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chronic airway inflammation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915639/a-case-of-concomitant-obstructive-sleep-apnea-and-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-treated-with-cpap-therapy
#1
Bharat Bajantri, Dmitry Lvovsky
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is a disorder of sleep breathing that is a result of recurrent and intermittent hypoxia during sleep induced by the repeated partial or complete collapse of the upper airway, eventually causing chronic intermittent hypoxia. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is divided into non-alcoholic fatty liver and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Animal and human studies showed that obesity is associated with chronic liver hypoxia, even in the presence of systemic normoxia causing inflammation and release of cytokines...
June 2018: Gastroenterology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910732/bleomycin-aggravates-atopic-dermatitis-via-lung-inflammation-in-2-4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced-nc-nga-mice
#2
Yoon-Young Sung, Seung-Hyung Kim, Won-Kyung Yang, Yang-Chun Park, Ho Kyoung Kim
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease. Bleomycin (BLM) contributes to the induction of pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis in animals. Although skin and lung tissue inflammation is closely related in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases, a proper animal model for investigating the relationship between skin and lung inflammation is lacking. Therefore, we developed a mouse model of AD with relapsing dermatitis and pulmonary fibrosis caused by the administration of allergen and BLM. The present study determined whether lung injury caused by the bronchial application of BLM would exacerbate AD-like allergic inflammation induced by 2, 4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) in NC/Nga mice...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906340/sympatho-excitatory-response-to-pulmonary-chemosensitive-spinal-afferent-activation-in-anesthetized-vagotomized-rats
#3
Julia Shanks, Zhiqiu Xia, Steven J Lisco, George J Rozanski, Harold D Schultz, Irving H Zucker, Han-Jun Wang
The sensory innervation of the lung is well known to be innervated by nerve fibers of both vagal and sympathetic origin. Although the vagal afferent innervation of the lung has been well characterized, less is known about physiological effects mediated by spinal sympathetic afferent fibers. We hypothesized that activation of sympathetic spinal afferent nerve fibers of the lung would result in an excitatory pressor reflex, similar to that previously characterized in the heart. In this study, we evaluated changes in renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and hemodynamics in response to activation of TRPV1-sensitive pulmonary spinal sensory fibers by agonist application to the visceral pleura of the lung and by administration into the primary bronchus in anesthetized, bilaterally vagotomized, adult Sprague-Dawley rats...
June 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904584/new-targets-for-resolution-of-airway-remodeling-in-obstructive-lung-diseases
#4
REVIEW
Ajay P Nayak, Deepak A Deshpande, Raymond B Penn
Airway remodeling (AR) is a progressive pathological feature of the obstructive lung diseases, including asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The pathology manifests itself in the form of significant, progressive, and (to date) seemingly irreversible changes to distinct respiratory structural compartments. Consequently, AR correlates with disease severity and the gradual decline in pulmonary function associated with asthma and COPD. Although current asthma/COPD drugs manage airway contraction and inflammation, none of these effectively prevent or reverse features of AR...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890236/a-bispecific-antibody-strategy-to-target-multiple-type-2-cytokines-in-asthma
#5
Marie Godar, Kim Deswarte, Karl Vergote, Michael Saunders, Hans de Haard, Hamida Hammad, Christophe Blanchetot, Bart N Lambrecht
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disease in which innate and adaptive immune cells act together to cause eosinophilic inflammation, goblet cell metaplasia (GCM) and bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR). In clinical trials employing biologicals against interleukin (IL)-4Rα or IL-5, only a subset of moderate-to-severe asthmatics responded favorably, suggesting that distinct pathophysiological mechanisms are at play in subgroups of patients, called endotypes. However, the effect of multiple cytokine blockade using bispecific antibodies (Ab) has not been tested...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29887758/expansion-of-a-population-of-large-monocytes-atypical-monocytes-in-peripheral-blood-of-patients-with-acute-exacerbations-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-diseases
#6
Jing Yang, Man Qiao, Yanxia Li, Guohua Hu, Chunxia Song, Liping Xue, Hong Bai, Jie Yang, Xi Yang
Acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) is closely associated with airway inflammation including monocytes, lymphocytes, and neutrophils. Monocytes play an essential role in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). To elucidate the association of circulating monocyte alteration with AECOPD, we analyzed monocyte subpopulation in the peripheral blood of 16 healthy volunteers and 22 AECOPD patients at the stages of admission and remission after clinical therapy...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885366/increased-phosphorylation-of-enos-in-nasal-polyps-of-chronic-rhinosinusitis-patients-can-be-diminished-by-1-8-cineol
#7
Michael Koennecke, Frederick Benecke, Anja Masche, Robert Linke, Karl-Ludwig Bruchhage, Ralph Pries, Ludger Klimek, Barbara Wollenberg
INTRODUCTION: Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is a significant health problem, but the pathogenesis remains unclear to date. Nitric oxide (NO) has known airway modulating functions. Therefore, we investigated nitric oxide production to determine the role of eNOS in nasal polyps, with additional analysis of the effect of the monoterpene oxide 1,8-cineol on the possible regulation of eNOS signaling and thus NO production. METHODS: We determined eNOS expression, as well as regulatory and effector proteins like NOSTRIN and CASP8, using whole genome microarray, immunohistochemistry and western blot...
