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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331464/somatic-cell-count-based-selection-reduces-susceptibility-to-energy-shortage-during-early-lactation-in-a-sheep-model
#1
J Bouvier-Muller, C Allain, F Enjalbert, Y Farizon, D Portes, G Foucras, R Rupp
During the transition from late gestation to early lactation ruminants experience a negative energy balance (NEB), which is considered to increase susceptibility to mammary infections. Our previous study in 2 divergent lines of sheep selected for high and low somatic cell score (SCS) suggested an association between the response to NEB and genetic susceptibility to mastitis. Forty-eight early-lactation primiparous dairy ewes from the 2 SCS genetic lines were allocated to 2 homogeneous subgroups-an NEB group, which was energy restricted and received 60% of the energy requirements for 15 d, and a control-fed group-to obtain 4 balanced groups of 12 ewes: high-SCS positive energy balance, low-SCS positive energy balance, high-SCS NEB, and low-SCS NEB...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330795/measurement-of-sensory-nerve-activity-from-the-carotid-body
#2
Ying-Jie Peng, Nanduri R Prabhakar
Carotid bodies are sensory organs for monitoring chemical composition of the arterial blood, especially the O2 levels. Carotid bodies are located bilaterally at the bifurcation of the common carotid artery. Hypoxia increases sensory nerve activity of the carotid body, which is transmitted to the brainstem neurons triggering reflex stimulation of breathing and blood pressure. Measurement of action potentials from the carotid sinus nerve is a widely used approach for understanding the mechanisms of hypoxic sensing by the carotid body...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306718/factors-associated-with-objectively-measured-total-sedentary-time-and-screen-time-in-children-aged-9-11-years
#3
Gerson Luis de Moraes Ferrari, Carlos Pires, Dirceu Solé, Victor Matsudo, Peter T Katzmarzyk, Mauro Fisberg
OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with total sedentary time and screen time in children aged 9-11 years. METHODS: For seven consecutive days, 328 children (51.5% boys) used accelerometers to monitor total sedentary time. Screen time was calculated by the self-reporting method. Individual, family, family environment, and school environment questionnaires were filled out. Body composition was measured using a Tanita scale. RESULTS: The mean sedentary time was 500min/day (boys: 489, girls: 511, p=0...
January 4, 2018: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298736/multiple-frequency-bioimpedance-devices-for-fluid-management-in-people-with-chronic-kidney-disease-receiving-dialysis-a-systematic-review-and-economic-evaluation
#4
Graham Scotland, Moira Cruickshank, Elisabet Jacobsen, David Cooper, Cynthia Fraser, Michal Shimonovich, Angharad Marks, Miriam Brazzelli
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a long-term condition requiring treatment such as conservative management, kidney transplantation or dialysis. To optimise the volume of fluid removed during dialysis (to avoid underhydration or overhydration), people are assigned a 'target weight', which is commonly assessed using clinical methods, such as weight gain between dialysis sessions, pre- and post-dialysis blood pressure and patient-reported symptoms. However, these methods are not precise, and measurement devices based on bioimpedance technology are increasingly used in dialysis centres...
January 2018: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298238/desensitization-and-prevention-of-antibody-mediated-rejection-in-vascularized-composite-allotransplantation-by-syngeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#5
Howard D Wang, Samuel A J Fidder, Devin T Miller, Georg J Furtmüller, Ali Reza Ahmadi, Felix Nägele, Joseph Lopez, Amy Quan, Joshua Budihardjo, Denver M Lough, Burcu Akpinarli, Joanna Etra, Dalibor Vasilic, Giorgio Raimondi, W P Andrew Lee, Robert A Montgomery, Zhaoli Sun, Gerald Brandacher
BACKGROUND: Candidates for vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA) are frequently sensitized, putting them at risk for antibody-mediated rejection (AMR). Current desensitization strategies are imperfect and require a living-donor setting. Here we investigated the impact of sensitization on and the efficacy of a desensitization protocol utilizing syngeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) to prevent AMR in VCA. METHODS: Skin transplants from Dark Agouti (DA) to Lewis rats were performed for sensitization...
