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chronic airway inflammation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238722/clinical-epidemiological-and-histopathological-features-of-respiratory-involvement-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#1
REVIEW
Alessia Alunno, Roberto Gerli, Roberto Giacomelli, Francesco Carubbi
Although by definition rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an articular disorder, it is a systemic disease, and 18-40% of patients experience extra-articular manifestations (EAMs). The involvement of the respiratory system occurs in about 30-40% of RA patients, and in about 10-20% of them it represents the first manifestation of RA. A wide range of pulmonary manifestations are detectable in RA patients, including pulmonary parenchymal disease, pleural involvement, and airway and pulmonary inflammation. The clinical, radiological, and histological spectra of respiratory manifestations in RA reflect chronic immune activation, increased susceptibility to infection (often related to immunosuppressive medications), or direct drug...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233471/resolvin-d1-regulates-epithelial-ion-transport-and-inflammation-in-cystic-fibrosis-airways
#2
Fiona C Ringholz, Gerard Higgins, Aurélie Hatton, Ali Sassi, Ahmad Moukachar, Coral Fustero-Torre, Monika Hollenhorst, Isabelle Sermet-Gaudelus, Brian J Harvey, Paul McNally, Valerie Urbach
BACKGROUND: Cystic Fibrosis (CF) lung disease is characterised by dysregulated ion transport that promotes chronic bacterial infection and inflammation. The impact of the specialised pro-resolution mediator resolvin D1 (RvD1) on airway surface liquid (ASL) dynamics and innate defence had not yet been investigated in CF airways. METHODS: Ex vivo studies were performed on primary cultures of alveolar macrophages and bronchial epithelial cells from children with CF and in human bronchial epithelial cell lines; in vivo studies were performed in homozygous F508del-CFTR mice treated with vehicle control or RvD1 (1-100nM)...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233151/suppression-of-ptpn6-exacerbates-aluminum-oxide-nanoparticle-induced-copd-like-lesions-in-mice-through-activation-of-stat-pathway
#3
Xiaobo Li, Hongbao Yang, Shenshen Wu, Qingtao Meng, Hao Sun, Runze Lu, Jian Cui, Yuxin Zheng, Wen Chen, Rong Zhang, Michael Aschner, Rui Chen
BACKGROUND: Inhaled nanoparticles can deposit in the deep lung where they interact with pulmonary cells. Despite numerous studies on pulmonary nanotoxicity, detailed molecular mechanisms of specific nanomaterial-induced lung injury have yet to be identified. RESULTS: Using whole-body dynamic inhalation model, we studied the interactions between aluminum oxide nanoparticles (Al2O3 NPs) and the pulmonary system in vivo. We found that seven-day-exposure to Al2O3 NPs resulted in emphysema and small airway remodeling in murine lungs, accompanied by enhanced inflammation and apoptosis...
December 12, 2017: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230286/asthma-mimic-case-report-and-literature-review-of-vocal-cord-nodule-associated-with-wheezing
#4
Muhammad Kashif, Tushi Singh, Ahsan Aslam, Misbahuddin Khaja
Asthma is a heterogeneous disease, usually characterized by chronic airway inflammation. Various clinical conditions can mimic asthma, such as foreign body aspiration, subglottic stenosis, congestive heart failure, diffuse panbronchiolitis, aortic arch anomalies, reactive airway dysfunction syndrome, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, retrosternal goiter, vocal cord tumors, other airway tumors, and vocal cord dysfunction. Upper airway obstruction can be a life-threatening emergency. Here, we present the case of a 58-year-old female with recurrent hospital visits for wheezing and exacerbations of asthma, who was later found to have a vocal cord nodule confirmed to be squamous cell carcinoma, which was mimicking like asthma...
