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chronic airway inflammation

Yogesh Saini, Brandon W Lewis, Dongfang Yu, Hong Dang, Alessandra Livraghi-Butrico, Fabio Del Piero, Wanda K O'Neal, Richard C Boucher
Macrophages (MΦ) are key sentinels of respiratory exposure to inhaled environmental stimuli. In normal "healthy" tissues, MΦ are believed to be a dormant cell type that, upon exposure to stress-causing stimuli, may get activated to exhibit pro- or anti-inflammatory roles. To test whether stress present in chronic bronchitic (CB) airways triggers MΦ to manifest protective or detrimental responses, the DTA+ (LysM-regulated Diphtheria Toxin A expressing) strain with partial MΦ-deficiency was crossed with the Scnn1b-Tg mouse model of CB and the progenies were studied at 4-5 weeks of age...
April 2018: Physiological Reports
Ajay P Nayak, Tara L Croston, Angela R Lemons, W T Goldsmith, Nikki B Marshall, Michael L Kashon, Dori R Germolec, Donald H Beezhold, Brett J Green
BACKGROUND: Aspergillus fumigatus induced allergic airway disease has been shown to involve conidial germination in vivo but the immunological mechanisms remain uncharacterized. OBJECTIVE: A subchronic murine exposure model was used to examine the immunological mediators that are regulated in response to either culturable or non-culturable A. fumigatus conidia. METHODS: Female B6C3F1/N mice were repeatedly dosed via inhalation with 1 x 105 viable or heat inactivated conidia (HIC), twice a week for 13 weeks (26 exposures)...
April 13, 2018: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
Yi Guo, Guochao Shi, Huanying Wan, Min Zhou
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a persistent airway inflammation influenced by cigarette smoke. Previous studies have reported that Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is aberrantly activated by cigarette smoke and dysregulated in COPD. The present study explored the role of the Hh signaling pathway on the expression levels of certain inflammatory mediators in cigarette‑induced airway inflammation. Herein, a total of three A549 cell populations were generated: The A0 group as control cells, the A1 group cells treated with nicotine at a concentration of 10 µM for 12, 24 and 48 h, and the A2 group cultured simultaneously with nicotine and cyclopamine for the same duration...
April 11, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Krishna B Sriram, Amanda J Cox, Pathmanathan Sivakumaran, Maninder Singh, Annabelle M Watts, Nicholas P West, Allan W Cripps
Background: Chronic airway inflammation and hypersensitivity to bacterial infection may contribute to lung cancer pathogenesis. Previous studies have demonstrated that nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is the most common colonizing bacteria in the lower airways of patients with COPD. The objective of this study was to determine the presence of NTHi and immunoglobulin concentrations in patients with lung cancer, COPD and controls. Methods: Serum and bronchial wash samples were collected from patients undergoing diagnostic bronchoscopy...
2018: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
Huaying Wang, Chun'er Lv, Shi Wang, Huajuan Ying, Yuesong Weng, Wanjun Yu
The NLR pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, a multi-protein complex, produces the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18, which may contribute to the development of airway inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this study was to explore the correlation between circulating and local airway NLRP3 inflammasome activation with acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD). mRNA levels of NLRP3, Caspase (Casp)-1, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing CARD (ASC), IL-18, and IL-1β in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and bronchial tissues were determined by real-time PCR in 32 smokers, 65 patients with AECOPD, 50 COPD patients in recovery stage, and 30 COPD patients in stable stage...
April 14, 2018: Inflammation
S-C Zou, J Jiang, J Song
OBJECTIVE: We aimed at exploring the role of IL-33 in mouse chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and its potential molecular mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) mice model was established by cigarette smoking (CS). COPD mice were randomly assigned into PBS group and IL-33 antibody group. The peripheral blood and lung tissues of mice from two groups were collected for the following experiments. Pathological changes of the lung tissues in both groups were analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Bernardino Alcázar-Navarrete, Francisca Castellano Miñán, Pablo Santiago Díaz, Oliveiro Ruiz Rodríguez, Pedro J Romero Palacios
INTRODUCTION: Exhaled nitric oxide (FENO ) measurements differentiate COPD phenotypes from asthma-COPD overlap (ACO). To date, no study has been conducted to determine whether alveolar and bronchial components differ in this group of patients. METHODS: This was an observational cross-sectional study recruiting ambulatory COPD patients. FENO was measured, differentiating alveolar (CANO ) from bronchial (JawNO ) components using a multiple-flow technique. CANO and JawNO values were compared between eosinophilic COPD patients (defined as ≥ 300 eosinophils/μL in peripheral blood test, or ≥ 2% eosinophils or ≥ 3% eosinophils), and a linear regression analysis was performed to determine clinical and biological variables related to these measurements...