January 2, 2018: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289966/intestinal-microbiota-a-key-to-understanding-the-pathophysiology-of-anorexia-nervosa
#6
REVIEW
Hanna Karakuła-Juchnowicz, Hanna Pankowicz, Dariusz Juchnowicz, Jose Luis Valverde Piedra, Teresa Małecka-Massalska
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disorder related to very serious consequences for physical and mental health of patients. Due to a complex clinical picture, which consists of anumber of somatic and mental symptoms, AN remains a serious problem of modern medicine and encourages the search for possible causes of the illness and new, more effective therapies. The recent reports emphasize the role of the intestinal microbiota in regulation of body weight. In this light, the hypothesis that in AN patients there is a significant imbalance of the intestinal microbiota, which contributes to the pathogenesis of the illness, seems interesting...
October 29, 2017: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285827/comparing-fishers-and-scientific-estimates-of-size-at-maturity-and-maximum-body-size-as-indicators-for-overfishing
#7
Elizabeth L Mclean, Graham E Forrester
We tested whether fishers' local ecological knowledge (LEK) of two fish life-history parameters, size-at-maturity (SAM) at maximum body size (MS), was comparable to scientific estimates (SEK) of the same parameters, and whether LEK influenced fishers' perceptions of sustainability. Local ecological knowledge was documented for 82 fishers from a small-scale fishery in Samaná Bay, Dominican Republic, whereas SEK was compiled from the scientific literature. Size-at-maturity estimates derived from LEK and SEK overlapped for most of the 15 commonly harvested species (10 of 15)...
December 29, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275569/-establishment-of-rat-model-with-diabetes-mellitus-and-concomitant-periodontitis-and-the-carotid-artery-lesions-in-the-model-rats
#8
X Y Ren, C Wang, X Liu, H Li, J H Gao, X J Ge
Objectives: To establish SD rat model with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and concomitant chronic periodontitis (CP) and to evaluate the influence of periodontitis on the vascular lesions of type 2 diabetes rats. Methods: Totally 241 clean level SD rats were randomly divided into four groups, group A (normal control, NC, n=27), group B (DM, n=34), group C (CP, n=90) and group D (DM+CP, n=90). The rats of DM group were fed with high-fat and high-sugar diet for 8 to 10 weeks, and then were multiply injected with small dose streptozotocin under the condition of ice bath...
December 9, 2017: Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273309/the-satisfactory-growth-and-development-at-2-years-of-age-of-the%C3%A2-intergrowth-21st-fetal-growth-standards-cohort-support-its%C3%A2-appropriateness-for-constructing-international-standards
#9
José Villar, Leila Cheikh Ismail, Eleonora Staines Urias, Francesca Giuliani, Eric O Ohuma, Cesar G Victora, Aris T Papageorghiou, Douglas G Altman, Cutberto Garza, Fernando C Barros, Fabien Puglia, Roseline Ochieng, Yasmin A Jaffer, Julia A Noble, Enrico Bertino, Manorama Purwar, Ruyan Pang, Ann Lambert, Cameron Chumlea, Alan Stein, Michelle Fernandes, Zulfiqar A Bhutta, Stephen H Kennedy
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends that human growth should be monitored with the use of international standards. However, in obstetric practice, we continue to monitor fetal growth using numerous local charts or equations that are based on different populations for each body structure. Consistent with World Health Organization recommendations, the INTERGROWTH-21st Project has produced the first set of international standards to date pregnancies; to monitor fetal growth, estimated fetal weight, Doppler measures, and brain structures; to measure uterine growth, maternal nutrition, newborn infant size, and body composition; and to assess the postnatal growth of preterm babies...