2017: SAGE Open Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228740/downregulation-of-semaphorin-3e-promotes-hallmarks-of-experimental-chronic-allergic-asthma
#5
Hesam Movassagh, Lianyu Shan, Jonathan S Duke-Cohan, Jamila Chakir, Andrew J Halayko, Latifa Koussih, Abdelilah S Gounni
Guidance cues such as semaphorins are attractive novel therapeutic targets for allergic disorders. We have previously described an inhibitory effect of semaphorin 3E (Sema3E) on human airway smooth muscle cell function. We have further addressed a canonical role for Sema3E in acute model of allergic asthma in vivo. Considering the chronic nature of the disease, the potential implication of Sema3E to alleviate long-lasting deficits should be investigated. Expression of Sema3E in a chronic model of allergic asthma was assessed after exposure to house dust mite (HDM) as a clinically relevant allergen...
November 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225146/microbial-diversity-within-the-airway-microbiome-in-chronic-pediatric-lung-diseases
#6
Andrea Hahn, Stephanie Warnken, Marcos Pérez-Losada, Robert J Freishtat, Keith A Crandall
The study of the airway microbiome in children is an area of emerging research, especially in relation to the role microbial diversity may play in acute and chronic inflammation. Three such pediatric airway diseases include cystic fibrosis, asthma, and chronic lung disease of prematurity. In cystic fibrosis, the presence of Pseudomonas spp. is associated with decreased microbial diversity. Decreasing microbial diversity is also associated with poor lung function. In asthma, early viral infections appear to drive changes in bacterial diversity which may be associated with asthma risk...
December 7, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224299/-correlation-analysis-of-serum-secreted-frizzled-related-protein-5-levels-with-airway-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-patients
#7
G Y Li, S J Yin, Y Liu, H Li, S Song, Z B Kong, C Zuo, H Liu, Z Zhu
Objective: To investigate the relationship between serum secreted frizzled-related protein 5(sfrp5) levels, insulin resistance, and airway inflammation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD). Method: A total of 178 COPD patients visiting our respiratory outpatient clinic from February 2015 to January 2017 were enrolled, and 99 healthy control subjects from the same time period were selected. Serum sfrp5 levels were compared between the 2 groups. Serum sfrp5 and inflammatory cytokines in induced sputum were observed in the 4 subgroups: insulin resistant COPD group [homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)≥2...
December 12, 2017: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220595/dose-dependent-effects-of-tadalafil-and-roflumilast-on-ovalbumin-induced-airway-hyperresponsiveness-in-guinea-pigs
#8
Anna Urbanova, Ivana Medvedova, Martin Kertys, Pavol Mikolka, Petra Kosutova, Daniela Mokra, Juraj Mokrý
INTRODUCTION: Chronic obstructive diseases of airways associated with cough and/or airway smooth muscle hyperresponsiveness are usually treated with bronchodilating and anti-inflammatory drugs. Recently, selective phosphodiesterase (PDE) 4 inhibitors have been introduced into the therapy of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Several studies have demonstrated their ability to influence the airway reactivity and eosinophilic inflammation by increasing the intracellular cAMP concentrations also in bronchial asthma...
December 8, 2017: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207693/serum-uric-acid-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-a-hospital-based-case-control-study
#9
Rajlaxmi Sarangi, Nirupama Varadhan, Jyotirmayee Bahinipati, Asha Dhinakaran, Anandaraj, Kandasamy Ravichandran
Introduction: Airway inflammation and imbalance between oxidant/anti-oxidant mechanisms are postulated to play a major role in the pathogenesis and exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Previous studies on the role of serum Uric Acid (UA) in COPD subjects have been both confounding and inconclusive. Aim: To measure the serum UA levels among COPD subjects and to correlate with different stages of the disease. Materials and Methods: The study included 39 stable COPD subjects (21 males, 18 females; 13 smokers, 26 nonsmokers; age group; 40 to 60 years) and compared with 46 control subjects from the general population...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207033/epigallocatechin-3-gallate-inhibits-inflammation-and-epithelial%C3%A2-mesenchymal-transition-through-the-pi3k-akt-pathway-via-upregulation-of-pten-in-asthma
#10
Nan Yang, Han Zhang, Xuxu Cai, Yunxiao Shang
Asthma is a chronic disease associated with hyperresponsiveness, obstruction and remodeling of the airways. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has an important role in these alterations and may account for the accumulation of subepithelial mesenchymal cells, thus contributing to airway hyperresponsiveness and remodeling. Epigallo-catechin‑3‑gallate (EGCG), which is a type of polyphenol, is the most potent ingredient in green tea, and exhibits antibacterial, antiviral, antioxidative, anticancer and chemopreventive activities...
