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chronic airway inflammation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913746/anti-trachea-inflammatory-effects-of-diosgenin-from-dioscorea-nipponica-through-interactions-with-glucocorticoid-receptor-%C3%AE
#1
Yang Junchao, Wang Zhen, Wang Yuan, Xu Liying, Jiang Libin, Zhu Yuanhong, Zhao Wei, Chen Ruilin, Zhai Lu
Asthma is a heterogeneous disease characterized by symptoms of chronic inflammation and airway structural and functional changes. It affects about 300 million people worldwide and causes 250 000 deaths annually, but its symptoms can be greatly relieved by regular use of inhaled glucocorticoids (GCs). GCs exert their function through interacting with glucocorticoid receptors (GRs). Diosgenin is a naturally occurring steroidal saponin abundantly present in many medicinal plants, including Dioscorea nipponica, which shares a similar steroidal structure with GC...
December 2, 2016: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913421/role-of-il-17a-in-murine-models-of-copd-airway-disease
#2
Haruhiko Yanagisawa, Mitsuo Hashimoto, Shunsuke Minagawa, Naoki Takasaka, Royce Ma, Catherine Moermans, Saburo Ito, Jun Araya, Alison Budelsky, Amanda Goodsell, Jody L Baron, Stephen L Nishimura
Small airway fibrosis is a major pathologic feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and is refractory to current treatments. Chronic inflammatory cells accumulate around small airways in COPD and are thought to play a major role in small airway fibrosis. Mice deficient in α/β T-cells have recently been shown to be protected from both experimental airway inflammation and fibrosis. In these models, CD4+Th17 cells and secretion of IL-17A are increased. However, a pathogenic role for IL-17 in specifically mediating fibrosis around airways has not been demonstrated...
December 2, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911568/nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-mediates-mesenchymal-transition-remodeling-and-pulmonary-fibrosis-in-response-to-chronic-inflammation-by-viral-rna-patterns
#3
Bing Tian, Igor Patrikeev, Lorenzo Ochoa, Gracie Vargas, KarryAnne K Belanger, Julia Litvinov, Istvan Boldogh, Bill T Ameredes, Massoud Motamedi, Allan R Brasier
Airway remodeling is resultant of a complex multi-cellular response associated with a progressive decline of pulmonary function in patients with chronic airway disease. Here, repeated infections with respiratory viruses are linked with airway remodeling through largely unknown mechanisms. Although acute activation of the Toll like receptor (TLR)3 pathway by extracellular poly(I:C) induces innate signaling through the NFkB transcription factor in human small airway epithelial cells (hSAECs), prolonged (repetitive or tonic) poly(I:C) stimulation produces chronic stress fiber formation, mesenchymal transition and activation of a fibrotic program...
December 2, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911098/siga-deficiency-in-individual-small-airways-is-associated-with-persistent-inflammation-and-remodeling
#4
Vasiliy V Polosukhin, Bradley W Richmond, Rui-Hong Du, Justin M Cates, Pingsheng Wu, Hui Nian, Pierre P Massion, Lorraine B Ware, Jae Woo Lee, Alexey V Kononov, William E Lawson, Timothy S Blackwell
RATIONALE: Maintenance of a surface immune barrier is important for homeostasis in organs with mucosal surfaces that interface with the external environment; however, the role of the mucosal immune system in chronic lung diseases is incompletely understood. OBJECTIVES: We examined the relationship between secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) on the mucosal surface of small airways and parameters of inflammation and airway wall remodeling in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)...
December 2, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906453/syk-inhibition-blocks-airway-constriction-and-protects-from-th2-induced-airway-inflammation-and-remodeling-in-mice
#5
Christoph Tabeling, Julia Herbert, Andreas C Hocke, David Lamb, Lutz Wollin, Klaus Erb, Ekaterina Boiarina, Hesam Movassagh, Jörg Scheffel, Jan M Doehn, Stefan Hippenstiel, Marcus Maurer, Abdelilah S Gounni, Wolfgang M Kuebler, Norbert Suttorp, Martin Witzenrath
BACKGROUND: Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) is an intracellular non-receptor tyrosine kinase, which has been implicated as central immune modulator promoting allergic airway inflammation. Syk inhibition has been proposed as a new therapeutic approach in asthma. However, the direct effects of Syk inhibition on airway constriction independent of allergen sensitization remain elusive. METHODS: Spectral confocal microscopy of human and murine lung tissue was performed to localize Syk expression...
