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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220467/emergent-dynamical-properties-of-the-bcm-learning-rule
#1
Lawrence C Udeigwe, Paul W Munro, G Bard Ermentrout
The Bienenstock-Cooper-Munro (BCM) learning rule provides a simple setup for synaptic modification that combines a Hebbian product rule with a homeostatic mechanism that keeps the weights bounded. The homeostatic part of the learning rule depends on the time average of the post-synaptic activity and provides a sliding threshold that distinguishes between increasing or decreasing weights. There are, thus, two essential time scales in the BCM rule: a homeostatic time scale, and a synaptic modification time scale...
December 2017: Journal of Mathematical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143874/body-composition-as-a-predictor-of-toxicity-in-patients-receiving-anthracycline-and-taxane-based-chemotherapy-for-early-stage-breast-cancer
#2
Shlomit Strulov Shachar, Allison M Deal, Marc Weinberg, Grant R Williams, Kirsten A Nyrop, Karteek Popuri, Seul Ki Choi, Hyman Muss
PURPOSE: Poor body composition metrics (BCM) are associated with inferior cancer outcomes; however, in early breast cancer (EBC) there is a paucity of evidence regarding BCM's impact on toxicities. This study investigates associations between BCM and treatment-related toxicity in EBC patients receiving anthracyclines-taxane based chemotherapy. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Pretreatment computerized tomography (CT) images were evaluated for skeletal muscle area (SMA), density (SMD), and fat tissue at the 3rd lumbar vertebrae...
January 31, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118756/contribution-of-volume-overload-to-the-arterial-stiffness-of-hemodialysis-patients
#3
Łukasz Czyżewski, Janusz Wyzgał, Emilia Czyżewska, Janusz Sierdziński, Łukasz Szarpak
Arterial stiffness is evaluated with the measurement of pulse wave velocity (PWV), while overhydration (OH) and nutritional status are evaluated with bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS). In this study, we investigated the effect of a single dialysis session on arterial stiffness, hydration status, and laboratory parameters. The observational, cross-sectional, cohort study included 71 HD patients with mean age 64 ± 16 yrs. A Complior device was used to perform PWV measurements. The patients were examined immediately before and 15 min after a mid-week hemodialysis session...
November 2017: Renal Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112199/genome-wide-association-analysis-of-chronic-lymphocytic-leukaemia-hodgkin-lymphoma-and-multiple-myeloma-identifies-pleiotropic-risk-loci
#4
Philip J Law, Amit Sud, Jonathan S Mitchell, Marc Henrion, Giulia Orlando, Oleg Lenive, Peter Broderick, Helen E Speedy, David C Johnson, Martin Kaiser, Niels Weinhold, Rosie Cooke, Nicola J Sunter, Graham H Jackson, Geoffrey Summerfield, Robert J Harris, Andrew R Pettitt, David J Allsup, Jonathan Carmichael, James R Bailey, Guy Pratt, Thahira Rahman, Chris Pepper, Chris Fegan, Elke Pogge von Strandmann, Andreas Engert, Asta Försti, Bowang Chen, Miguel Inacio da Silva Filho, Hauke Thomsen, Per Hoffmann, Markus M Noethen, Lewin Eisele, Karl-Heinz Jöckel, James M Allan, Anthony J Swerdlow, Hartmut Goldschmidt, Daniel Catovsky, Gareth J Morgan, Kari Hemminki, Richard S Houlston
B-cell malignancies (BCM) originate from the same cell of origin, but at different maturation stages and have distinct clinical phenotypes. Although genetic risk variants for individual BCMs have been identified, an agnostic, genome-wide search for shared genetic susceptibility has not been performed. We explored genome-wide association studies of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL, N = 1,842), Hodgkin lymphoma (HL, N = 1,465) and multiple myeloma (MM, N = 3,790). We identified a novel pleiotropic risk locus at 3q22...
