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Sebastian Keller, Aaron Treder, Stephan H von Reuss, Jorge C Escalante-Semerena, Torsten Schubert
UNLABELLED: The tetrachloroethene (PCE)-respiring bacterium Sulfurospirillum multivorans produces a unique cobamide, namely, norpseudo-B12, which, in comparison to other cobamides, e.g., cobalamin and pseudo-B12, lacks the methyl group in the linker moiety of the nucleotide loop. In this study, the protein SMUL_1544 was shown to be responsible for the formation of the unusual linker moiety, which is most probably derived from ethanolamine-phosphate (EA-P) as the precursor. The product of the SMUL_1544 gene successfully complemented a Salmonella enterica ΔcobD mutant...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
Paulina Deptula, Petri Kylli, Bhawani Chamlagain, Liisa Holm, Risto Kostiainen, Vieno Piironen, Kirsi Savijoki, Pekka Varmanen
BACKGROUND: Propionibacterium freudenreichii is a food grade bacterium that has gained attention as a producer of appreciable amounts of cobalamin, a cobamide with activity of vitamin B12. Production of active form of vitamin is a prerequisite for attempts to naturally fortify foods with B12 by microbial fermentation. Active vitamin B12 is distinguished from the pseudovitamin by the presence of 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (DMBI) as the lower ligand. Genomic data indicate that P. freudenreichii possesses a fusion gene, bluB/cobT2, coding for a predicted phosphoribosyltransferase/nitroreductase, which is presumably involved in production of vitamin B12...
November 23, 2015: Microbial Cell Factories
Jun Yan, Burcu Şimşir, Abigail T Farmer, Meng Bi, Yi Yang, Shawn R Campagna, Frank E Löffler
Corrinoid auxotrophic organohalide-respiring Dehalococcoides mccartyi (Dhc) strains are keystone bacteria for reductive dechlorination of toxic and carcinogenic chloroorganic contaminants. We demonstrate that the lower base attached to the essential corrinoid cofactor of reductive dehalogenase (RDase) enzyme systems modulates dechlorination activity and affects the vinyl chloride (VC) RDases BvcA and VcrA differently. Amendment of 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazolyl-cobamide (DMB-Cba) to Dhc strain BAV1 and strain GT cultures supported cis-1,2-dichloroethene-to-ethene reductive dechlorination at rates of 107...
May 2016: ISME Journal
Kiran K Singarapu, Michele M Otte, Marco Tonelli, William M Westler, Jorge C Escalante-Semerena, John L Markley
GTP:adenosylcobinamide-phosphate (AdoCbi-P) guanylyl transferase (CobY) is an enzyme that transfers the GMP moiety of GTP to AdoCbi yielding AdoCbi-GDP in the late steps of the assembly of Ado-cobamides in archaea. The failure of repeated attempts to crystallize ligand-free (apo) CobY prompted us to explore its 3D structure by solution NMR spectroscopy. As reported here, the solution structure has a mixed α/β fold consisting of seven β-strands and five α-helices, which is very similar to a Rossmann fold...
2015: PloS One
Amrita B Hazra, Andrew W Han, Angad P Mehta, Kenny C Mok, Vadim Osadchiy, Tadhg P Begley, Michiko E Taga
Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is required by humans and other organisms for diverse metabolic processes, although only a subset of prokaryotes is capable of synthesizing B12 and other cobamide cofactors. The complete aerobic and anaerobic pathways for the de novo biosynthesis of B12 are known, with the exception of the steps leading to the anaerobic biosynthesis of the lower ligand, 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (DMB). Here, we report the identification and characterization of the complete pathway for anaerobic DMB biosynthesis...
August 25, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Terence S Crofts, Yujie Men, Lisa Alvarez-Cohen, Michiko E Taga
Cobamides are a family of enzyme cofactors that include vitamin B12 (cobalamin) and are produced solely by prokaryotes. Structural variability in the lower axial ligand has been observed in cobamides produced by diverse organisms. Of the three classes of lower ligands, the benzimidazoles are uniquely found in cobamides, whereas the purine and phenolic bases have additional biological functions. Many organisms acquire cobamides by salvaging and remodeling cobamides or their precursors from the environment. These processes require free benzimidazoles for incorporation as lower ligands, though the presence of benzimidazoles in the environment has not been previously investigated...