December 1, 2016: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905186/severe-asthma-current-management-targeted-therapies-and-future-directions-a-roundtable-report
#6
REVIEW
Vanessa M McDonald, Steven Maltby, Helen K Reddel, Gregory G King, Peter A B Wark, Lorraine Smith, John W Upham, Alan L James, Guy B Marks, Peter G Gibson
Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by respiratory symptoms, airway inflammation, airway obstruction and airway hyper-responsiveness. Asthma is common and directly affects 10% of Australians, 1-5% of adults in Asia and 300 million people worldwide. It is a heterogeneous disorder with many clinical, molecular, biological and pathophysiological phenotypes. Current management strategies successfully treat the majority of patients with asthma who have access to them. However, there is a subset of an estimated 5-10% of patients with asthma who have severe disease and are disproportionately impacted by symptoms, exacerbations and overall illness burden...
November 30, 2016: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896060/diffuse-bronchiectasis-as-the-primary-manifestation-of-endobronchial-sarcoidosis
#7
Paul D Hiles, Kenneth R Kemp, Jean M Coviello
Sarcoidosis is an idiopathic disease that most commonly involves the lungs and is characterized by granulomatous inflammation. Bronchiectasis is one pulmonary manifestation of sarcoidosis, although it is almost always observed as traction bronchiectasis in the setting of fibrotic lung disease. A 50-year-old woman was evaluated for chronic cough and bronchiectasis with a small amount of peripheral upper lobe honeycombing and no significant pulmonary fibrosis or lymphadenopathy. After an extensive laboratory and imaging evaluation did not identify a cause of her bronchiectasis, bronchoscopy was performed to assess for primary ciliary dyskinesia and revealed a diffuse cobblestone appearance of the airway mucosa...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895126/versican-deficiency-significantly-reduces-lung-inflammatory-response-induced-by-polyinosine-polycytidylic-acid-stimulation
#8
Inkyung Kang, Ingrid A Harten, Mary Y Chang, Kathleen R Braun, Alyssa Sheih, Mary P Nivison, Pamela Y Johnson, Gail Workman, Gernot Kaber, Stephen P Evanko, Christina K Chan, Mervyn J Merrilees, Steven F Ziegler, Michael G Kinsella, Charles W Frevert, Thomas N Wight
Viral infection is an exacerbating factor contributing to chronic airway diseases such as asthma via mechanisms which are still unclear. Polyinosine-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), a toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 agonist used as a mimetic to study viral infection, has been shown to elicit inflammatory responses in lungs and to exacerbate pulmonary allergic reactions in animal models. Previously, we have shown that poly I:C stimulates lung fibroblasts to accumulate an extracellular matrix (ECM), enriched in hyaluronan (HA) and its binding partner versican, which promotes monocyte adhesion...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894811/critical-role-of-toll-like-receptors-in-pathophysiology-of-allergic-asthma
#9
Seyyed Shamsadin Athari, Seyyede Masoume Athari, Fateme Beyzay, Masoud Movassaghi, Esmaeil Mortaz, Mehdi Taghavi
Allergic asthma is an airway disease, characterized by reversible bronchoconstriction, chronic inflammation of the airway, and thickness of smooth muscle in the respiratory tract. Asthma is orchestrated by an excessive Th2-adaptive immune response, in which innate immunity plays a key role. Recently TLRs have received more and more attention as they are central to orchestrate the innate immune responses. TLRs are localized as integral membrane or intracellular glycoproteins with those on the cell surface sensing microbial antigens and the ones, localized in intracellular vesicles, sensing microbial nucleic acid species...
