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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628971/establishment-of-a-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-mouse-model-based-on-the-elapsed-time-after-lps-intranasal-instillation
#1
Soon-Young Lee, Jin-Ho Cho, Seung Sik Cho, Chun-Sik Bae, Gye-Yeop Kim, Dae-Hun Park
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was the 3rd leading cause of death in 2012 worldwide. It is particularly severe in the elderly, who are at risk of death by coughing, mucous hypersecretion, and finally breathlessness. Recently, anti-COPD drug development has increased, and many animal screening systems have been studied. Tobacco smoke animal models are the best known animal screening system, but have several preparation requirements, such as a tobacco smoke generator and a separate facility to prevent smoke release...
March 2018: Laboratory Animal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323189/il-13-in-lps-induced-inflammation-causes-bcl-2-expression-to-sustain-hyperplastic-mucous-cells
#2
Hitendra S Chand, Jennifer F Harris, Yohannes Tesfaigzi
Exposure to lipopolysaccharides (LPS) causes extensive neutrophilic inflammation in the airways followed by mucous cell hyperplasia (MCH) that is sustained by the anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2. To identify inflammatory factor(s) that are responsible for Bcl-2 expression, we established an organ culture system consisting of airway epithelial tissue from the rat nasal midseptum. The highest Muc5AC and Bcl-2 expression was observed when organ cultures were treated with brochoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid harvested from rats 10 h post LPS instillation...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206658/lung-function-trajectories-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-current-understanding-and-knowledge-gaps
#3
Jamuna K Krishnan, Fernando J Martinez
PURPOSE OR REVIEW: Population-based studies have shown a significant heterogeneity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), regarding both the attainment of maximal lung function and the subsequent decline over time. This review will highlight recent advances in the understanding of lung function trajectory in COPD, focusing on factors that influence peak adult lung function, markers of accelerated lung function decline and pharmacologic interventions in early phases of the disease...
March 2018: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151835/-opuntia-humifusa-modulates-morphological-changes-characteristic-of-asthma-via-il-4-and-il-13-in-an-asthma-murine-model
#4
Soon-Young Lee, Chun-Sik Bae, Young-Hoon Choi, Nam-Sook Seo, Chang-Su Na, Jin-Cheol Yoo, Seung Sik Cho, Dae-Hun Park
Asthma is a chronic pulmonary disease that affects an estimated 235 million people worldwide, but asthma drugs have many adverse effects. Opuntia humifusa (eastern prickly pear) has been used as a food and traditional medicine worldwide; however, its anti-asthmatic effects have not been reported. We evaluated O. humifusa as a potential therapeutic or preventive component of anti-asthmatic drugs. We divided ovalbumin-sensitized mice into the following groups: normal control, asthma-induced control, dexamethasone-treated group (positive control), 50 mg/kg O...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986568/bik-reduces-hyperplastic-cells-by-increasing-bak-and-activating-dapk1-to-juxtapose-er-and-mitochondria
#5
Yohannes A Mebratu, Ivan Leyva-Baca, Marc G Wathelet, Neal Lacey, Hitendra S Chand, Augustine M K Choi, Yohannes Tesfaigzi
Bik reduces hyperplastic epithelial cells by releasing calcium from endoplasmic reticulum stores and causing apoptosis, but the detailed mechanisms are not known. Here we report that Bik dissociates the Bak/Bcl-2 complex to enrich for ER-associated Bak and interacts with the kinase domain of DAPk1 to form Bik-DAPk1-ERK1/2-Bak complex. Bik also disrupts the Bcl2-IP3 R interaction to cause ER Ca2+ release. The ER-associated Bak interacts with the kinase and calmodulin domains of DAPk1 to increase the contact sites of ER and mitochondria, and facilitate ER Ca2+ uptake by mitochondria...
