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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733781/bitc-and-s-carvone-restrain-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-and-ameliorate-hepatic-steatosis-and-insulin-resistance
#1
Sary Alsanea, Dexi Liu
PURPOSE: To investigate the preventative activity of benzyl isothiocyante and S-carvone against high-fat diet-induced obesity and metabolic complications. METHODS: Ten-week-old C57BL/6 male mice were fed a high-fat diet and injected intraperitoneally twice per week with benzyl isothiocyante, S-carvone, or vehicle for 8 weeks. The body weight, food intake, and body composition were monitored, and glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance tests were performed at the end of the experiment...
July 21, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732577/cross-calibration-of-the-ge-prodigy-and-idxa-for-the-measurement-of-total-and-regional-body-composition-in-adults
#2
Brian Oldroyd, Laura Treadgold, Karen Hind
Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) body composition measurements are widely performed in both clinical and research settings, and enable the rapid and noninvasive estimation of total and regional fat and lean mass tissues. DXA upgrading can occur during longitudinal monitoring or study; therefore, cross calibration of old and new absorptiometers is required. We compared soft tissue estimations from the GE Prodigy (GE Healthcare, Madison, WI) with the more recent iDXA (GE Healthcare) and developed translational equations to enable Prodigy values to be converted to iDXA values...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727018/evaluation-of-electrical-broad-bandwidth-impedance-spectroscopy-as-a-tool-for-body-composition-measurement-in-cows-in-comparison-with-body-measurements-and-the-deuterium-oxide-dilution-method
#3
C T Schäff, U Pliquett, A Tuchscherer, R Pfuhl, S Görs, C C Metges, H M Hammon, C Kröger-Koch
Body fatness and degree of body fat mobilization in cows vary enormously during their reproduction cycle and influence energy partitioning and metabolic adaptation. The objective of the study was to test bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS) as a method for predicting fat depot mass (FDM), in living cows. The FDM is defined as the sum of subcutaneous, omental, mesenteric, retroperitoneal, and carcass fat mass. Bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy is compared with the prediction of FDM from the deuterium oxide (DO) dilution method and from body conformation measurements...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723820/the-effects-of-cardiovascular-fitness-and-body-composition-on-maximal-core-temperature-in-collegiate-football-players-during-pre-season
#4
JoAnna M McClelland, Sandra Fowkes Godek, Pamela S Chlad, Deborah L Feairheller, Katherine E Morrison
This study evaluated the effects of BMI and aerobic fitness (VO2max) on maximal core temperature values (Tcmax) in 17 NCAA Division III football players during pre-season. The subjects included nine backs (BKs) and eight linemen (LM). VO2max testing was performed one week prior to pre-season. Core temperature was monitored via ingestible sensor every 10 min during practices on day 4(D1), day 5(D2), day 7(D3), and post-acclimatization on day 14(D4). Wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) was recorded on each collection day...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723816/importance-of-physical-qualities-for-speed-and-change-of-direction-ability-in-elite-female-soccer-players
#5
Stacey Emmonds, G Nicholson, C Beggs, B Jones, A Bissas
The purpose of this study was to determine the importance of physical qualities for speed and change of direction (CoD) ability in female soccer players. Data were collected on 10 female soccer players who were part of a professional English Women's Super League team. Player assessments included anthropometric (stature and body mass), body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), speed (10m, 30m sprint), CoD ability (505 agility), aerobic (Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test), lower-body strength (bilateral knee extensions) and power (countermovement jump [CMJ], squat jump [SJ], 30cm drop jump [DJ]) measures...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718403/adam-metalloprotease-released-cancer-biomarkers
#6
REVIEW
Peter Herrlich, Andreas Herrlich
Identification of early cancer, detection of progression, and monitoring of therapeutic success remain urgent issues in clinical medicine, particularly given the increasing cancer incidence in our aging populations. New methodologies have provided enormous progress over the past decades by defining the genetic and proteomic composition of cancers, yielding putative cancer biomarkers detectable in blood or other body fluids less invasively and more cheaply than using currently available screening techniques that often involve biopsies or surgery...