January 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074874/modeling-confirmation-bias-and-polarization
#5
Michela Del Vicario, Antonio Scala, Guido Caldarelli, H Eugene Stanley, Walter Quattrociocchi
Online users tend to select claims that adhere to their system of beliefs and to ignore dissenting information. Confirmation bias, indeed, plays a pivotal role in viral phenomena. Furthermore, the wide availability of content on the web fosters the aggregation of likeminded people where debates tend to enforce group polarization. Such a configuration might alter the public debate and thus the formation of the public opinion. In this paper we provide a mathematical model to study online social debates and the related polarization dynamics...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040796/role-of-rpl39-in-metaplastic-breast-cancer
#6
Bhuvanesh Dave, Daniel D Gonzalez, Zhi-Bin Liu, Xiaoxian Li, Helen Wong, Sergio Granados, Nadeer E Ezzedine, Douglas H Sieglaff, Joe E Ensor, Kathy D Miller, Milan Radovich, Agda KarinaEtrovic, Steven S Gross, Olivier Elemento, Gordon B Mills, Michael Z Gilcrease, Jenny C Chang
BACKGROUND: Metaplastic breast cancer is one of the most therapeutically challenging forms of breast cancer because of its highly heterogeneous and chemoresistant nature. We have previously demonstrated that ribosomal protein L39 (RPL39) and its gain-of-function mutation A14V have oncogenic activity in triple-negative breast cancer and this activity may be mediated through inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). The function of RPL39 and A14V in other breast cancer subtypes is currently unknown...
June 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033185/use-of-the-body-composition-monitor-for-fluid-status-measurements-in-elderly-malnourished-subjects
#7
David F Keane, Kim Bowra, Kathryn Kearney, Elizabeth Lindley
Most haemodialysis (HD) patients are able to finish dialysis at or below the normally hydrated weight determined using the body composition monitor (BCM). However, a minority become symptomatic when they are still fluid overloaded based on BCM-measured overhydration (OH). Malnourished patients frequently fall into this group, suggesting that they may have OH that is inaccessible to ultrafiltration. To isolate any effect of malnutrition on BCM-measured OH from those relating to renal failure, OH measurements for twenty elderly subjects with normal renal function who were classified as malnourished were compared with an age-matched cohort with no known nutritional issues...
December 26, 2016: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002640/activation-of-galanin-and-cholecystokinin-receptors-in-the-lumbosacral-spinal-cord-is-required-for-ejaculation-in-male-rats
#8
Natalie Kozyrev, Lique M Coolen
The spinal ejaculation generator is comprised of lumbar spinothalamic (LSt) cells and their axonal projections to autonomic and motor neurons in the lumbosacral spinal cord. LSt cells regulate ejaculatory reflexes by release of neuropeptides that are co-expressed in their axons, as previously demonstrated for gastrin releasing peptide and enkephalin. Here, the role of two other neuropeptides co-expressed in LSt cells for ejaculatory reflexes are demonstrated: galanin and cholecystokinin (CCK). Adult male rats were anesthetized, spinalized, and received intrathecal infusions of galanin receptor antagonist Galantide (1 or 10 nmol) or CCK receptor antagonist proglumide (71 or 714 nmol)...
December 21, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984232/balloon-cell-melanoma-and-its-metastasis-a-rare-entity
#9
Sonia Chavez-Alvarez, Alejandra Villarreal-Martinez, Ivett Miranda-Maldonado, Jorge Ocampo-Candiani, Veronica Garza-Rodriguez
Balloon cell melanoma (BCM) with metastasis is a rarely occurring neoplasia. The incidence of BCM is low, and hence, the frequency of these lesions presenting metastasis is even less frequent. This review exposes the balloon cell metastasis cases that have been published and a new case. These cases share the histopathological features but the location of initial melanoma, age and sex vary. It is relevant for the dermatologist and dermatopathologist to keep in mind the diagnosis of BCM and consider the possibility of it metastasizing as nonpigmented skin lesions...