October 6, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894207/positive-feedback-of-the-amphiregulin-egfr-erk-pathway-mediates-pm2-5-from-wood-smoke-induced-muc5ac-expression-in-epithelial-cells
#6
Lingmei Huang, Jinding Pu, Fang He, Baoling Liao, Binwei Hao, Wei Hong, Xiuqin Ye, Jinglong Chen, Jun Zhao, Sha Liu, Juan Xu, Bing Li, Pixin Ran
Biomass fuel smoke is thought to contribute to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which is characterized by mucous cell metaplasia and enhanced mucus secretion. We investigated the effect of particulate matter (PM) with a diameter <2.5 μm (PM2.5) from wood smoke (WSPM2.5) on the expression of the most prominent secreted mucin, MUC5AC. Wood smoke was able to induce MUC5AC expression in the rat respiratory tract after 3 months of exposure. WSPM2.5 could induce MUC5AC production in both primary human airway epithelial cells and the NCI-H292 cell line...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194347/is-rectosigmoid-vaginoplasty-still-useful
#7
Seok-Kwun Kim, Ji-Woen Park, Kwang-Ryeol Lim, Keun-Cheol Lee
BACKGROUND: The ideal vaginoplasty must be successful functionally as well as have a natural appearance, and also must retain its functionality and appearance over the long term. Conventional vaginoplasty techniques have functional limitations and are associated with recurrent complications, but rectosigmoid vaginoplasty is known to have a high satisfaction rate due to its functional similarity with the vagina. We conducted the present study to assess the usability of rectosigmoid vaginoplasty over the course of long-term follow-up...
January 2017: Archives of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068894/strain-differences-in-a-murine-model-of-air-pollutant-induced-nonatopic-asthma-and-rhinitis
#8
Jack R Harkema, Lucas A Hotchkiss, Nicholas A Vetter, Daven N Jackson-Humbles, Ryan P Lewandowski, James G Wagner
Ozone is an irritating gas found in photochemical smog. Epidemiological associations have been made between the onset of asthma and childhood exposures to increasing levels of ambient ozone (i.e., air pollutant-induced nonatopic asthma). Individuals, however, vary in their susceptibility to this outdoor air pollutant, which may be due, in part, to their genetic makeup. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that there are murine strain-dependent differences in pulmonary and nasal pathologic responses to repeated ozone exposures...
January 2017: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024734/lyn-kinase-represses-mucus-hypersecretion-by-regulating-il-13-induced-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-asthma
#9
Xing Wang, Xiaoqiong Yang, Yin Li, Xiaoyun Wang, Yun Zhang, Xi Dai, Bin Niu, Juan Wu, Xiefang Yuan, Anjie Xiong, Zhigang Liu, Nanshan Zhong, Min Wu, Guoping Li
In asthma, mucus hypersecretion is thought to be a prominent pathological feature associated with widespread mucus plugging. However, the current treatments for mucus hypersecretion are often ineffective or temporary. The potential therapeutic targets of mucus hypersecretion in asthma remain unknown. Here, we show that Lyn is a central effector of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) and mucous hypersecretion in asthma. In Lyn-transgenic mice (Lyn-TG) and wild-type (WT) C57BL/6J mice exposed to ovalbumin (OVA), Lyn overexpression attenuates mucus hypersecretion and ER stress...
February 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006108/digitoxin-for-airway-inflammation-in-cystic-fibrosis-preliminary-assessment-of-safety-pharmacokinetics-and-dose-finding
#10
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Pamela L Zeitlin, Marie Diener-West, Karen A Callahan, Seakwoo Lee, C Conover Talbot, Bette Pollard, Michael P Boyle, Noah Lechtzin
RATIONALE: Cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease progresses by a combination of airway inflammation, bacterial colonization, and infection. Airway inflammation is predominantly neutrophilic and complicates airway clearance therapies through cellular debris; excessive DNA; excessive and viscous mucus; and high concentrations of neutrophils, IL-8, and related cytokines liberated along the nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway. OBJECTIVES: We conducted a preliminary, single-site, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the effects over 28 days of two dose levels (0...