July 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711245/feeding-of-palm-oil-fatty-acids-or-rapeseed-oil-throughout-lactation-effects-on-energy-status-body-composition-and-milk-production-in-norwegian-dairy-goats
#7
M Eknæs, Y Chilliard, K Hove, R A Inglingstad, L Bernard, H Volden
The objective of this experiment was to examine how supplements of rapeseed oil or palm oil fatty acids would affect milk production and composition, body lipid stores, and energy balance in 30 multiparous goats of Norwegian dairy goat breed. The experiment lasted 230 d, with 1 to 120 d in milk (DIM) for indoor feeding (P1), 120 to 200 DIM for mountain grazing (P2), and 200 to 230 DIM for indoor feeding (P3). Grass silage was fed according to appetite during indoor feeding periods. After an adjustment period (1-60 DIM) when the control diet was given to the goats, the animals were subdivided into 3 groups of 10 goats...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705217/monitoring-clinical-and-microbiological-evolution-of-a-cystic-fibrosis-patient-over-26%C3%A2-years-experience-of-a-brazilian-cf-centre
#8
Cassiana da Costa Ferreira Leite, Tania Wrobel Folescu, Mônica de Cássia Firmida, Renata Wrobel Folescu Cohen, Robson Souza Leão, Flávia Alvim Dutra de Freitas, Rodolpho Mattos Albano, Claudia Henrique da Costa, Elizabeth Andrade Marques
BACKGROUND: Burkholderia cepacia complex is a group of opportunistic pathogens in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients believed to be associated with poor prognosis and patient-to-patient transmissibility. Little is known about clinical outcomes after B. vietnamiensis chronic colonization/infection. CASE PRESENTATION: A 33 yo male patient had diagnosis of CF by 7 yo, after recurrent pneumonia during infancy and lobectomy (left upper lobe) at 6 yo. Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) was first isolated by 13 yo, and the patient fulfilled the criteria for chronic colonization by 15 yo...
July 14, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688694/nutritional-changes-in-patients-with-locally-advanced-head-and-neck-cancer-during-treatment
#9
L Arribas, L Hurtós, M Taberna, I Peiró, E Vilajosana, A Lozano, S Vazquez, R Mesia, N Virgili
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study is to evaluate changes in body composition and nutritional status that occur throughout the oncological treatment in head and neck cancer patients. METHODS: A prospective cohort observational study in patients diagnosed with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) that underwent treatment with induction chemotherapy (iCT) followed by chemoradiotherapy or bioradiotherapy were invited to participate. All patients had dietetic counseling from the diagnosis and a close monitoring throughout the treatment implementing nutritional support as needed...
August 2017: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686983/chronophysiological-features-of-the-normal-mineral-composition-of-human-saliva
#10
Lyudmila V Bel'skaya, Victor K Kosenok, Elena A Sarf
BACKGROUND: The high rate of changes in the composition of saliva can be used for the monitoring of various biorhythms in order to study the physiological characteristics of the human body. RESEARCH OBJECTIVE: The study of the dynamics of the near-24-h mineral composition of saliva in men and women. METHODS: The study involved 20 men and 20 women, age 23.1±0.9years. Saliva samples were collected every 3h during the day within 10min. The mineral composition of saliva was defined by the capillary electrophoresis technique...
June 24, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684685/factors-associated-with-bone-health-in-malaysian-middle-aged-and-elderly-women-assessed-via-quantitative-ultrasound
#11
Kok-Yong Chin, Nie Yen Low, Wan Ilma Dewiputri, Soelaiman Ima-Nirwanaa
Risk factors for osteoporosis may vary according to different populations. We aimed to investigate the relationship between risk factors of osteoporosis and bone health indices determined via calcaneal quantitative ultrasound (QUS) in a group of Malaysian women aged 50 years or above. A cross-sectional study was performed on 344 Malaysian women recruited from a tertiary medical centre in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. They answered a self-administered questionnaire on their social-demographic details, medical history, lifestyle, and physical activity status...