November 26, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893686/association-between-cigarette-smoking-and-interleukin-17a-expression-in-nasal-tissues-of-patients-with-chronic-rhinosinusitis-and-asthma
#10
Chien-Chia Huang, Chun-Hua Wang, Chia-Hsiang Fu, Chi-Che Huang, Po-Hung Chang, Yi-Wei Chen, Chia-Chen Wu, Pei-Wen Wu, Ta-Jen Lee
Cigarette smoke plays a substantial role in the development of airway inflammatory diseases, including asthma and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Interleukin (IL)-17A might contribute to cigarette smoke-related inflammation of the airway. This study aimed to investigate the association between cigarette smoking and IL-17A expression in the nasal tissues of patients with CRS and asthma.We prospectively recruited 24 patients (13 smokers, 11 nonsmokers) with CRS and asthma and 6 patients with asthma but without CRS (control group) in a tertiary medical center...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890994/quantitative-computed-tomography-imaging-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#11
REVIEW
Lalita Fernandes, Yasmin Fernandes, Anthony Menezes Mesquita
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous disease having small airway inflammation, emphysema, and pulmonary hypertension. It is now clear that spirometry alone cannot differentiate each component. Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) is increasingly used to quantify the amount of emphysema and small airway involvement in COPD. Inspiratory CT guides in assessing emphysema while expiratory CT identifies areas of air trapping which is a surrogate of small airway inflammation. By constructing a three-dimensional model of airways, we can also measure the airway wall thickness of segmental and subsegmental airways...
November 2016: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886852/-cold-air-and-or-talking-as-cough-triggers-a-sign-for-the-diagnosis-of-cough-variant-asthma
#12
Yoshihiro Kanemitsu, Hisako Matsumoto, Nuriamina Osman, Tsuyoshi Oguma, Tadao Nagasaki, Yumi Izuhara, Isao Ito, Tomoko Tajiri, Toshiyuki Iwata, Akio Niimi, Michiaki Mishima
BACKGROUND: Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is considered an alternative marker of eosinophilic airway inflammation and is sometimes incorporated in the diagnosis of asthma. However, many patients with cough variant asthma (CVA) demonstrate an FeNO in the normal range. Therefore, additional information is needed to confirm the diagnosis of CVA, particularly in patients with low FeNO levels. We aimed to investigate the feasibility of using cough triggers to help diagnose CVA. METHODS: We studied 163 patients presenting with prolonged/chronic cough alone (including 104 CVA patients) who underwent FeNO measurements and an airway responsiveness test, and answered a questionnaire listing 18 cough triggers...
November 2016: Respiratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886849/prevalence-and-burden-of-comorbidities-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#13
REVIEW
Alexandru Corlateanu, Serghei Covantev, Alexander G Mathioudakis, Victor Botnaru, Nikolaos Siafakas
The classical definition of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) as a lung condition characterized by irreversible airway obstruction is outdated. The systemic involvement in patients with COPD, as well as the interactions between COPD and its comorbidities, justify the description of chronic systemic inflammatory syndrome. The pathogenesis of COPD is closely linked with aging, as well as with cardiovascular, endocrine, musculoskeletal, renal, and gastrointestinal pathologies, decreasing the quality of life of patients with COPD and, furthermore, complicating the management of the disease...
November 2016: Respiratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885911/end-of-life-prognostic-indicators-in-patients-with-copd-part-2
#14
Andy Parry, Ray Higginson, Aoife Gleeson
In the UK, chronic respiratory diseases cause 13% of adult disability. The major chronic respiratory disease is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a condition involving chronic airway inflammation that causes airflow obstruction and destruction of lung tissue. This leads to a progressive loss of respiratory membrane, which accounts for the clinical manifestation of COPD, which is difficulty maintaining sufficient gas exchange to meet metabolic demands. The primary cause is smoking, with the vast majority of COPD patients having a past or present history of smoking...
November 2, 2016: International Journal of Palliative Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881110/prevalence-of-chronic-kidney-disease-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Swarna Gaddam, Sameer K Gunukula, James W Lohr, Pradeep Arora
BACKGROUND: The incidence and prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) continue to rise worldwide. Increasing age, diabetes, hypertension, and cigarette smoking are well-recognized risk factors for CKD. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic airway inflammation leading to airway obstruction and parenchymal lung destruction. Due to some of the common pathogenic mechanisms, COPD has been associated with increased prevalence of CKD. METHODS: Systematic review of medical literature reporting the incidence and prevalence of CKD in patients with COPD using the Cochrane Collaboration Methodology, and conduct meta-analysis to study the cumulative effect of the eligible studies...
