality should be continuously monitored for irrigation and drinking purpose so that risk from geochemical contaminants can be reduced by appropriate treatment method. Therefore, the focus of the present study was to determine the suitability of groundwater collected from South West Delhi, India, for irrigation and drinking purpose on the basis of various water quality indices. In order to assess the groundwater quality, 50 samples were collected from different sites of selected study area and parameters such as pH, EC (electrical conductivity), total dissolved solids (TDS), salinity, total hardness (TH), total alkalinity (HCO3 - ), calcium (Ca+2 ), magnesium (Mg+2 ), sodium (Na+ ), potassium (K+ ), chloride (Cl- ), Fluoride (F- ), sulfates (SO4 -2 ) and Nitrates (NO3 - ) were determined...
June 2018: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904348/berberine-regulates-treg-th17-balance-to-treat-ulcerative-colitis-through-modulating-the-gut-microbiota-in-the-colon
#8
Huantian Cui, Yuzi Cai, Li Wang, Beitian Jia, Junchen Li, Shuwu Zhao, Xiaoqian Chu, Jin Lin, Xiaoyu Zhang, Yuhong Bian, Pengwei Zhuang
Berberine (BBR), an alkaloid isolated from Rhizoma Coptidis, Cortex Phellode , and Berberis , has been widely used in the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). However, the mechanism of BBR on UC is unknown. In this study, we investigated the activities of T regulatory cell (Treg) and T helper 17 cell (Th17) in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced UC mouse model after BBR administration. We also investigated the changes of gut microbiota composition using 16S rRNA analysis. We also examined whether BBR could regulate the Treg/Th17 balance by modifying gut microbiota...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904166/pharmacological-activation-of-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-signaling-inhibits-colitis-associated-cancer-in-mice
#9
Philip E Dubé, Cambrian Y Liu, Nandini Girish, M Kay Washington, D Brent Polk
Current treatments for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) target the overactive immune response of the intestinal mucosa. However, epidermal growth factor (EGF), an activating ligand of the EGF receptor (EGFR), has been shown to induce disease remission through direct targeting of intestinal mucosal healing. Despite promising preclinical and clinical results, this EGFR-activating therapy has not progressed, in part due to the potential for carcinogenesis associated with long-term use and the increased risk of colitis-associated cancer (CAC) in IBD...
June 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903730/mpo-myeloperoxidase-reduces-endothelial-glycocalyx-thickness-dependent-on-its-cationic-charge
#10
Kashish Manchanda, Hana Kolarova, Christina Kerkenpaß, Martin Mollenhauer, Jan Vitecek, Volker Rudolph, Lukas Kubala, Stephan Baldus, Matti Adam, Anna Klinke
OBJECTIVE: The leukocyte heme-enzyme MPO (myeloperoxidase) exerts proinflammatory effects on the vascular system primarily linked to its catalytic properties. Recent studies have shown that MPO, depending on its cationic charge, mediates neutrophil recruitment and activation. Here, we further investigated MPO's extracatalytic properties and its effect on endothelial glycocalyx (EG) integrity. APPROACH AND RESULTS: In vivo staining of murine cremaster muscle vessels with Alcian Blue 8GX provided evidence of an MPO-dependent decrease in anionic charge of the EG...
June 14, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901817/nicotine-treatment-ameliorates-dss-induced-colitis-by-suppressing-madcam-1-expression-and-leukocyte-recruitment
#11
Koji Maruta, Chikako Watanabe, Hideaki Hozumi, Chie Kurihara, Hirotaka Furuhashi, Takeshi Takajo, Yoshikiyo Okada, Kazuhiko Shirakabe, Masaaki Higashiyama, Shunsuke Komoto, Kengo Tomita, Shigeaki Nagao, Toshiaki Ishizuka, Soichiro Miura, Ryota Hokari
The enhanced recruitment of leukocytes to the inflamed colon is a key feature of ulcerative colitis (UC). The gut-specific adhesion molecules involved in leukocyte recruitment have emerged as recent therapeutic targets. Nicotine absorbed from smoking has been reported to work protectively in UC patients. Our hypothesis is that nicotine may suppress the aberrant leukocyte recruitment and colonic inflammation via the suppression of the overexpressed gut-specific adhesion molecules in the inflamed colon. To test this hypothesis, the severity of colitis and the degree of leukocyte recruitment induced by gut-specific adhesion molecules were assessed in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis mice (C57BL/6J mice treated with 3% DSS) with or without nicotine treatment...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901086/exclusive-enteral-nutrition-protects-against-inflammatory-bowel-disease-by-inhibiting-nf%C3%A2-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation-through-regulation-of-the-p38-msk1-pathway
#12
Ting Yu, Qian Yu, Xiaotian Chen, Lixing Zhou, Yuming Wang, Chenggong Yu
Although enteral nutrition therapy for inflammatory bowel disease has been confirmed to be an effective treatment method, the exact mechanism responsible for the effects of enteral nutrition remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) against colitis, and to elucidate the potential mechanisms by inhibiting p65 activation via regulating the p38/mitogen‑ and stress‑activated protein kinase‑1 (MSK1) pathway. Experiments were performed by establishing dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)‑mice colitis and picrylsulfonic acid solution (TNBS)‑induced rat colitis, and the results demonstrated that EEN treatment attenuated body weight loss, colon length shortening and colonic pathological damage caused by colitis...