December 10, 2016: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878132/ruptured-cystic-mesothelioma-diagnosed-after-blunt-trauma-case-report-and-literature-review
#10
Francisco Igor B Macedo, Alice J Race, Laszlo M Hoesel
The majority of blunt trauma is secondary to motor vehicle crashes,especially in those wearing seatbelts or sitting in the front or passenger seat location.Hollow viscus gastrointestinal injuries occur more frequently in small bowel, followed by colorectal, duodenum, stomach and appendix. A 25-year-old male presents after being involved in a motor vehicle accident. Initialworkup was significant for moderate amount of pelvic free fluid and curvilinear,cysticlike structures in the pelvis. He subsequently developed peritonitis and underwentdiagnostic laparoscopy, which revealed multiple cystic nodules arising from theperitoneum...
2016: Bulletin of Emergency and Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858093/targeted-intraoperative-radiotherapy-tumour-bed-boost-during-breast-conserving-surgery-after-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy
#11
Hans-Christian Kolberg, Gyoergy Loevey, Leyla Akpolat-Basci, Miltiades Stephanou, Peter A Fasching, Michael Untch, Cornelia Liedtke, Max Bulsara, Jayant S Vaidya
INTRODUCTION: The use of targeted intraoperative radiotherapy (TARGIT-IORT) as a tumour bed boost during breast-conserving surgery (BCS) for breast cancer has been reported since 1998. We present its use in patients undergoing breast conservation following neoadjuvant therapy (NACT). METHOD: In this retrospective study involving 116 patients after NACT we compared outcomes of 61 patients who received a tumour bed boost with IORT during lumpectomy versus 55 patients treated in the previous 13 months with external (EBRT) boost...
January 2017: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827911/changes-in-body-composition-in-the-two-years-after-initiation-of-haemodialysis-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#12
David Keane, Claire Gardiner, Elizabeth Lindley, Simon Lines, Graham Woodrow, Mark Wright
Malnutrition is common in haemodialysis (HD) and is linked to poor outcomes. This study aimed to describe changes in body composition after the initiation of HD and investigate whether any routinely collected parameters were associated with these changes. The study cohort came from the HD population of a single centre between 2009 and 2014. Body composition measurements were obtained from a database of bioimpedance results using the Body Composition Monitor (BCM), while demographics and laboratory values came from the renal unit database...
November 4, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769238/bcm-toolkit-for-bayesian-analysis-of-computational-models-using-samplers
#13
Bram Thijssen, Tjeerd M H Dijkstra, Tom Heskes, Lodewyk F A Wessels
BACKGROUND: Computational models in biology are characterized by a large degree of uncertainty. This uncertainty can be analyzed with Bayesian statistics, however, the sampling algorithms that are frequently used for calculating Bayesian statistical estimates are computationally demanding, and each algorithm has unique advantages and disadvantages. It is typically unclear, before starting an analysis, which algorithm will perform well on a given computational model. RESULTS: We present BCM, a toolkit for the Bayesian analysis of Computational Models using samplers...
October 21, 2016: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680716/clinical-evaluation-of-glutathione-concentrations-after-consumption-of-milk-containing-different-subtypes-of-%C3%AE-casein-results-from-a-randomized-cross-over-clinical-trial
#14
Richard Deth, Andrew Clarke, Jiayi Ni, Malav Trivedi
: This study reports the plasma glutathione concentrations in a double-blind, randomized, controlled, 2 × 2 cross-over study in which healthy participants consumed conventional milk (2 × 250 mL per day) containing both A1 and A2 types of β-casein, or milk containing only A2 type β-casein. Beta-casomorphin-7 (BCM-7), a peptide uniquely derived from the A1 type of β-casein, was previously reported to downregulate glutathione expression in human gut epithelial and neuronal cell lines by limiting cysteine uptake...
September 29, 2016: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666944/validating-body-fat-assessment-by-bioelectric-impedance-spectroscopy-in-taiwanese-hemodialysis-patients
#15
Paik Seong Lim, Chang Hsu Chen, Fansan Zhu, Peter Kotanko, Yachung Jeng, Chun Yu Hu, Li Shu Chiu, Hui-Chen Chang
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is becoming increasingly common in hemodialysis (HD) patients and is associated with inflammation and increased mortality. The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate the accuracy and variability of the bioimpedance device in measuring body fat in Taiwanese dialysis patients. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS: One hundred twenty-two adult patients receiving HD in a single hospital in Taiwan. SETTING: We compared the results of fat mass (FM) measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy device (Body composition monitor, BCM)...