July 6, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674501/the-digestive-tract-of-cephalopods-toward-non-invasive-in-vivo-monitoring-of-its-physiology
#12
Giovanna Ponte, Antonio V Sykes, Gavan M Cooke, Eduardo Almansa, Paul L R Andrews
Ensuring the health and welfare of animals in research is paramount, and the normal functioning of the digestive tract is essential for both. Here we critically assess non- or minimally-invasive techniques which may be used to assess a cephalopod's digestive tract functionality to inform health monitoring. We focus on: (i) predatory response as an indication of appetitive drive; (ii) body weight assessment and interpretation of deviations (e.g., digestive gland weight loss is disproportionate to body weight loss in starvation); (iii) oro-anal transit time requiring novel, standardized techniques to facilitate comparative studies of species and diets; (iv) defecation frequency and analysis of fecal color (diet dependent) and composition (parasites, biomarkers, and cytology); (v) digestive tract endoscopy, but passage of the esophagus through the brain is a technical challenge; (vi) high resolution ultrasound that offers the possibility of imaging the morphology of the digestive tract (e...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669592/personalized-microbiome-dynamics-cytometric-fingerprints-for-routine-diagnostics
#13
REVIEW
Christin Koch, Susann Müller
Microbiomes convoy human life in countless ways. They are an essential part of the human body and interact with its host in countless ways. Currently, extensive microbiome analyses assessing the microbiomes' composition and functions based on sequencing information are still far away from being routine analyses due to the complexity of applied techniques and data analysis, their time demand as well as high costs. With the growing demand for on-time community assessment and monitoring of its dynamic behavior with high resolution, alternative high-throughput methods such as microbial community flow cytometry come into focus...
June 29, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667670/preparation-characterization-and-in-vitro-evaluation-of-isoniazid-and-rifampicin-loaded-archaeosomes
#14
Azade Attar, Ceren Bakir, Basak Yuce-Dursun, Serap Demir, Emrah Cakmakci, Ozkan Danis, Meral Birbir, Ayse Ogan
The ability of Archaea to adapt their membrane lipid compositions to extreme environments has brought in archaeosomes into consideration for the development of drug delivery systems overcoming the physical, biological blockades that the body exhibits against drug therapies. In this study, we prepared unilamellar archaeosomes, from the polar lipid fraction extracted from Haloarcula 2TK2 strain, and explored its potential as a drug delivery vehicle. Rifampicin and isoniazid which are conventional drugs in tuberculosis medication were loaded separately and together in the same archaeosome formulation for the benefits of the combined therapy...
July 1, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667228/pathway-i-design-and-rationale-for-the-investigation-of-the-feasibility-clinical-effectiveness-and-cost-effectiveness-of-a-technology-enabled-cardiac-rehabilitation-platform
#15
Jomme Claes, Roselien Buys, Catherine Woods, Andrew Briggs, Claudia Geue, Moira Aitken, Niall Moyna, Kieran Moran, Noel McCaffrey, Ioanna Chouvarda, Deirdre Walsh, Werner Budts, Dimitris Filos, Andreas Triantafyllidis, Nicos Maglaveras, Véronique A Cornelissen
INTRODUCTION: Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) independently alters the clinical course of cardiovascular diseases resulting in a significant reduction in all-cause and cardiac mortality. However, only 15%-30% of all eligible patients participate in a phase 2 ambulatory programme. The uptake rate of community-based programmes following phase 2 CR and adherence to long-term exercise is extremely poor. Newer care models, involving telerehabilitation programmes that are delivered remotely, show considerable promise for increasing adherence...