February 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982104/pharmacological-and-genetic-reappraisals-of-protease-and-oxidative-stress-pathways-in-a-mouse-model-of-obstructive-lung-diseases
#11
Tsuyoshi Shuto, Shunsuke Kamei, Hirofumi Nohara, Haruka Fujikawa, Yukihiro Tasaki, Takuya Sugahara, Tomomi Ono, Chizuru Matsumoto, Yuki Sakaguchi, Kasumi Maruta, Ryunosuke Nakashima, Taisei Kawakami, Mary Ann Suico, Yoshitaka Kondo, Akihito Ishigami, Toru Takeo, Ken-Ichiro Tanaka, Hiroshi Watanabe, Naomi Nakagata, Kohei Uchimura, Kenichiro Kitamura, Jian-Dong Li, Hirofumi Kai
Protease-antiprotease imbalance and oxidative stress are considered to be major pathophysiological hallmarks of severe obstructive lung diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cystic fibrosis (CF), but limited information is available on their direct roles in the regulation of pulmonary phenotypes. Here, we utilized βENaC-transgenic (Tg) mice, the previously established mouse model of severe obstructive lung diseases, to produce lower-mortality but pathophysiologically highly useful mouse model by backcrossing the original line with C57/BL6J mice...
December 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886408/role-of-rock2-in-cd4-cells-in-allergic-airways-responses-in-mice
#12
D I Kasahara, J A Mathews, F M C Ninin, A P Wurmbrand, J K Liao, S A Shore
BACKGROUND: Rho kinases (ROCKs) contribute to allergic airways disease. ROCKs also play a role in lymphocyte proliferation and migration. OBJECTIVE: To determine the role of ROCK2 acting within CD4+ cells in allergic airways responses. METHODS: ROCK2-haploinsufficient (ROCK2+/- ) and wild-type mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA). ROCK2+/- mice then received either CD4+ cells from ROCK2-sufficient OVA TCR transgenic (OT-II) mice or saline i...
February 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27387375/histochemical-study-of-the-effects-on-abomasal-mucins-of-haemonchus-contortus-or-teladorsagia-circumcincta-infection-in-lambs
#13
H V Simpson, S Umair, V C Hoang, M S Savoian
Previously, chemical analysis of gastric fundic mucin showed that infection of sheep with Haemonchus contortus or Teladorsagia circumcincta changed the proportions of monosaccharides and decreased terminal mucin fucosylation and sialylation. To identify the effects of these parasites on the two mucin-secreting cell lineages, fundic and antral tissues were collected for histochemistry from 69 lambs aged from 3-4 to 9-10 months-of-age which had received a single infection of either H. contortus or T. circumcincta and euthanased at Day 21 or 28 post- infection respectively...
August 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27379190/giant-primary-schwannoma-of-the-left-nasal-cavity-and-ethmoid-sinus
#14
Eugene Wong, Justin Kong, Lawrence Oh, Daniel Cox, Martin Forer
A unilateral tumour in the nasal cavity or paranasal sinuses is commonly caused by polyps, cysts, and mucoceles, as well as invasive tumours such as papillomas and squamous cell carcinomas. Schwannomas, in contrast, are rare lesions in this area (Minhas et al., 2013). We present a case of a 52-year-old female who presented with a 4-year progressive history of mucous hypersecretion, nasal obstruction, pain, and fullness. Imaging of the paranasal sinuses showed complete opacification of the entire left nasal cavity and sinuses by a tumour causing subsequent obstruction of the frontal and maxillary sinuses...
2016: Case Reports in Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27161908/lebrikizumab-in-the-treatment-of-asthma
#15
Stephen Bujarski, Amit D Parulekar, Nicola A Hanania
Severe asthma continues to be a major clinical problem despite the availability of effective asthma medications such as inhaled corticosteroids. Several targeted biologic therapies are emerging to treat patients with severe asthma. Areas Covered: This review provides an update of information on lebrikizumab, a novel monoclonal antibody that targets IL-13 and is currently in advanced stages of development. It describes the role of IL-13, a key effector cytokine in Type 2 (T2) airway inflammation in asthma and discusses the results of recent phase 2 trials investigating lebrikizumab's efficacy and safety in patients with severe asthma...
