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mucous hypersecretion

Seok-Kwun Kim, Ji-Woen Park, Kwang-Ryeol Lim, Keun-Cheol Lee
BACKGROUND: The ideal vaginoplasty must be successful functionally as well as have a natural appearance, and also must retain its functionality and appearance over the long term. Conventional vaginoplasty techniques have functional limitations and are associated with recurrent complications, but rectosigmoid vaginoplasty is known to have a high satisfaction rate due to its functional similarity with the vagina. We conducted the present study to assess the usability of rectosigmoid vaginoplasty over the course of long-term follow-up...
January 2017: Archives of Plastic Surgery
Jack R Harkema, Lucas A Hotchkiss, Nicholas A Vetter, Daven N Jackson-Humbles, Ryan P Lewandowski, James G Wagner
Ozone is an irritating gas found in photochemical smog. Epidemiological associations have been made between the onset of asthma and childhood exposures to increasing levels of ambient ozone (i.e., air pollutant-induced nonatopic asthma). Individuals, however, vary in their susceptibility to this outdoor air pollutant, which may be due, in part, to their genetic makeup. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that there are murine strain-dependent differences in pulmonary and nasal pathologic responses to repeated ozone exposures...
January 2017: Toxicologic Pathology
Xing Wang, Xiaoqiong Yang, Yin Li, Xiaoyun Wang, Yun Zhang, Xi Dai, Bin Niu, Juan Wu, Xiefang Yuan, Anjie Xiong, Zhigang Liu, Nanshan Zhong, Min Wu, Guoping Li
In asthma, mucus hypersecretion is thought to be a prominent pathological feature associated with widespread mucus plugging. However, the current treatments for mucus hypersecretion are often ineffective or temporary. The potential therapeutic targets of mucus hypersecretion in asthma remain unknown. Here, we show that Lyn is a central effector of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) and mucous hypersecretion in asthma. In Lyn-transgenic mice (Lyn-TG) and wild-type (WT) C57BL/6J mice exposed to ovalbumin (OVA), Lyn overexpression attenuates mucus hypersecretion and ER stress...
February 2017: EBioMedicine
Pamela L Zeitlin, Marie Diener-West, Karen A Callahan, Seakwoo Lee, C Conover Talbot, Bette Pollard, Michael P Boyle, Noah Lechtzin
RATIONALE: Cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease progresses by a combination of airway inflammation, bacterial colonization, and infection. Airway inflammation is predominantly neutrophilic and complicates airway clearance therapies through cellular debris; excessive DNA; excessive and viscous mucus; and high concentrations of neutrophils, IL-8, and related cytokines liberated along the nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway. OBJECTIVES: We conducted a preliminary, single-site, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the effects over 28 days of two dose levels (0...
February 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Tsuyoshi Shuto, Shunsuke Kamei, Hirofumi Nohara, Haruka Fujikawa, Yukihiro Tasaki, Takuya Sugahara, Tomomi Ono, Chizuru Matsumoto, Yuki Sakaguchi, Kasumi Maruta, Ryunosuke Nakashima, Taisei Kawakami, Mary Ann Suico, Yoshitaka Kondo, Akihito Ishigami, Toru Takeo, Ken-Ichiro Tanaka, Hiroshi Watanabe, Naomi Nakagata, Kohei Uchimura, Kenichiro Kitamura, Jian-Dong Li, Hirofumi Kai
Protease-antiprotease imbalance and oxidative stress are considered to be major pathophysiological hallmarks of severe obstructive lung diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cystic fibrosis (CF), but limited information is available on their direct roles in the regulation of pulmonary phenotypes. Here, we utilized βENaC-transgenic (Tg) mice, the previously established mouse model of severe obstructive lung diseases, to produce lower-mortality but pathophysiologically highly useful mouse model by backcrossing the original line with C57/BL6J mice...
December 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
D I Kasahara, J A Mathews, F M C Ninin, A P Wurmbrand, J K Liao, S A Shore
BACKGROUND: Rho kinases (ROCKs) contribute to allergic airways disease. ROCKs also play a role in lymphocyte proliferation and migration. OBJECTIVE: To determine the role of ROCK2 acting within CD4(+) cells in allergic airways responses. METHODS: ROCK2-haploinsufficient (ROCK2(+/-) ) and wild-type mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA). ROCK2(+/-) mice then received either CD4(+) cells from ROCK2-sufficient OVA TCR transgenic (OT-II) mice or saline i...
