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Outpatient management of acute pulmonary embolism

Luke S Howard
Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is a relatively common cardiopulmonary emergency that is a major cause of hospitalization and morbidity and is the primary cause of mortality associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE). During the last decade, one of the biggest changes in the management of PE has been the approval of four non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs; apixaban, dabigatran, edoxaban and rivaroxaban) for the treatment of PE and deep vein thrombosis and secondary prevention of VTE. Areas covered: This article reviews the evolving management of PE in the NOAC era and addresses three fundamental questions: who should receive NOACs over conventional heparin/vitamin K antagonist regimens for the treatment of acute PE; should patients be treated as inpatients or outpatients; and how long should patients be treated to reduce the risk of recurrence? Expert commentary: The management of PE is changing...
May 2018: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
Joseph R Bledsoe, Scott C Woller, Scott M Stevens, Valerie Aston, Rich Patten, Todd Allen, Benjamin D Horne, Lydia Dong, James Lloyd, Greg Snow, Troy Madsen, C Gregory Elliott
BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety of managing patients with low-risk pulmonary embolism (PE) without hospitalization requires objective data from US medical centers. We sought to determine the 90-day composite rate of recurrent symptomatic VTE, major bleeding events, and all-cause mortality among consecutive patients diagnosed with acute low-risk PE managed without inpatient hospitalization; and to measure patient satisfaction. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort single-arm management study conducted from January 2013 to October 2016 in five EDs...
February 2, 2018: Chest
Jordana Cheta, Ashleigh Long, Paul Marik
Pulmonary embolism (PE) represents a prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States, with approximately 600 000 cases diagnosed annually. The mortality rate for untreated PE is as high as 30%. Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction is a sign of possible adverse outcomes with right-sided heart failure being the usual cause of death from PE. There is a spectrum of clinical presentations associated with PE diagnoses, from incidental and asymptomatic to rapid hemodynamic collapse. Despite successes in identifying patients with "high-risk" PEs for aggressive thrombolytic interventions and "low-risk" PEs for outpatient anticoagulation, a significant lack of consensus exists regarding intervention modalities for PEs identified as "intermediate risk" or "submassive," defined as normotensive (systolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg) with acute RV dysfunction and myocardial injury...
October 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
David R Vinson, Dustin W Ballard, Jie Huang, Mary E Reed, James S Lin, Mamata V Kene, Dana R Sax, Adina S Rauchwerger, David H Wang, D Ian McLachlan, Tamara S Pleshakov, Matthew A Silver, Victoria A Clague, Andrew S Klonecke, Dustin G Mark
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Outpatient management of emergency department (ED) patients with acute pulmonary embolism is uncommon. We seek to evaluate the facility-level variation of outpatient pulmonary embolism management and to describe patient characteristics and outcomes associated with home discharge. METHODS: The Management of Acute Pulmonary Embolism (MAPLE) study is a retrospective cohort study of patients with acute pulmonary embolism undertaken in 21 community EDs from January 2013 to April 2015...
December 13, 2017: Annals of Emergency Medicine
Jerrett K Lau, Vincent Chow, Alex Brown, Leonard Kritharides, Austin C C Ng
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary embolism continues to be a significant cause of death. The aim was to derive and validate a risk prediction model for in-hospital death after acute pulmonary embolism to identify low risk patients suitable for outpatient management. METHODS: A confirmed acute pulmonary embolism database of 1,426 consecutive patients admitted to a tertiary-center (2000-2012) was analyzed, with odd and even years as derivation and validation cohorts respectively...
2017: PloS One
Abdullah S Al Saleh, Patrick Berrigan, David Anderson, Sudeep Shivakumar
BACKGROUND: To date, there have been few economic evaluations, from a Canadian perspective, of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) for the prevention of recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with acute unprovoked VTE. As a result, there is a lack of consensus about which treatment strategy should be adopted in the clinical setting. OBJECTIVES: To assess the cost-effectiveness of currently approved anti-coagulant options, in terms of cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained, for the prevention of recurrent VTE in patients with unprovoked events managed on an outpatient basis...