April 4, 2018: Archivos de Bronconeumología
Federica Scaduto, Rosaria Vincenza Giglio, Alida Benfante, Dragana Nikolic, Giuseppe Montalto, Manfredi Rizzo, Nicola Scichilone
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the bronchi with a complicated and largely unknown pathogenesis. In this context, an emerging role is attributed to the apolipoproteins which serve as structural components of plasma lipoproteins. Low density lipoproteins (LDL) may be involved in the inflammatory pathways of the asthmatic airways; in particular, small dense LDL (sdLDL) particles were associated with increased oxidative susceptibility compared to medium and large sized LDL...
April 4, 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Peter J Barnes
Cytokines play a key role in orchestrating and perpetuating the chronic airway inflammation in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), making them attractive targets for treating these disorders. Asthma and some cases of COPD are mainly driven by type 2 immune responses, which comprise increased airway eosinophils, T helper 2 (TH 2) cells and group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and the secretion of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13. Clinical trials of antibodies that block these interleukins have shown reduced acute exacerbations and oral corticosteroid use and improvements in lung function and symptoms in selected patients...
April 6, 2018: Nature Reviews. Immunology
Pamela J McShane, Jeffry G Weers, Thomas E Tarara, Alfred Haynes, Preeti Durbha, Danforth P Miller, Tobias Mundry, Elisabeth Operschall, J Stuart Elborn
Bronchiectasis is a chronic respiratory disease with heterogeneous etiology, characterized by a cycle of bacterial infection and inflammation, resulting in increasing airway damage. Exacerbations are an important cause of morbidity and are strongly associated with disease progression. Many patients with bronchiectasis suffer from two or more exacerbations per year. However, there are no approved therapies to reduce or delay exacerbations in this patient population. Ciprofloxacin DPI is in development as a long-term, intermittent therapy to reduce exacerbations in patients with non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis and evidence of respiratory pathogens...
April 2, 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Gao Yi, Min Liang, Ming Li, Xiangming Fang, Jifang Liu, Yuxiong Lai, Jitao Chen, Wenxia Yao, Xiao Feng, La Hu, Chunyi Lin, Xinke Zhou, Zhaoyu Liu
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic and progressive lung disease characterized by a mixture of small airway disease and lung tissue parenchymal destruction. Abnormal inflammatory responses to cigarette smoking and other noxious particles are generally thought to be responsible for causing of COPD. Since airway inflammation is a key factor in COPD progress, it is crucial to unravel its underlying molecular mechanisms. Unbiased analysis of genome-wide gene expression profiles in lung small airway epithelial cells provides a powerful tool to investigate this...
April 3, 2018: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
Karina Lindner, Sina Webering, Michael Stroebele, Henning Bockhorn, Tanja Hansen, Peter König, Heinz Fehrenbach
Exposure to exogenous noxae, such as particulate matter, can trigger acute aggravations of allergic asthma-a chronic inflammatory airway disease. We tested whether Carbon Black nanoparticles (CBNP) with or without surface polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) aggravate an established allergic airway inflammation in mice. In an ovalbumin mouse model, Printex® 90 (P90), P90 coated with benzo[a]pyrene (P90-BaP) or 9-nitroanthracene (P90-9NA), or acetylene soot exhibiting a mixture of surface PAH (AS-PAH) was administered twice (70 µL, 100 µg/mL) during an established allergic airway inflammation...
March 31, 2018: Nanomaterials
Saso Stoleski, Jordan Minov, Jovanka Karadzinska-Bislimovska, Dragan Mijakoski, Aneta Atanasovska
OBJECTIVE: To assess the mean serum eosinophil cationic protein (s-ECP) concentrations among crop and dairy farmers and office controls, and further examine its relation to exposure duration, smoking habit, as well as presence or absence of asthma. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was performed including examined group (EG), composed by agricultural workers (87 crop - EG1 and 83 dairy farmers - EG2), and control group (CG) composed by 80 office workers within the same enterprise...