January 2017: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648408/is-overhydration-in-peritoneal-dialysis-patients-associated-with-cardiac-mortality-that-might-be-reversible
#16
Elizabeth Oei, Klara Paudel, Annemarie Visser, Hazel Finney, Stanley L Fan
AIM: To study the relationship between overhydration (OH) in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients and cardiac mortality. METHODS: OH, as measured by body composition monitor (BCM), is associated with increased mortality in dialysis patients. BCM has been used to guide treatment on the assumption that correcting OH will improve cardiac morbidity and mortality although data demonstrating causality that is reversible is limited. We wished to determine if OH in PD patients predicted cardiac mortality, and if there was a correlation between OH and cardiac troponin-T (cTnT) levels...
September 6, 2016: World Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647501/a-concept-mapping-study-on-organic-food-consumers-in-shanghai-china
#17
Huliyeti Hasimu, Sergio Marchesini, Maurizio Canavari
Despite some similarities with developed countries, the growth of organic market in China seems to follow a different path. Thus, important questions are how Chinese urban consumers perceive organic food, and what are the main concepts associated to the organic attribute. We aimed at representing in graphic form the network of mental associations with the organic concept. We used an adapted version of the "Brand concept mapping" method to acquire, process, and draw individual concept networks perceived by 50 organic food consumers in Shanghai...
January 1, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27640675/dna-barcoding-reveal-patterns-of-species-diversity-among-northwestern-pacific-molluscs
#18
Shao'e Sun, Qi Li, Lingfeng Kong, Hong Yu, Xiaodong Zheng, Ruihai Yu, Lina Dai, Yan Sun, Jun Chen, Jun Liu, Lehai Ni, Yanwei Feng, Zhenzhen Yu, Shanmei Zou, Jiping Lin
This study represents the first comprehensive molecular assessment of northwestern Pacific molluscs. In total, 2801 DNA barcodes belonging to 569 species from China, Japan and Korea were analyzed. An overlap between intra- and interspecific genetic distances was present in 71 species. We tested the efficacy of this library by simulating a sequence-based specimen identification scenario using Best Match (BM), Best Close Match (BCM) and All Species Barcode (ASB) criteria with three threshold values. BM approach returned 89...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620902/application-of-bioimpedance-spectroscopy-in-asian-dialysis-patients-abisad-iii-a-randomized-controlled-trial-for-clinical-outcomes
#19
Chen Huan-Sheng, Chang Yeong-Chang, Hsieh Ming-Hsing, Tseng Fan-Lieh, Lin Chu-Cheng, Wu Tsai-Kun, Chen Hung-Ping, Hung Sze-Hung, Chiu Hsien-Chang, Lee Chia-Chen, Hou Chun-Cheng, Cheng Chun-Ting, Liou Hung-Hsiang, Lin Chun-Ju, Lim Paik-Seong
PURPOSE: Fluid management with body composition monitor based on bioimpedance spectroscopy (BCM-BIS) has been found to be beneficial for dialysis patients. We conducted a study to provide an algorithm for the determination of post-dialysis target weight (PDTW) and to evaluate whether this approach could improve clinical outcomes compared to patients who had PDTW decided clinically. METHODS: Two hundred and ninety-eight dialysis patients participated in this 1-year randomized controlled trial...
November 2016: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574316/inferring-brain-computational-mechanisms-with-models-of-activity-measurements
#20
Nikolaus Kriegeskorte, Jörn Diedrichsen
High-resolution functional imaging is providing increasingly rich measurements of brain activity in animals and humans. A major challenge is to leverage such data to gain insight into the brain's computational mechanisms. The first step is to define candidate brain-computational models (BCMs) that can perform the behavioural task in question. We would then like to infer which of the candidate BCMs best accounts for measured brain-activity data. Here we describe a method that complements each BCM by a measurement model (MM), which simulates the way the brain-activity measurements reflect neuronal activity (e...
October 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
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