May 2017: Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy
Alexander T Cohen, Anselm K Gitt, Rupert Bauersachs, Eva-Maria Fronk, Petra Laeis, Patrick Mismetti, Manuel Monreal, Stefan N Willich, Peter Bramlage, Giancarlo Agnelli, On Behalf Of The Prefer In Vte Scientific Steering Committee And The Prefer In Vte Investigators
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in Europe. Data from real-world registries are necessary, as clinical trials do not represent the full spectrum of VTE patients seen in clinical practice. We aimed to document the epidemiology, management and outcomes of VTE using data from a large, observational database. PREFER in VTE was an international, non-interventional disease registry conducted between January 2013 and July 2015 in primary and secondary care across seven European countries...
June 27, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
P-M Roy, D J Corsi, M Carrier, A Theogene, C de Wit, C Dennie, G Le Gal, A Delluc, T Moumneh, M Rodger, P Wells, E Gandara
Essentials Clinical benefit of hospitalization vs. outpatient treatment in pulmonary embolism (PE) is unknown. We performed a propensity matched cohort study of hemodynamically stable PE patients. Regardless of the risk assessment, hospitalized patients had the highest rate of adverse event. If confirmed, ambulatory care of normotensive PE patients may be preferred whenever possible. SUMMARY: Background The decision to hospitalize or not patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is controversial...
April 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
Brit Long, Alex Koyfman
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common condition managed in the emergency department (ED), with a wide range of morbidity and mortality. Patients are classically admitted for treatment and monitoring of anticoagulation. OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate the controversy concerning outpatient therapy for patients with acute PE and investigate the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of outpatient management. DISCUSSION: Patients with venous thromboembolism have historically been admitted for treatment and monitoring for concern of worsening disease or side effects of anticoagulation (bleeding)...
May 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
John Ryan
Nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants, previously referred to as novel oral anticoagulants, have emerged in recent years as attractive treatment options for acute pulmonary embolism (PE). However, despite the widespread anticipation by physicians and the approval of rivaroxaban, apixaban, dabigatran, and more recently edoxaban, there is still some reluctance to choose these newer agents over conventional treatment with heparin/vitamin K antagonists. Acute PE puts a considerable strain on emergency departments, and medical staff rely on efficient diagnosis and risk assessment to manage the condition appropriately and economically...
2016: Open Access Emergency Medicine: OAEM
Siavash Piran, Sam Schulman
Venous thromboembolism (VTE), which constitutes pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis, is a common disorder associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Landmark trials have shown that direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are as effective as conventional anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists (VKA) in prevention of VTE recurrence and associated with less bleeding. This has paved the way for the recently published guidelines to change their recommendations in favor of DOACs in acute and long-term treatment of VTE in patients without cancer...
2016: Thrombosis Journal
Fay Crawford, Alina Andras, Karen Welch, Karen Sheares, David Keeling, Francesca M Chappell
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary embolism (PE) can occur when a thrombus (blood clot) travels through the veins and lodges in the arteries of the lungs, producing an obstruction. People who are thought to be at risk include those with cancer, people who have had a recent surgical procedure or have experienced long periods of immobilisation and women who are pregnant. The clinical presentation can vary, but unexplained respiratory symptoms such as difficulty breathing, chest pain and an increased respiratory rate are common...
August 5, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Paul L den Exter, Wendy Zondag, Frederikus A Klok, Rolf E Brouwer, Janneke Dolsma, Michiel Eijsvogel, Laura M Faber, Marijke van Gerwen, Marco J Grootenboers, Roxane Heller-Baan, Marcel M Hovens, Gé J P M Jonkers, Klaas W van Kralingen, Christian F Melissant, Henny Peltenburg, Judith P Post, Marcel A van de Ree, L Th Tom Vlasveld, Mariëlle J de Vreede, Menno V Huisman
RATIONALE: Outpatient treatment of pulmonary embolism (PE) may lead to improved patient satisfaction and reduced healthcare costs. However, trials to assess its safety and the optimal method for patient selection are scarce. OBJECTIVES: To validate the utility and safety of selecting patients with PE for outpatient treatment by the Hestia criteria and to compare the safety of the Hestia criteria alone with the Hestia criteria combined with N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) testing...
October 15, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Joshua D Lenchus
INTRODUCTION: Patients experience numerous transitions, including changes in clinical status, pharmacologic treatment and prophylaxis, and progression through the physical locations of their healthcare setting as they advance through a venous thromboembolism (VTE) clinical experience. This review provides an overview of these transitions and highlights how they can impact clinical care. METHODS: Major public resources (PubMed, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar) were searched using various combinations of the terms: "venous thromboembolism", "deep vein thromboses", "pulmonary embolism", "transitions in care", and "hospital protocols" to identify narrative reviews, professional guidelines, or primary manuscripts reporting protocol development strategies and/or clinical data, published in English from 2010 through January 2015...