March 15, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Alexandra McCarron, Martin Donnelley, David Parsons
In humans, cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease is characterised by chronic infection, inflammation, airway remodelling, and mucus obstruction. A lack of pulmonary manifestations in CF mouse models has hindered investigations of airway disease pathogenesis, as well as the development and testing of potential therapeutics. However, recently generated CF animal models including rat, ferret and pig models demonstrate a range of well characterised lung disease phenotypes with varying degrees of severity. This review discusses the airway phenotypes of currently available CF animal models and presents potential applications of each model in airway-related CF research...
April 2, 2018: Respiratory Research
Michael A Kohanski, Elina Toskala, David W Kennedy
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) consists of a range of inflammatory conditions in the sinuses that may result in clinical symptoms and the underlying pathophysiology and its relationship to lower airway disease is complex. Current definitions of CRS may serve more as an indication for potential surgical intervention rather than a marker of disease state. CRS can be asymptomatic and may require medical management to avoid disease progression and to minimize the risk of lower airway disease. Endoscopic surgery has undergone a significant evolution and refinement but the most common surgical complication remains persistent inflammation and recurrence of disease...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Dan T Benscoter
Bronchiectasis is a structural airway disease characterized by dilated bronchi and bronchioles due to severe or recurrent lower airways inflammation. Bronchiectasis can occur as a result of chronic pulmonary aspiration. Bronchiectasis may also be associated with a wide variety of systemic diseases, which should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Children with bronchiectasis typically have a chronic or recurrent productive cough and carry a significant burden of disease with a considerable impact on quality of life...
March 27, 2018: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
Barbara Mackiewicz, Jan Siwiec, Elżbieta Czekajska-Chehab, Janusz Milanowski
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP), called extrinsic allergic alveolitis, is a syndrome characterized by diffuse inflammation of lung parenchyma and airways in response to the inhalation of antigens to witch the patient has been previously sensitized. The clinical presentation of HP have been categorized as acute, subacute and chronic. The patient with chronic HP may lack a history of acute episodes and usually reports the insidious onset of cough, dyspnoea, fatigue, and weight los. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a type of lung disease that results in scarring (fibrosis) of the lungs for an unknown reason...
March 27, 2018: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Matteo Coen, Laurent Daniel, Jacques Serratrice
Plastic bronchitis is a rare and potentially fatal disease. Mainly a disease of the pediatric age, a few adult cases occurring after cardiac surgery have been described. We describe a case of a 41-year-old man suffering from several episodes of acute dyspnea and cough with expectoration of mucous plugs in the context of chronic allergic airway inflammation. We believe that the occurrence of plastic bronchitis in adulthood should not be overlooked particularly in patients with chronic inflammatory lung disease...
January 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Adi Sagiv, Amir Bar-Shai, Naama Levi, Miki Hatzav, Lior Zada, Yossi Ovadya, Lior Roitman, Gal Manella, Ofer Regev, Julia Majewska, Ezra Vadai, Raya Eilam, Sara W Feigelson, Michael Tsoory, Michel Tauc, Ronen Alon, Valery Krizhanovsky
The tumor suppressor p53 limits tumorigenesis by inducing apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and senescence. Although p53 is known to limit inflammation during tumor development, its role in regulating chronic lung inflammation is less well understood. To elucidate the function of airway epithelial p53 in such inflammation, we subjected genetically modified mice, whose bronchial epithelial club cells lack p53, to repetitive inhalations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an exposure that leads to severe chronic bronchitis and airway senescence in wild-type mice...
March 27, 2018: Cell Reports
Tzu-Hsuan Wong, Chon-Lin Lee, Hsiang-Han Su, Chin-Lai Lee, Chao-Chien Wu, Chin-Chou Wang, Chau-Chyun Sheu, Ruay-Sheng Lai, Sum-Yee Leung, Chi-Cheng Lin, Yu-Feng Wei, Chien-Jen Wang, Yu-Chun Lin, Hua-Ling Chen, Ming-Shyan Huang, Jeng-Hsien Yen, Shau-Ku Huang, Jau-Ling Suen
Chronic exposure to ambient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is associated with asthma, but its regulatory mechanisms remain incompletely defined. We report herein that elevated levels of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene, a biomarker of PAH exposure, were found in asthmatic subjects (n = 39) as compared to those in healthy subjects (n = 43) living in an industrial city of Taiwan, where indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (IP) was found to be a prominent PAH associated with ambient PM2.5 . In a mouse model, intranasal exposure of mice with varying doses of IP significantly enhanced antigen-induced allergic inflammation, including increased airway eosinophilia, Th2 cytokines, including IL-4 and IL-5, as well as antigen-specific IgE level, which was absent in dendritic cell (DC)-specific aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-null mice...
March 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
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