June 6, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29881388/eicosapentaenoic-acid-enhances-the-effects-of-mesenchymal-stromal-cell-therapy-in-experimental-allergic-asthma
#8
Soraia Carvalho Abreu, Miquéias Lopes-Pacheco, Adriana Lopes da Silva, Debora Gonçalves Xisto, Tainá Batista de Oliveira, Jamil Zola Kitoko, Lígia Lins de Castro, Natália Recardo Amorim, Vanessa Martins, Luisa H A Silva, Cassiano Felippe Gonçalves-de-Albuquerque, Hugo Caire de Castro Faria-Neto, Priscilla Christina Olsen, Daniel Jay Weiss, Marcelo Marcos Morales, Bruno Lourenço Diaz, Patricia Rieken Macêdo Rocco
Asthma is characterized by chronic lung inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness. Despite recent advances in the understanding of its pathophysiology, asthma remains a major public health problem and, at present, there are no effective interventions capable of reversing airway remodeling. Mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC)-based therapy mitigates lung inflammation in experimental allergic asthma; however, its ability to reduce airway remodeling is limited. We aimed to investigate whether pre-treatment with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) potentiates the therapeutic properties of MSCs in experimental allergic asthma...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29881387/a-decade-of-th9-cells-role-of-th9-cells-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#9
Shachi Pranjal Vyas, Ritobrata Goswami
T helper cell subsets play a critical role in providing protection against offending pathogens by secreting specific cytokines. However, unrestrained T helper cell responses can promote chronic inflammation-mediated inflammatory diseases. Dysregulated T helper cell responses have been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of multiple inflammatory diseases, including allergic airway inflammation, rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) among others. Aberrant pro-inflammatory responses induced by Th1, Th2, and Th17 subsets are known to trigger IBD...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29880387/azithromycin-fails-to-prevent-accelerated-airway-obliteration-in-t-bet-mouse-lung-allograft-recipients
#10
E A Lendermon, J M Dodd-O, T A Coon, X Wang, C R Ensor, N Cardenes, C L Koodray, H L Heusey, M F Bennewitz, P Sundd, G C Bullock, I Popescu, L Guo, C P O'Donnell, M Rojas, J F McDyer
BACKGROUND: Cellular and molecular mechanisms of acute and chronic lung allograft rejection have yet to be clearly defined, and obliterative bronchiolitis (OB) remains the primary limitation to survival in lung transplant recipients (LTRs). We have previously shown that T-bet-deficient recipients of full major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-mismatched, orthotopic left lung transplants develop accelerated obliterative airway disease (OAD) in the setting of acute cellular rejection characterized by robust alloimmune CD8+ interleukin (IL)-17 and interferon (IFN)-γ responses that are attenuated with neutralization of IL-17...