May 10, 2016: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27012292/flexible-bronchoscopy-during-non-invasive-positive-pressure-mechanical-ventilation-are-two-better-than-one
#16
REVIEW
Raffaele Scala
Flexible bronchoscopy (FBO) and non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) are largely applied in respiratory and general intensive care units. FBO plays a crucial role for the diagnosis of lung infiltrates of unknown origin and for the treatment of airways obstruction due to bronchial mucous plugging and hemoptysis in critical patients. NIPPV is the first-choice ventilatory strategy for acute respiratory failure (ARF) of different causes as it could be used as prevention or as alternative to the conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) via endotracheal intubation (ETI)...
September 2016: Panminerva Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26872986/ambroxol-inhalation-ameliorates-lps-induced-airway-inflammation-and-mucus-secretion-through-the-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-1-2-signaling-pathway
#17
Shui-juan Zhang, Juan-xia Jiang, Qian-qian Ren, Yong-liang Jia, Jian Shen, Hui-juan Shen, Xi-xi Lin, Hong Lu, Qiang-min Xie
Ambroxol, a metabolite of bromhexine, is shown to exert several pharmacological activities, including secretolytic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions. Oral and intravenous administration of ambroxol is useful for the airway inflammatory diseases. However, little is known about its potential in inhalation therapy for lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mucous hypersecretion and inflammatory response. In the present study, we compared the pharmacological effects of ambroxol by inhalation with intravenous administration and preliminarily explored its mechanism of action...
March 15, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26245530/rho-kinase-inhibitor-fasudil-reduces-allergic-airway-inflammation-and%C3%A2-mucus-hypersecretion-by-regulating-stat6-and-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb
#18
T Xie, Gy Luo, Y Zhang, X Wang, Xy Wang, M Wu, Gp Li
BACKGROUND: Airway mucus hypersecretion is a key pathophysiological feature in asthma. Fasudil, a selective Rho-A/Rho kinase inhibitor, has been used in clinical trials to treat pulmonary hypertension. However, its function in modulating airway mucus hypersecretion in asthma remains undefined. OBJECTIVE: We examined whether fasudil, a selective Rho-A/Rho kinase inhibitor, affects the mucus hypersecretion by suppressing MUC5AC via signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 6 (STAT6) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB) in mice and cells...
December 2015: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26165014/-naringenin-may-block-rsv-induced-mucous-hypersecretion-in-a549-cell-via-jnk-ap-1-signaling-pathway
#19
Shanshan Meng, Yanling Wu, Xiaoguang Hu, Hailin Zhang, Changchong Li
OBJECTIVE: Naringenin has been reported to attenuate Mucin (MUC) 5AC secretion in many pathological models. Many stimuli activate MUC5AC expression through JNK/AP-1 signaling pathways. We hypothesized that naringenin may have inhibitory effects on mucous hypersecretion by modulating MUC5AC production and inhibiting JNK/AP-1 signaling pathways. METHOD: The cell model of mucous hypersecretion was made by human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial (A549) cells stimulated by RSV...
March 2015: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26068421/the-relationship-between-ischemia-time-and-mucous-secretion-in-vaginal-reconstruction-with-the-jejunal-free-flap-an-experimental-study-on-the-rat-jejunum
#20
Omer Ozkan, Ozlenen Ozkan, Gamze Bektas, Anı Cinpolat, Ibrahim Bassorgun, Akif Ciftcioglu
Jejunum flap for reconstruction of the vagina provides a durable, stable coverage; patent tube passage; and natural esthetic appearance. However, excessive mucous secretion is a major drawback of the technique.We have recently presented our cases in which strict 3-hour ischemia with lower mucus secretion was applied. However, a quantitative analysis of goblet cells of the jejunum subjected to ischemia and ischemia-reperfusion injury on an animal model has not been reported to support this argument.Because goblet cells are responsible for the production and the maintenance of the mucous blanket, we aimed to determine whether goblet cell numbers decrease after ischemia and ischemia-reperfusion injury...
July 2015: Annals of Plastic Surgery
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