2014: Frontiers in Microbiology
Terence S Crofts, Amrita B Hazra, Jennifer L A Tran, Olga M Sokolovskaya, Vadim Osadchiy, Omer Ad, Jeffrey Pelton, Stefan Bauer, Michiko E Taga
Cobamides, which include vitamin B₁₂ (cobalamin), are a class of modified tetrapyrroles synthesized exclusively by prokaryotes that function as cofactors for diverse biological processes. Cobamides contain a centrally bound cobalt ion that coordinates to upper and lower axial ligands. The lower ligand is covalently linked to a phosphoribosyl moiety through an alpha-glycosidic bond formed by the CobT enzyme. CobT can catalyze the phosphoribosylation of a variety of substrates. We investigated the ability of CobT to act on either of two nitrogen atoms within a single, asymmetric benzimidazole substrate to form two isomeric riboside phosphate products...
December 16, 2014: Biochemistry
A Brito, J Chiquette, S P Stabler, R H Allen, C L Girard
Cobalamin (CBL), the biologically active form of vitamin B12, and its analogs, are produced by bacteria only if cobalt supply is adequate. The analogs differ generally by the nucleotide moiety of the molecule. In CBL, 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (5,6-DMB) is the base in the nucleotide moiety. The present study aimed to determine if a supplement of 5,6-DMB could increase utilization of dietary cobalt for synthesis of CBL and change ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility, omasal flow of nutrients and ruminal protozoa counts...
January 2015: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Sruti DebRoy, Margo Gebbie, Arati Ramesh, Jonathan R Goodson, Melissa R Cruz, Ambro van Hoof, Wade C Winkler, Danielle A Garsin
The ethanolamine utilization (eut) locus of Enterococcus faecalis, containing at least 19 genes distributed over four polycistronic messenger RNAs, appears to be regulated by a single adenosyl cobalamine (AdoCbl)-responsive riboswitch. We report that the AdoCbl-binding riboswitch is part of a small, trans-acting RNA, EutX, which additionally contains a dual-hairpin substrate for the RNA binding-response regulator, EutV. In the absence of AdoCbl, EutX uses this structure to sequester EutV. EutV is known to regulate the eut messenger RNAs by binding dual-hairpin structures that overlap terminators and thus prevent transcription termination...
August 22, 2014: Science
Jiandong Chen, Susan Gottesman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 22, 2014: Science
J L Reay, M A Smith, L M Riby
A copious amount of scientific scrutiny has been dedicated to documenting typical and atypical human ageing, with a substantial body of work focusing upon the impact of lifestyle choices. One such lifestyle choice is that of diet and, in particular, micronutrient ingestion. Epidemiological studies have reported positive associations between B vitamin status and cognitive function, including negative associations between biological markers (i.e., homocysteine) of dysregulated one-carbon metabolism and cognitive function...
2013: ISRN Nutrition
Elizabeth Brunk, Whitney F Kellett, Nigel G J Richards, Ursula Rothlisberger
B₁₂-dependent enzymes employ radical species with exceptional prowess to catalyze some of the most chemically challenging, thermodynamically unfavorable reactions. However, dealing with highly reactive intermediates is an extremely demanding task, requiring sophisticated control strategies to prevent unwanted side reactions. Using hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical simulations, we follow the full catalytic cycle of an AdoB₁₂-dependent enzyme and present the details of a mechanism that utilizes a highly effective mechanochemical switch...
June 17, 2014: Biochemistry
Anita Mac Nelly, Marco Kai, Aleš Svatoš, Gabriele Diekert, Torsten Schubert
The anaerobic dehalogenation of organohalides is catalyzed by the reductive dehalogenase (RdhA) enzymes produced in phylogenetically diverse bacteria. These enzymes contain a cobamide cofactor at the active site and two iron-sulfur clusters. In this study, the tetrachloroethene (PCE) reductive dehalogenase (PceA) of the Gram-positive Desulfitobacterium hafniense strain Y51 was produced in a catalytically active form in the nondechlorinating, cobamide-producing bacterium Shimwellia blattae (ATCC 33430), a Gram-negative gammaproteobacterium...
July 2014: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Vikhyat S Bebarta, David A Tanen, Susan Boudreau, Maria Castaneda, Lee A Zarzabal, Toni Vargas, Gerry R Boss
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Hydroxocobalamin is a Food and Drug Administration-approved antidote for cyanide poisoning. Cobinamide is a potential antidote that contains 2 cyanide-binding sites. To our knowledge, no study has directly compared hydroxocobalamin with cobinamide in a severe, cyanide-toxic large-animal model. Our objective is to compare the time to return of spontaneous breathing in swine with acute cyanide-induced apnea treated with intravenous hydroxocobalamin, intravenous cobinamide, or saline solution (control)...