November 24, 2016: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878686/role-of-anti-inflammatory-cytokines-il-35-and-il-37-in-asthma
#16
REVIEW
Daiju Hu
Asthma is a chronic airway inflammation that is characterized by intense eosinophil infiltrates, mucus hypersecretion, airway remodeling, and airway hyperresponsiveness. Interleukin (IL)-35 and IL-37 are two cytokines with anti-inflammatory effects found in immune response. Recent findings suggested that expressions of IL-35 and IL-37 are abnormal in asthma. Functional analysis further confirmed the important roles of them in the pathogenesis of asthma. The present study reviewed the updated evidence indicating the roles of IL-35 and IL-37 in asthma...
November 23, 2016: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876361/beneficial-effects-of-galectin-9-on-allergen-specific-sublingual-immunotherapy-in-a-dermatophagoides-farinae-induced-mouse-model%C3%A2-of-chronic-asthma
#17
Masaki Ikeda, Shigeki Katoh, Hiroki Shimizu, Akira Hasegawa, Katsuyo Ohashi-Doi, Mikio Oka
BACKGROUND: Allergen-specific sublingual immunotherapy is a potential disease-modifying treatment for allergic asthma. Galectin-9 (Gal-9), a β-galactoside-binding protein with various biologic effects, acts as an immunomodulator in excessive immunologic reactions by expanding regulatory T cells (Treg) and enhancing transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling. We investigated the efficacy of sublingually administered Gal-9 as an adjuvant to a specific allergen in a Dermatophagoides farinae (Df)-induced mouse model of chronic asthma...
November 19, 2016: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874084/silymarin-attenuates-cigarette-smoke-extract-induced-inflammation-via-simultaneous-inhibition-of-autophagy-and-erk-p38-mapk-pathway-in-human-bronchial-epithelial-cells
#18
Diandian Li, Jun Hu, Tao Wang, Xue Zhang, Lian Liu, Hao Wang, Yanqiu Wu, Dan Xu, Fuqiang Wen
Cigarette smoke (CS) is a major risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), contributing to airway inflammation. Our previous study revealed that silymarin had an anti-inflammatory effect in CS-exposed mice. In this study, we attempt to further elucidate the molecular mechanisms of silymarin in CS extract (CSE)-induced inflammation using human bronchial epithelial cells. Silymarin significantly suppressed autophagy activation and the activity of ERK/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in Beas-2B cells...
November 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867544/a-morphologic-study-of-the-airway-structure-abnormalities-in-patients-with-asthma-by-high-resolution-computed-tomography
#19
Dan Wang, Jian Luo, Wen Du, Lan-Lan Zhang, Li-Xiu He, Chun-Tao Liu
BACKGROUND: Airway structure changes, termed as airway remodeling, are common in asthma patients due to chronic inflammation, which can be assessed by high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Considering the controversial conclusions in the correlation of morphologic abnormalities with clinical feature and outcome, we aimed to further specify and evaluate the structural abnormalities of Chinese asthmatics by HRCT. METHODS: From August 2012 to February 2015, outpatients with asthma were recruited consecutively in the Asthma Center of West China Hospital, Sichuan University...
October 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866296/intranasal-curcumin-inhibits-pulmonary-fibrosis-by-modulating-matrix-metalloproteinase-9-mmp-9-in-ovalbumin-induced-chronic-asthma
#20
Preeti S Chauhan, D Dash, Rashmi Singh
Pulmonary fibrosis is associated with irreversible, or partially reversible, airflow obstruction and ultimately unresponsiveness to asthma therapies such as corticosteroids. Intranasal curcumin, an anti-inflammatory molecule, has been found effective in allergic asthma. To study the effect of intranasal curcumin on airway remodeling and fibrosis in murine model of chronic asthma, BALB/c mice were sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA) and exposed to OVA aerosol (2%) from day 21 (after sensitization) for 5 weeks (twice/week)...
November 19, 2016: Inflammation
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