December 19, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244947/a-new-strategy-for-in-vitro-determination-of-carbonic-anhydrase-activity-from-analysis-of-oxygen-18-isotopes-of-co2
#10
Chiranjit Ghosh, Santanu Mandal, Mithun Pal, Manik Pradhan
The oxygen-18 isotopic (18O) composition in CO2 provides important insight into the variation of rate in isotopic fractionation reaction regulated by carbonic anydrase (CA) metalloenzyme. This work aims to employ 18O-isotope ratio-based analytical method for quantitative estimation of CA activity in erythrocytes for clinical testing purposes. Here, a new method has been developed that contains the measurements of 18O/16Oisotope ratios during oxygen-18 isotopic exchange between 12C16O16O and H218O of in-vitro biochemical reaction controlled by erythrocytes CA and estimation of enzymatic activity of CA from the isotopic composition of CO2...
December 15, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239240/applications-of-mid-infrared-spectroscopy-in-the-clinical-laboratory-setting
#11
Sander De Bruyne, Marijn M Speeckaert, Joris R Delanghe
Fourier transform mid-infrared (MIR-FTIR) spectroscopy is a nondestructive, label-free, highly sensitive and specific technique that provides complete information on the chemical composition of biological samples. The technique both can offer fundamental structural information and serve as a quantitative analysis tool. Therefore, it has many potential applications in different fields of clinical laboratory science. Although considerable technological progress has been made to promote biomedical applications of this powerful analytical technique, most clinical laboratory analyses are based on spectroscopic measurements in the visible or ultraviolet (UV) spectrum and the potential role of FTIR spectroscopy still remains unexplored...
December 14, 2017: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231783/dexamethasone-exacerbates-cytotoxic-chemotherapy-induced-lethargy-and-weight-loss-in-female-tumor-free-mice
#12
John Wong, Lisa T Tran, Kaari A Lynch, Lisa J Wood
Cytotoxic chemotherapy can induce a systemic inflammatory response which has been proposed to be an underlying mechanism of cancer treatment related fatigue. Dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid that has potent anti-inflammatory effects, is incorporated into chemotherapy regimens to prevent chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). The purpose of this study was to determine whether by suppressing cytotoxic chemotherapy-induced inflammation, dexamethasone could ameliorate chemotherapy induced fatigue/lethargy in tumor free mice...
December 12, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212579/time-course-of-vitamin-d-depletion-and-repletion-in-reproductive-age-female-c57bl-6-mice
#13
Anthony M Belenchia, Sarah A Johnson, Alyssa C Kieschnick, Cheryl S Rosenfeld, Catherine A Peterson
The use of animal models in vitamin D deficiency (VDD) research, particularly in regard to maternal deficits, has increased dramatically, yet these studies may be confounded due to ill-conceived experimental timelines. We conducted 2 experiments to (1) characterize the time course of VDD induction and repletion and (2) explore the long-term consequences of VDD on calcium homeostasis and body composition in reproductive-age female mice. Eight-week-old female C57BL/6 mice were randomized to receive either a vitamin D sufficient (VDS) or VDD diet; serum was collected weekly...
December 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211006/laser-induced-breakdown-spectroscopy-libs-for-monitoring-the-formation-of-hydroxyapatite-porous-layers
#14
Daniel Sola, Daniel Paulés, Lorena Grima, Jesús Anzano
Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is applied to characterize the formation of porous hydroxyapatite layers on the surface of 0.8CaSiO₃-0.2Ca₃(PO₄)₂ biocompatible eutectic glass immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF). Compositional and structural characterization analyses were also conducted by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and micro-Raman spectroscopy.