June 4, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899690/increased-excitability-and-reduced-excitatory-synaptic-input-into-fast-spiking-ca2-interneurons-after-enzymatic-attenuation-of-extracellular-matrix
#13
Hussam Hayani, Inseon Song, Alexander Dityatev
The neural extracellular matrix (ECM) is enriched with hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) and the glycoprotein tenascin-R, which play important roles in synaptic plasticity, as shown by studies of the CA1 region of the hippocampus. However, ECM molecules are strongly expressed in the CA2 region, which harbors a high number of fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs) surrounded by a particularly condensed form of ECM, perineuronal nets. Despite this intriguing peculiarity, the functional role of ECM in the CA2 region is mostly unknown...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897487/dietary-red-raspberry-reduces-colorectal-inflammation-and-carcinogenic-risk-in-mice-with-dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced-colitis
#14
Shima Bibi, Min Du, Mei-Jun Zhu
Background: Ulcerative colitis causes recurring intestinal mucosal injury and sustained inflammation, increasing the likelihood of colorectal cancer (CRC) development. Dietary red raspberry (RB) is a rich source of phytonutrients known to have anti-inflammatory activity; however, the role of RB on CRC prevention in chronic colitis has not been examined. Objective: This study examined the effects of dietary RB supplementation on inflammation, epithelium repair, and oncogenic signaling in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced chronic colitis in mice...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896693/western-blot-methodologies-for-analysis-of-in-vitro-protein-expression-induced-by-teratogenic-agents
#15
Carlos Martins-Gomes, Amélia M Silva
Western blotting permits immunodetection, characterization, and quantification of proteins in cell (or tissue) homogenates. It also enables detection of protein modification (e.g., phosphorylation) or degradation (e.g., hydrolysis), even at low abundance. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel is used to separate proteins from homogenate which are then transferred electrophoretically to polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membranes. After membrane "blocking," to reduce nonspecific binding, proteins of interest are detected using specific antibodies (antigen detection), which are then bound to a secondary antibody linked to a label (e...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896300/pias3-mediated-feedback-loops-promote-chronic-colitis-associated-malignant-transformation
#16
Junting Ma, Yaping Yang, Yong Fu, Feilong Guo, Xiaoyi Zhang, Shuke Xiao, Weiming Zhu, Zhen Huang, Junfeng Zhang, Jiangning Chen
Rationale: Colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC) usually exhibits an accelerated disease progression, an increased resistance to therapeutic drugs and a higher mortality rate than sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC). PIAS3 is a member of the protein inhibitor of activated STAT (PIAS) family; however, little is known about the expression and biological functions of PIAS3 in CAC. The aim of our study was to investigate the biological mechanisms of PIAS3 in CAC. Methods: PIAS3 expression was examined in colon tissues of CAC/CRC patients and azoxymethane-dextran sulfate sodium (AOM-DSS)-induced mice...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896236/effects-of-compound-danshen-injection-combined-with-magnesium-sulfate-on-serum-mpo-and-hs-crp-in-patients-with-severe-preeclampsia
#17
Kun Yang, Gaoxia Dong, Ying Tian, Jian Li
Effects of compound Danshen injection combined with magnesium sulfate on serum myeloperoxidase (MPO) and hypersensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in patients with severe preeclampsia (PE) were investigated. Five hundred patients with severe PE were randomly divided into early-onset observation, early-onset control, late-onset observation and late-onset control groups. Control group was treated with magnesium sulfate, while patients in observation group were treated with magnesium sulfate combined with compound Danshen injection...
July 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29894929/anaerobic-biodegradation-of-pharmaceutical-compounds-new-insights-into-the-pharmaceutical-degrading-bacteria
#18
Mónica Martins, Sandra Sanches, Inês A C Pereira
Antibiotics and hormones are among the most concerning trace contaminants in the environment. Therefore, the present work aimed to identify anaerobic microorganisms with the ability to remove pharmaceutical products (PhPs) belonging to these two classes (ciprofloxacin, 17β-estradiol and sulfamethoxazole) under different anaerobic conditions, and to elucidate the bio-removal mechanisms involved. Ciprofloxacin was efficiently biodegraded under both nitrate- and sulfate-reducing conditions reaching a PhP removal superior to 80%, whereas 17β-estradiol was only biodegraded under nitrate-reducing conditions reaching a removal of 84%...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893726/sulfide-production-kinetics-and-model-of-stormwater-retention-ponds
#19
P M D'Aoust, F R Pick, R Wang, A Poulain, C Rennie, L Chen, C Kinsley, R Delatolla
Stormwater retention ponds can play a critical role in mitigating the detrimental effects of urbanization on receiving waters that result from increases in polluted runoff. However, the benthic oxygen demand of stormwater facilities may cause significant hypoxia and trigger the production of hydrogen sulfide (H2 S). This process is not well-documented and further research is needed to characterize benthic processes in stormwater retention ponds in order to improve their design and operation. In this study, sediment oxygen demand (SOD), sediment ammonia release (SAR) and sediment sulfide production (SSP) kinetics were characterized in situ and in the laboratory...
June 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893125/direct-electrochemical-observation-of-single-platinum-cluster-electrocatalysis-on-ultramicroelectrodes
#20
Matthew W Glasscott, Jeffrey E Dick
We demonstrate a method to electrodeposit and observe the electrocatalysis of small platinum clusters and nanoparticles (NPs) in real time as they form on an ultramicroelectrode (UME). Water droplets ( rdrop ∼ 700 nm), stabilized by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), were suspended in a solution of dichloromethane (DCM) and tetrabutylammonium perchlorate ([TBA][ClO4 ]), which was used to mitigate charge balance during droplet electrolysis. When droplets collided with an UME biased sufficiently negative to drive water reduction, large blips of current were observed...
June 13, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
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