June 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879991/is-ige-or-eosinophils-the-key-player-in-allergic-asthma-pathogenesis-are-we-asking-the-right-question
#11
REVIEW
Andrea Matucci, Alessandra Vultaggio, Enrico Maggi, Ismail Kasujee
Bronchial asthma (BA) is a chronic inflammatory disease with a marked heterogeneity in pathophysiology and etiology. The heterogeneity of BA may be related to the inducing mechanism(s) (allergic vs non-allergic), the histopathological background (eosinophilic vs non-eosinophilic), and the clinical manifestations, particularly in terms of severity and frequency of exacerbations. Asthma can be divided into at least two different endotypes based on the degree of Th2 inflammation (T2 'high' and T2 'low'). For patients with severe uncontrolled asthma, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against immunoglobulin E (IgE) or interleukin (IL)-5 are now available as add-on treatments...
June 8, 2018: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29876234/association-of-the-mmp7-181a-g-promoter-polymorphism-with-early-onset-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#12
Tacheva T, Dimov D, Anastasov A, Zhelyazkova Y, Kurzawski M, Gulubova M, Drozdzik M, Vlaykova T
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by decreased air flow and is associated with abnormal chronic inflammation in the airways and extensive tissue remodeling. Matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP7) is produced primarily by the epithelium of many organs, including the lungs. A functional MMP7 -181A>G (rs11568818) promoter polymorphism influences the binding of nuclear regulatory proteins modulating the transcription of the gene. In this study, we genotyped 191 patients with COPD for MMP7 -181A>G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and 215 control subjects using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method and explored the role of that polymorphism as a risk factor for COPD...
December 2017: Balkan Journal of Medical Genetics: BJMG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875191/-pathogen-eradication-and-emerging-pathogens-difficult-definitions-in-cystic-fibrosis
#13
Peter H Gilligan, Damian G Downey, J Stuart Elborn, Patrick A Flume, Sebastian Funk, Deirdre Gilpin, Timothy J Kidd, John McCaughan, B Cherie Millar, Philip G Murphy, Jacqueline C Rendall, Michael M Tunney, John E Moore
Infection is a common complication of cystic fibrosis (CF) airways disease. Current treatment approaches include early intervention with the intent to eradicate pathogens in the hope of delaying development of chronic infection and chronic use of aerosolized antibiotics to suppress infection. The use of molecules that help restore CFTR function, modulate pulmonary inflammation, or improve pulmonary clearance, may also influence the microbial communities in the airways. As the pipeline of these new entities continues to expand, it is important to define when key pathogens are eradicated from the lungs of CF patients and equally important, when new pathogens might emerge as a result of these novel therapies...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29869791/precision-medicine-in-united-airways-disease-a-treatable-traits-approach
#14
REVIEW
Anthony Ca Yii, Tunn-Ren Tay, Xue Ning Choo, Mariko Sy Koh, Augustine Kh Tee, De-Yun Wang
United airways disease (UAD) is the concept that the upper and lower airways, which are anatomically and immunologically related, form a single organ. According to this concept, upper and lower airway diseases are frequently comorbid because they reflect manifestations of a single underlying disease at different sites of the respiratory tract. Allergic asthma-allergic rhinitis is the archetypal UAD, but emerging data indicate that UAD is a heterogeneous condition and consists of multiple phenotypes (observable clinical characteristics) and endotypes (pathobiologic mechanisms)...