December 2014: Annals of Emergency Medicine
Koichi Mori, Toshihiro Oiwa, Satoshi Kawaguchi, Kyosuke Kondo, Yusuke Takahashi, Tetsuo Toraya
Ethanolamine ammonia-lyase (EAL) catalyzes the adenosylcobalamin-dependent conversion of ethanolamine to acetaldehyde and ammonia. 1-OH of the substrate is hydrogen-bonded with Gluα287, Argα160, and Asnα193 and 2-NH2 with Gluα287, Glnα162, and Aspα362. The active site somewhat resembles that of diol dehydratase. All five residues were important for the high-affinity binding of the substrate and for catalysis. The -COO(-) group at residue α287 was absolutely required for activity and coenzyme Co-C bond cleavage, and there was a spatially optimal position for it, suggesting that Gluα287 contributes to Co-C bond homolysis, stabilizes the transition state for the migration of NH2 from C2 to C1 through partial deprotonation of spectator OH, and functions as a base in the elimination of ammonia...
April 29, 2014: Biochemistry
Amarendra Nath Maity, Yung-Han Chen, Shyue-Chu Ke
Lysine 5,6-aminomutase (5,6-LAM) and ornithine 4,5-aminomutase (4,5-OAM) are two of the rare enzymes that use assistance of two vitamins as cofactors. These enzymes employ radical generating capability of coenzyme B12 (5'-deoxyadenosylcobalamin, dAdoCbl) and ability of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP, vitamin B6) to stabilize high-energy intermediates for performing challenging 1,2-amino rearrangements between adjacent carbons. A large-scale domain movement is required for interconversion between the catalytically inactive open form and the catalytically active closed form...
February 20, 2014: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Sebastian Keller, Markus Ruetz, Cindy Kunze, Bernhard Kräutler, Gabriele Diekert, Torsten Schubert
Corrinoid-dependent reductive dehalogenation is mediated by phylogenetically diverse anaerobic bacteria that either synthesize corrinoids de novo or are dependent on corrinoid salvaging from the environment. The tetrachloroethene (PCE) reductive dehalogenase (PceA) of the Gram-negative Epsilonproteobacterium Sulfurospirillum multivorans harbours a norpseudo-B12 as corrinoid cofactor. Norpseudo-B12 differs from coenzyme B12 in the nucleotide loop structure. Adenine instead of 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (DMB) serves as lower ligand base of the central cobalt ion, and the nucleotide loop of norpseudo-B12 lacks a methyl group at position 176...
November 2014: Environmental Microbiology
Gabriel D Román-Meléndez, Patrick von Glehn, Jeremy N Harvey, Adrian J Mulholland, E Neil G Marsh
Adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl) serves as a source of reactive free radicals that are generated by homolytic scission of the coenzyme's cobalt-carbon bond. AdoCbl-dependent enzymes accelerate AdoCbl homolysis by ∼10(12)-fold, but the mechanism by which this is accomplished remains unclear. We have combined experimental and computational approaches to gain molecular-level insight into this process for glutamate mutase. Two residues, glutamate 330 and lysine 326, form hydrogen bonds with the adenosyl group of the coenzyme...
January 14, 2014: Biochemistry
Pallavi K Choudhary, Roland K O Sigel
Mg(2+) has been shown to modulate the function of riboswitches by facilitating the ligand-riboswitch interactions. The btuB riboswitch from Escherichia coli undergoes a conformational change upon binding to its ligand, coenzyme B12 (adenosyl-cobalamine, AdoCbl), and down-regulates the expression of the B12 transporter protein BtuB in order to control the cellular levels of AdoCbl. Here, we discuss the structural folding attained by the btuB riboswitch from E. coli in response to Mg(2+) and how it affects the ligand binding competent conformation of the RNA...
January 2014: RNA
Chi Ho Chan, Sean A Newmister, Keenan Talyor, Kathy R Claas, Ivan Rayment, Jorge C Escalante-Semerena
BACKGROUND: Cobamide diversity arises from the nature of the nucleotide base. Nicotinate mononucleotide (NaMN):base phosphoribosyltransferases (CobT) synthesize α-linked riboside monophosphates from diverse nucleotide base substrates (e.g., benzimidazoles, purines, phenolics) that are incorporated into cobamides. METHODS: Structural investigations of two members of the CobT family of enzymes in complex with various substrate bases as well as in vivo and vitro activity analyses of enzyme variants were performed to elucidate the roles of key amino acid residues important for substrate recognition...
January 2014: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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