December 6, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194402/nutrition-in-the-first-1000-days-ten-practices-to-minimize-obesity-emerging-from-published-science
#15
Angelo Pietrobelli, Massimo Agosti
The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity has increased in most countries the last decades. Considering this in a simplistic way, we can say that obesity is the result of an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. Moreover, the environment from conception to childhood could influence the child's future health. The first 1000 days of life start with woman's pregnancy, and offer a unique window of opportunity to contribute to obesity prevention. In light of the actual literature, the aim of our article is to discuss a proposal of 10 good practices to minimize obesity in the first 1000 days emerging from published science...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177339/adaptable-piezoelectric-hemispherical-composite-strips-using-a-scalable-groove-technique-for-a-self-powered-muscle-monitoring-system
#16
Nagamalleswara Rao Alluri, Venkateswaran Vivekananthan, Arunkumar Chandrasekhar, Sang-Jae Kim
Contrary to traditional planar flexible piezoelectric nanogenerators (PNGs), highly adaptable hemispherical shape-flexible piezoelectric composite strip (HS-FPCS) based PNGs are required to harness/measure non-linear surface motions. Therefore, a feasible, cost-effective and less-time consuming groove technique was developed to fabricate adaptable HS-FPCSs with multiple lengths. A single HS-CSPNG generates 130 V/0.8 μA and can also work as a self-powered muscle monitoring system (SP-MMS) to measure maximum human body part movements, i...
November 27, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170929/the-validity-of-bioelectrical-impedance-analysis-to-measure-body-composition-in-phenylketonuria
#17
Maureen Evans, Kay Nguo, Avihu Boneh, Helen Truby
AIM: To compare the measurement of total body water (TBW) and fat-free mass (FFM) using the criterion method of deuterium dilution space ((2)H2O) with bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) using a portable QuadScan 4000, Bodystat(®) in children and adolescents with phenylketonuria (PKU). METHODS: Sixteen patients with PKU, median age is 12.5 (range 5-20.6) years, were recruited into this cross-sectional study. TBW was measured by both deuterium dilution and BIA on the same occasion as per a standard protocol...
November 24, 2017: JIMD Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165128/associations-between-accelerometer-measured-physical-activity-and-body-fatness-in-school-aged-children
#18
Aleš Gába, Josef Mitáš, Lukáš Jakubec
BACKGROUND: The main aim of the study was to examine the cross-sectional associations between objectively measured physical activity (PA) and body fatness in 7-12-year-old children. METHODS: We performed an analysis of 365 children (209 girls). Participant recruitment was performed in eight randomly selected elementary schools in cities and towns with various numbers of inhabitants. The body composition analysis was performed according to a multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis; PA was monitored using an accelerometer...
April 28, 2017: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155562/quantification-of-nanomaterial-nanomedicine-trafficking-in-vivo
#19
Liming Wang, Liang Yan, Jing Liu, Chunying Chen, Yuliang Zhao
Absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) of nanomaterials (NMs) or nanomedicines (NMs), are fundamental biological processes that dominate their nanomedical functions or nanotoxicities. Mostly, NMs exist in biological systems as a form of nanoparticles (NPs). However, to determine the composition, spatial distribution, and states of existence of NMs/NPs in vivo, upon entry into the body, as well as to monitor the dynamic changes of these information over time remain a challenge for the current analytical methodology due to their limited efficiently in characterizing interactions between these complex(nano)-complex(bio) systems...
November 20, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138870/insig2-rs7566605-single-nucleotide-variant-and-global-dna-methylation-index-levels-are-associated-with-weight-loss-in-a-personalized-weight-reduction-program
#20
Francesca Pirini, Sebastian Rodriguez-Torres, Bola Grace Ayandibu, María Orera-Clemente, Alberto Gonzalez-de la Vega, Fahcina Lawson, Roland J Thorpe, David Sidransky, Rafael Guerrero-Preston
Single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with lipid metabolism and energy balance are implicated in the weight loss response caused by nutritional interventions. Diet‑induced weight loss is also associated with differential global DNA methylation. DNA methylation has been proposed as a predictive biomarker for weight loss response. Personalized biomarkers for successful weight loss may inform clinical decisions when deciding between behavioral and surgical weight loss interventions. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between global DNA methylation, genetic variants associated with energy balance and lipid metabolism, and weight loss following a non‑surgical weight loss regimen...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
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