February 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
H V Simpson, S Umair, V C Hoang, M S Savoian
Previously, chemical analysis of gastric fundic mucin showed that infection of sheep with Haemonchus contortus or Teladorsagia circumcincta changed the proportions of monosaccharides and decreased terminal mucin fucosylation and sialylation. To identify the effects of these parasites on the two mucin-secreting cell lineages, fundic and antral tissues were collected for histochemistry from 69 lambs aged from 3-4 to 9-10 months-of-age which had received a single infection of either H. contortus or T. circumcincta and euthanased at Day 21 or 28 post- infection respectively...
August 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Eugene Wong, Justin Kong, Lawrence Oh, Daniel Cox, Martin Forer
A unilateral tumour in the nasal cavity or paranasal sinuses is commonly caused by polyps, cysts, and mucoceles, as well as invasive tumours such as papillomas and squamous cell carcinomas. Schwannomas, in contrast, are rare lesions in this area (Minhas et al., 2013). We present a case of a 52-year-old female who presented with a 4-year progressive history of mucous hypersecretion, nasal obstruction, pain, and fullness. Imaging of the paranasal sinuses showed complete opacification of the entire left nasal cavity and sinuses by a tumour causing subsequent obstruction of the frontal and maxillary sinuses...
2016: Case Reports in Otolaryngology
Stephen Bujarski, Amit D Parulekar, Nicola A Hanania
Severe asthma continues to be a major clinical problem despite the availability of effective asthma medications such as inhaled corticosteroids. Several targeted biologic therapies are emerging to treat patients with severe asthma. Areas Covered: This review provides an update of information on lebrikizumab, a novel monoclonal antibody that targets IL-13 and is currently in advanced stages of development. It describes the role of IL-13, a key effector cytokine in Type 2 (T2) airway inflammation in asthma and discusses the results of recent phase 2 trials investigating lebrikizumab's efficacy and safety in patients with severe asthma...
May 10, 2016: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
Raffaele Scala
Flexible bronchoscopy (FBO) and non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) are largely applied in respiratory and general intensive care units. FBO plays a crucial role for the diagnosis of lung infiltrates of unknown origin and for the treatment of airways obstruction due to bronchial mucous plugging and hemoptysis in critical patients. NIPPV is the first-choice ventilatory strategy for acute respiratory failure (ARF) of different causes as it could be used as prevention or as alternative to the conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) via endotracheal intubation (ETI)...
September 2016: Panminerva Medica
Shui-juan Zhang, Juan-xia Jiang, Qian-qian Ren, Yong-liang Jia, Jian Shen, Hui-juan Shen, Xi-xi Lin, Hong Lu, Qiang-min Xie
Ambroxol, a metabolite of bromhexine, is shown to exert several pharmacological activities, including secretolytic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions. Oral and intravenous administration of ambroxol is useful for the airway inflammatory diseases. However, little is known about its potential in inhalation therapy for lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mucous hypersecretion and inflammatory response. In the present study, we compared the pharmacological effects of ambroxol by inhalation with intravenous administration and preliminarily explored its mechanism of action...
March 15, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
T Xie, Gy Luo, Y Zhang, X Wang, Xy Wang, M Wu, Gp Li
BACKGROUND: Airway mucus hypersecretion is a key pathophysiological feature in asthma. Fasudil, a selective Rho-A/Rho kinase inhibitor, has been used in clinical trials to treat pulmonary hypertension. However, its function in modulating airway mucus hypersecretion in asthma remains undefined. OBJECTIVE: We examined whether fasudil, a selective Rho-A/Rho kinase inhibitor, affects the mucus hypersecretion by suppressing MUC5AC via signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 6 (STAT6) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB) in mice and cells...
December 2015: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Shanshan Meng, Yanling Wu, Xiaoguang Hu, Hailin Zhang, Changchong Li
OBJECTIVE: Naringenin has been reported to attenuate Mucin (MUC) 5AC secretion in many pathological models. Many stimuli activate MUC5AC expression through JNK/AP-1 signaling pathways. We hypothesized that naringenin may have inhibitory effects on mucous hypersecretion by modulating MUC5AC production and inhibiting JNK/AP-1 signaling pathways. METHOD: The cell model of mucous hypersecretion was made by human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial (A549) cells stimulated by RSV...
March 2015: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Omer Ozkan, Ozlenen Ozkan, Gamze Bektas, Anı Cinpolat, Ibrahim Bassorgun, Akif Ciftcioglu
Jejunum flap for reconstruction of the vagina provides a durable, stable coverage; patent tube passage; and natural esthetic appearance. However, excessive mucous secretion is a major drawback of the technique.We have recently presented our cases in which strict 3-hour ischemia with lower mucus secretion was applied. However, a quantitative analysis of goblet cells of the jejunum subjected to ischemia and ischemia-reperfusion injury on an animal model has not been reported to support this argument.Because goblet cells are responsible for the production and the maintenance of the mucous blanket, we aimed to determine whether goblet cell numbers decrease after ischemia and ischemia-reperfusion injury...