June 30, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653836/significance-of-anthropogenic-factors-to-freely-dissolved-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-in-freshwater-of-china
#16
Yao Yao, Chun-Li Huang, Ji-Zhong Wang, Hong-Gang Ni, Ze-Yu Yang, Zhi-Yong Huang, Lian-Jun Bao, Eddy Y Zeng
Assessment of surface water pollution by organic pollutants is a top priority in many parts of the world, as it provides critical information for implementing effective measures to ensure drinking water safety. This is particularly important in China, where insufficient data of national scale have been acquired on the occurrence of any organic pollutants in the country's water bodies. To fill the knowledge gap, we employed passive samplers to survey polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 42 freshwaters throughout the country...
June 27, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645653/catalase-overexpression-modulates-metabolic-parameters-in-a-new-stress-less-leptin-deficient-mouse-model
#17
Deborah L Amos, Tanner Robinson, Melissa B Massie, Carla Cook, Alexis Hoffsted, Courtney Crain, Nalini Santanam
Oxidative stress plays a key role in obesity by modifying the function of important biological molecules, thus altering obesogenic pathways such as glucose and lipid signaling. Catalase, is an important endogenous antioxidant enzyme that catabolizes hydrogen peroxide produced by the dismutation of superoxide. Recent studies have shown knockdown of catalase exacerbates insulin resistance and leads to obesity. We hypothesized that overexpressing catalase in an obese mouse will modulate obesogenic pathways and protect against obesity...
June 20, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644562/efficacy-of-ipragliflozin-as-monotherapy-or-as-add-on-therapy-with-other-oral-antidiabetic-medications-in-treating-type-2-diabetes-in-japanese-patients-with-inadequate-glycemic-control-a-subgroup-analysis-based-on-patient-characteristics
#18
Takeshi Osonoi, Shinya Nakamoto, Miyoko Saito, Atsuko Tamasawa, Hidenori Ishida, Yusuke Osonoi
AIMS/INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ipragliflozin in treating Japanese type 2 diabetic patients with inadequate glycemic control by investigating diurnal variations of blood glucose and body composition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was an investigator-initiated, multicenter, prospective study with a 6-month treatment period. The primary outcome investigated was change in hemoglobin A1c levels from baseline. Secondary outcomes included changes in fasting plasma glucose, insulin resistance, variations in 24-h glucose levels detected by continuous glucose monitoring, body weight, body composition, waist circumference, and serum lipids...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639438/body-composition-analysis-to-study-long-term-training-effects-in-elite-male-water-polo-athletes
#19
Giovanni Melchiorri, Valerio Viero, Roberto Sorge, Tamara Triossi, Alessandro Campagna, Stella L Volpe, Dalgisio Lecis, Virginia Tancredi, Angela Andreoli
BACKGROUND: Elite water polo athletes undergo heavy training programs throughout the year, but especially to prepare major competitions, such as the Olympics. Optimal athletic performance is a result of many factors, including proper management of the intensity and volume of training, nutrition and recovery between training sessions. When training is excessive in relation to recovery may occur non functional overreaching (NFO). NFO can degenerate into overtraining syndrome (OTS) resulting in a decrease in athletic performance, with likely changes in body weight and body composition...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632178/an-increased-dietary-supply-of-medium-chain-fatty-acids-during-early-weaning-in-rodents-prevents-excessive-fat-accumulation-in-adulthood
#20
Bert J M van de Heijning, Annemarie Oosting, Diane Kegler, Eline M van der Beek
Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) are a directly and readily absorbed source of energy. Exposure early-in-life to increased MCFA levels might affect development and impact (lipid) metabolism later in life. We tested whether an increased MCFA intake early-in-life positively affects adult body composition and metabolic status when challenged by a western-style diet (WSD). Male offspring of C57Bl/6j mice and Wistar rats were fed a control diet (CTRL; 10 w% fat, 14% MCFA) or a medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) diet with 20% MCFA until postnatal (PN) day 42, whereupon animals were fed a WSD (10 w% fat) until PN day 98...
June 20, 2017: Nutrients
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