November 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207030/der-f1-induces-pyroptosis-in-human-bronchial-epithelia-via-the-nlrp3-inflammasome
#11
Ying-Ming Tsai, Kuo-Hwa Chiang, Jen-Yu Hung, Wei-An Chang, Hui-Ping Lin, Jiunn-Min Shieh, Inn-Wen Chong, Ya-Ling Hsu
Damage to the bronchial epithelium leads to persistent inflammation and airway remodelling in various respiratory diseases, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. To date, the mechanisms underlying bronchial epithelial cell damage and death by common allergens remain largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate Der f1, an allergen of Dermatophagoides farinae, which may result in the death of human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs). Der f1 induces BECs to undergo the inflammatory cell death referred to as pyroptosis, induced by increasing lactate dehydrogenase release and propidium iodide penetration...
December 5, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205062/microrna-150-protects-against-cigarette-smoke-induced-lung-inflammation-and-airway-epithelial-cell-apoptosis-through-repressing-p53-microrna-150-in-cs-induced-lung-inflammation
#12
H Xue, M X Li
Cigarette smoke (CS) exposure is an important risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). MicroRNA-150 (miR-150) is involved in several inflammatory diseases. However, little is known about the role of miR-150 in the pathogenesis of COPD. In this study, we established a CS-related mouse model of COPD and evaluated the impact of miR-150 on CS-induced lung inflammation. We further investigated the effects of miR-150 overexpression on pro-inflammatory cytokine production and apoptosis in airway epithelial cells exposed to CS extract (CSE)...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200244/management-of-airway-obstruction-and-stridor-in-pediatric-patients-digest
#13
Ashley Marchese, Melissa L Langhan, Kathryn H Pade
Stridor is a result of turbulent air-flow through the trachea from upper airway obstruction, and although in children it is often due to croup, it can also be caused by noninfectious and/or congenital conditions as well as life-threatening etiologies. The history and physical examination guide initial management, which includes reduction of airway inflammation, treatment of bacterial infection, and, less often, imaging, emergent airway stabilization, or surgical management. This issue discusses the most common as well as the life-threatening etiologies of acute and chronic stridor and its management in the emergency department...
November 22, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198088/-efficacy-of-ivig-treatment-in-bronchiectasis-associated-with-igg-subclass-deficiency
#14
REVIEW
Yael Shostak, Mordechai R Kramer
Bronchiectasis is characterized by an abnormal dilatation of the bronchi leading to a chronic inflammatory process, airway blockage and impaired clearance of secretions. The damage to the airways is usually progressive and is the result of several pathogenic processes. In the past, healing of infections (especially pulmonary tuberculosis) was the main cause of airway dilatation and progression of chronic inflammation. Today, congenital illnesses, anatomical defects and immune deficiency play an important role in the pathogenesis of bronchiectasis formation...
November 2017: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194400/evidence-of-biomass-smoke-exposure-as-a-causative-factor-for-the-development-of-copd
#15
REVIEW
Sarah J Capistrano, David van Reyk, Hui Chen, Brian G Oliver
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive disease of the lungs characterised by chronic inflammation, obstruction of airways, and destruction of the parenchyma (emphysema). These changes gradually impair lung function and prevent normal breathing. In 2002, COPD was the fifth leading cause of death, and is estimated by the World Health Organisation (WHO) to become the third by 2020. Cigarette smokers are thought to be the most at risk of developing COPD. However, recent studies have shown that people with life-long exposure to biomass smoke are also at high risk of developing COPD...