January 2016: Advances in Therapy
Rachel Limbrey, Luke Howard
Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a serious and costly disease for patients and healthcare systems. Guidelines emphasise the importance of differentiating between patients who are at high risk of mortality (those with shock and/or hypotension), who may be candidates for thrombolytic therapy or surgery, and those with less severe presentations. Recent clinical studies and guidelines have focused particularly on risk stratification of intermediate-risk patients. Although the use of thrombolysis has been investigated in these patients, anticoagulation remains the standard treatment approach...
September 2015: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
T van der Hulle, C E A Dronkers, F A Klok, M V Huisman
Due to the nonspecific symptoms of the condition, a diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is frequently considered. However, PE will only be confirmed in 10-20% of patients. Because the imaging test of choice, computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA), is costly and associated with radiation exposure and other complications, a validated diagnostic algorithm consisting of a clinical decision rule and D-dimer test should be used to safely exclude PE in 20-30% of patients without the need for CTPA...
January 2016: Journal of Internal Medicine
Fahad M Al-Hameed, Hasan M Al-Dorzi, Abdulkarim M Al-Momen, Farjah H Algahtani, Hazzaa A Al-Zahrani, Khalid A Al-Saleh, Mohammed A Al-Sheef, Tarek M Owaidah, Waleed Alhazzani, Ignacio Neumann, Wojtek Wiercioch, Jan Brozek, Holger Schunemann, Elie A Akl
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) including deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) is commonly encountered in daily clinical practice. After diagnosis, its management frequently carries significant challenges to the clinical practitioner. Treatment of VTE with the inappropriate modality and/or in the inappropriate setting may lead to serious complications and have life-threatening consequences. As a result of an initiative of the Ministry of Health of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, an expert panel led by the Saudi Association for Venous Thrombo-Embolism (a subsidiary of the Saudi Thoracic Society) and the Saudi Scientific Hematology Society with the methodological support of the McMaster University Guideline working group, this clinical practice guideline was produced to assist health care providers in VTE management...
August 2015: Saudi Medical Journal
Anurag Bajaj, Parul Rathor, Vishal Sehgal, Besher Kabak, Ajay Shetty, Ossama Al Masalmeh, Srikanth Hosur
BACKGROUND: Various biomarkers have been evaluated to risk stratify patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE). We aimed to summarize the available evidence to compare the prognostic value of three most widely studied biomarkers in normotensive patients with acute PE. METHOD: A systematic literature review of database, including Pubmed, EMBASE and Cochrane, was done. Studies were included if those were done on patients with acute PE and serum troponin or brain natriuretic peptide and N-terminal proBNP (BNP/NT-proBNP) or Heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) assay was done...
October 2015: Lung
A Payerols-Ternisien, A Meusy, A Terminet, D Pontal, A Bourdin, M Vergés, M Sebbane, V Georgesu, P Aubas, I Quéré, G Mercier, J-P Galanaud
BACKGROUND: In France, initial management of pulmonary embolism (PE) is performed in the hospital setting. The latest international guidelines suggest that PE at low risk of mortality can be treated in the ambulatory care setting. This means that ambulatory care pathways and general practitioner (GP) opinions concerning such a change in practice need to be determined. OBJECTIVES: To determine: (1) rate of patients eligible for an ambulatory management of their PE and reasons for hospitalization of PE at low risk of mortality; (2) acceptability for GPs of PE home care and patient's desired care pathway...
July 2015: Journal des Maladies Vasculaires
Patrick Mismetti, Laurent Bertoletti
The initial management or venous thromboembolism (VTE) corresponds to the first 3 months of treatment. Pulmonary embolism (PE) are mostly hospitalized. Serious PE associated with hemodynamic instability has to be admitted in intensive care unit due to the need for fibrinolytics. PE without any risk factor for VTE recurrences or death could be followed as outpatient. Conversely, deep vein thrombosis (DVT), including proximal DVT are not hospitalized with the xception of patients with serious risk factors. The therapeutic strategy is identical between DVT and PE treatment with an acute phase with either parenteral anticoagulants, especially low molecular weight heparins or fondaparinux, or by an intensive dose of direct oral anticoagulant such as rivaroxaban or apixaban...
February 2015: La Revue du Praticien
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