July 2015: Annals of Plastic Surgery
Thomas G O'Riordan
Airway diseases that are clinically characterized by mucous hypersecretion are associated with dehydrated secretions and impaired mucociliary clearance. The failure to clear pro-inflammatory proteases can further exacerbate the mucous dehydration, giving rise to a positive feedback loop that produces a mucous metaplasia and lung remodeling. Increased understanding of the complex mechanisms that regulate airway hydration in health and disease is a prerequisite for rational design of novel therapies. Clinical trials of aerosolized osmolytes and of modulators of epithelial ion channels have provided support for the hypothesis that correcting mucus hydration improves clinical benefit, with the caveat that many of these agents have direct mucolytic properties that are likely to be synergistic with enhanced hydration...
May 14, 2015: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
Hideaki Shirasaki, Etsuko Kanaizumi, Nobuhiko Seki, Tetsuo Himi
BACKGROUND: Hypersecretion of mucin in the airway epithelium is an important feature of allergic airway diseases. Of the 3 cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs; LTC4 LTD4 and LTE4), only LTE4 is sufficiently stable to be detectable in extracellular fluids. However, LTE4 has received little attention because it binds poorly to the CysLT1 and CysLT2 receptors; therefore, little is known about the effects of LTE4 on mucous secretion. Recently, studies have focused on the P2Y12 receptor as a potential receptor for LTE4, because this receptor is required for LTE4-mediated pulmonary inflammation...
April 2015: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
Shuguang Leng, Yushi Liu, Joel L Weissfeld, Cynthia L Thomas, Younghun Han, Maria A Picchi, Christopher K Edlund, Randall P Willink, Autumn L Gaither Davis, Kieu C Do, Tomoko Nukui, Xiequn Zhang, Elizabeth A Burki, David Van Den Berg, Marjorie Romkes, W James Gauderman, Richard E Crowell, Yohannes Tesfaigzi, Christine A Stidley, Christopher I Amos, Jill M Siegfried, Frank D Gilliland, Steven A Belinsky
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Detection of promoter hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes in exfoliated cells from the lung provides an assessment of field cancerization that in turn predicts lung cancer. The identification of genetic determinants for this validated cancer biomarker should provide novel insights into mechanisms underlying epigenetic reprogramming during lung carcinogenesis. METHODS: A genome-wide association study using generalized estimating equations and logistic regression models was conducted in two geographically independent smoker cohorts to identify loci affecting the propensity for cancer-related gene methylation that was assessed by a 12-gene panel interrogated in sputum...
February 23, 2015: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Xuelin Li, Haiqiao Wu, Xia Chen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of tumor necrosis factor-α converting enzyme (TACE) on mucous hypersecretion in inflammatory airway. METHODS: Mucous hypersecretion model of human lung adenocarcinoma cells A549 was induced by human neutrophil elastase (HNE), and TNF-α converting enzyme inhibitor-1 (TAPI-1), an inhibitor of TACE, was chosen for the inference study. The expression of MUC5AC and TACE was examined. Th e cells were divided into 5 groups: a negative control group, HNE1 (15 nmol/L) group, HNE2 (25 nmol/L) group, HNE3 (50 nmol/L) group and TAPI-1 group...
December 2014: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
Bruce K Rubin
Chronic airway diseases like cystic fibrosis, chronic bronchitis, asthma, diffuse panbronchiolitis, and bronchiectasis are all associated with chronic inflammation. The airway mucosa responds to infection and inflammation in part by surface mucous (goblet) cell and submucosal gland hyperplasia and hypertrophy with mucus hypersecretion. Products of inflammation including neutrophil derived DNA and filamentous actin, effete cells, bacteria, and cell debris all contribute to mucus purulence and, when this is expectorated it is called sputum...
2014: Translational Respiratory Medicine
Hitendra S Chand, Gilbert Montano, Xuesong Huang, Scott H Randell, Yohannes Mebratu, Hans Petersen, Yohannes Tesfaigzi
Despite implications for carcinogenesis and other chronic diseases, basic mechanisms of p53 and its variants in suppressing Bcl-2 levels are poorly understood. Bcl-2 sustains mucous cell metaplasia, whereas p53(-/-) mice display chronically increased mucous cells. Here we show that p53 decreases bcl-2 mRNA half-life by interacting with the 5' untranslated region (UTR). The p53-bcl-2 mRNA interaction is modified by the substitution of proline by arginine within the p53 proline-rich domain (PRD). Accordingly, more mucous cells are present in primary human airway cultures with p53(Arg) compared with p53(Pro)...
2014: Nature Communications
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