December 1, 2017: Toxics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192094/over-production-of-growth-differentiation-factor-15-gdf15-promotes-human-rhinovirus-infection-and-virus-induced-inflammation-in-the-lung
#16
Qun Wu, Di Jiang, Niccolette R Schaefer, Laura Harmacek, Brian P O'Connor, Thomas Eling, Oliver Eickelberg, Hong Wei Chu
Human rhinovirus (HRV) is the most common virus contributing to acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) nearly year-round, but the mechanisms have not been well elucidated. Recent clinical studies suggest that high levels of growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) protein in the blood are associated with an increased yearly rate of all-cause COPD exacerbations. Therefore, in the current study, we investigated whether GDF15 promotes HRV infection and virus-induced lung inflammation...
November 30, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187212/roles-of-bronchopulmonary-c-fibers-in-airway-hyperresponsiveness-and-airway-remodeling-induced-by-house-dust-mite
#17
Zhimei Yang, Jianguo Zhuang, Lei Zhao, Xiuping Gao, Zhengxiu Luo, Enmei Liu, Fadi Xu, Zhou Fu
BACKGROUND: Asthma is characterized by chronic airway inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), and airway remodeling. While exposure of house dust mites (HDM) is a common cause of asthma, the pathogenesis of the HDM-induced asthma is not fully understood. Bronchopulmonary C-fibers (PCFs) contribute to the neurogenic inflammation, viral infection induced-persistent AHR, and ovalbumin induced collagen deposition largely via releasing neuropeptides, such as substance P (SP). However, PCF roles in the pathogenesis of the HDM-induced asthma remain unexplored...
November 29, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183867/the-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-inhibitor-ag1478-inhibits-eosinophilic-inflammation-in-upper-airways
#18
Shino Shimizu, Kumiko Takezawa-Yasuoka, Takao Ogawa, Ichiro Tojima, Hideaki Kouzaki, Takeshi Shimizu
Mucus hypersecretion and eosinophil infiltration are important characteristics of eosinophilic inflammation in upper airways, such as allergic rhinitis and chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyp. EGFR transactivation induces mucus and inflammatory cytokine secretion from airway epithelial cells. However, the roles of EGFR in eosinophilic inflammation in upper airways are still unknown. The purpose of the study is to elucidate the effects of the EGFR inhibitor AG1478 on eosinophilic airway inflammation. AG1478 significantly inhibited thrombin-induced GM-CSF secretion from nasal epithelial cells and thrombin-induced secretion of eotaxin-1 and RANTES from nasal fibroblasts...
November 25, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181828/influence-of-inhaled-corticosteroids-on-bronchial-inflammation-and-pulmonary-function-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-with-moderate-obstruction
#19
Iza Toczyska, Ewa Zwolińska, Andrzej Chcialowski
Inflammation in the bronchial respiratory tract and lung parenchyma underlies the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It consists of effector cell infiltration, changes in reticular basement membrane (RBM) thickness, and the content of inflammatory mediators. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) on the number of inflammatory cells and RBM thickness in bronchial biopsies, and pulmonary function in patients with moderate COPD. Twenty four patients with newly diagnosed COPD were included into the study...
November 28, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176750/chemoattractants-and-cytokines-in-primary-ciliary-dyskinesia-and-cystic-fibrosis-key-players-in-chronic-respiratory-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Maaike Cockx, Mieke Gouwy, Jo Van Damme, Sofie Struyf
Patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) and cystic fibrosis (CF), two inherited disorders, suffer from recurrent airway infections characterized by persistent bacterial colonization and uncontrollable inflammation. Although present in high counts, neutrophils fail to clear infection in the airways. High levels of C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 8/interleukin-8 (CXCL8/IL-8), the most potent chemokine to attract neutrophils to sites of infection, are detected in the sputum of both patient groups and might cause the high neutrophil influx in the airways...
November 27, 2017: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
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