June 5, 2018: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867994/dual-role-of-toll-like-receptors-in-human-and-experimental-asthma-models
#15
REVIEW
Amin Zakeri, Momtchilo Russo
Asthma is a chronic airway inflammatory disease that is influenced by the interplay between genetic factors and exposure to environmental allergens, microbes, or microbial products where toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a pivotal role. TLRs recognize a wide range of microbial or endogenous molecules as well as airborne environmental allergens and act as adjuvants that influence positively or negatively allergic sensitization. TLRs are qualitatively and differentially expressed on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic stromal or structural airway cells that when activated by TLRs agonists exert an immune-modulatory role in asthma development...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867575/dorsal-vagal-complex-modulates-neurogenic-airway-inflammation-in-a-guinea-pig-model-with-esophageal-perfusion-of-hcl
#16
Zhe Chen, Lejia Sun, Hui Chen, Dachuan Gu, Weitao Zhang, Zifeng Yang, Tao Peng, Rong Dong, Kefang Lai
Neurogenic airway inflammation in chronic cough and bronchial asthma related to gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is involved in the esophageal-bronchial reflex, but it is unclear whether this reflex is mediated by central neurons. This study aimed to investigate the regulatory effects of the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) on airway inflammation induced by the esophageal perfusion of hydrochloric acid (HCl) following the microinjection of nuclei in the DVC in guinea pigs. Airway inflammation was evaluated by measuring the extravasation of Evans blue dye (EBD) and substance P (SP) expression in the airway...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29862274/benralizumab-from-the-basic-mechanism-of-action-to-the-potential-use-in-the-biological-therapy-of-severe-eosinophilic-asthma
#17
REVIEW
Corrado Pelaia, Cecilia Calabrese, Alessandro Vatrella, Maria Teresa Busceti, Eugenio Garofalo, Nicola Lombardo, Rosa Terracciano, Girolamo Pelaia
Asthma is a very frequent chronic airway disease that includes many different clinical phenotypes and inflammatory patterns. In particular, eosinophilic bronchial inflammation is often associated with allergic as well as nonallergic asthma. The most important cytokine involved in the induction, maintenance, and amplification of airway eosinophilia in asthma is interleukin-5 (IL-5), released by both T helper 2 (Th2) lymphocytes and group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2). Hence, IL-5 and its receptor are suitable targets for selective biologic drugs which can play a key role in add-on treatment of severe eosinophilic asthma refractory to corticosteroids...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29861765/-scutellaria-baicalensis-attenuates-airway-remodeling-via-pi3k-akt-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BA-b-pathway-in-cigarette-smoke-mediated-copd-rats-model
#18
Fei Xu, Jinpei Lin, Wenqiang Cui, Qing Kong, Qiuping Li, Lulu Li, Ying Wei, Jingcheng Dong
Background. Scutellaria baicalensis (SB) is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine for chronic inflammatory diseases. This study aims to investigate the effects of the early intervention with SB on airway remodeling in a well-established rat model of COPD induced by cigarette smoking. Methods. COPD model in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were established by exposing them to smoke for 6 days/week, for 12 weeks, 24 weeks, or 36 weeks. Meanwhile, rats were randomly divided into normal control group, model group, Budesonide (BUD) group, and the SB (low, middle, and high) dose groups with 8 rats in each group and 3 stages (12 weeks, 24 weeks, and 36 weeks)...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29860722/continuous-versus-intermittent-antibiotics-for-bronchiectasis
#19
REVIEW
Tim Donovan, Lambert M Felix, James D Chalmers, Stephen J Milan, Alexander G Mathioudakis, Sally Spencer
BACKGROUND: Bronchiectasis is a chronic airway disease characterised by a destructive cycle of recurrent airway infection, inflammation and tissue damage. Antibiotics are a main treatment for bronchiectasis. The aim of continuous therapy with prophylactic antibiotics is to suppress bacterial load, but bacteria may become resistant to the antibiotic, leading to a loss of effectiveness. On the other hand, intermittent prophylactic antibiotics, given over a predefined duration and interval, may reduce antibiotic selection pressure and reduce or prevent the development of resistance...
June 3, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29857893/females-have-stronger-neurogenic-response-than-males-after-non-specific-nasal-challenge-in-patients-with-seasonal-allergic-rhinitis
#20
Dejan Tomljenovic, Tomislav Baudoin, Zeljka Bukovec Megla, Goran Geber, Glenis Scadding, Livije Kalogjera
Epidemiological studies show female predominance in the prevalence of non- allergic rhinitis (NAR) and local allergic rhinitis (LAR). Experimental studies show female patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) demonstrate higher levels of sensitivity to irritants and airway hyperresponsiveness than males. Bronchial asthma shows female predominance in post-puberty patients, and gender interaction with severe asthma endotypes. Fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, migraine and chronic cough, syndromes, which are commonly related to neurokinin substance P (SP) in the literature, also show strong female predominance...
July 2018: Medical Hypotheses
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