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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912026/how-mammalian-predation-contributes-to-tropical-tree-community-structure
#1
C E Timothy Paine, Harald Beck, John Terborgh
The recruitment of seedlings from seeds is the key demographic transition for rain forest trees. Though tropical forest mammals are known to consume many seeds, their effects on tree community structure remain little known. To evaluate their effects, we monitored 8,000 seeds of 24 tree species using exclosure cages that were selectively permeable to three size classes of mammals for up to 4.4 years. Small and medium-bodied mammals removed many more seeds than did large mammals, and they alone generated beta diversity and negative density dependence, whereas all mammals reduced diversity and shaped local species composition...
December 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903767/characterization-of-body-composition-and-fat-mass-distribution-1-year-after-kidney-transplantation
#2
Catherine Pantik, Young-Eun Cho, Donna Hathaway, Elizabeth Tolley, Ann Cashion
PURPOSE: In some recipients, significant weight gain occurs after kidney transplantation. Weight gain is associated with poor outcomes, particularly increased cardiovascular risk. In this study, we characterized changes in body mass index and body fat mass and compared them based on gender and race. METHODS: Fifty-two kidney transplant recipients (aged ≥18 years old, 50% men, 58% African American) were enrolled into a prospective study. Body mass index and body fat mass were measured at baseline and 12 months posttransplant...
November 30, 2016: Progress in Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897412/systemic-inflammation-body-composition-and-physical-performance-in-old-community-dwellers
#3
Riccardo Calvani, Federico Marini, Matteo Cesari, Thomas W Buford, Todd M Manini, Marco Pahor, Christiaan Leeuwenburgh, Roberto Bernabei, Francesco Landi, Emanuele Marzetti
BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammation, changes in body composition, and declining physical function are hallmarks of the ageing process. The aim of the present study was to provide a preliminary characterisation of the relationship among these age-related phenomena via multivariate modelling. METHODS: Thirty-five old adults (OAs) and 17 young adults (YAs) were enrolled. The volume of skeletal muscle, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) of the thigh was quantified by three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging...
August 8, 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893564/instrumented-test-of-sensory-integration-for-balance-a-validation-study
#4
Lynn Freeman, Geetanjali Gera, Fay B Horak, Mary T Blackinton, Mark Besch, Laurie King
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Abnormal postural sway is associated with an increase in risk of falls but is difficult for clinicians to accurately quantify without access to laboratory equipment. Instrumenting clinical outcome measures using body-worn movement monitors is a low-cost alternative. This is the first study to compare the modified Clinical Test of Sensory Integration for Balance (i-mCTSIB) to the laboratory test of the Sensory Organization Test (SOT) with dynamic posturography in a group of participants with Parkinson's disease (PD) and subtle balance limitations...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854193/a-comprehensive-review-on-edible-bird-nests-and-swiftlet-farming
#5
REVIEW
Lee Suan Chua, Siti Najihah Zukefli
Edible bird's nest (EBN) is currently widely consumed by the Chinese community as tonic food and functional food, which is believed to have many medicinal benefits. Some studies have reported the biochemical compositions of EBN, graded on the basis of colour, nitrate and nitrite contents. Other studies have shown significant biological effects, while ongoing research is in progress to explore potential pharmacological applications. The high demand for EBNs in the global market has forced the local regulatory bodies to monitor swiftlet farming activities, including the EBN cleaning process...
November 2016: Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853064/impact-of-the-8-week-administration-of-tofogliflozin-for-glycemic-control-and-body-composition-in-japanese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#6
Sachie Hirose, Shinsuke Nakajima, Yasuyuki Iwahashi, Akane Seo, Tetsuya Takahashi, Yoshikazu Tamori
Objective The adverse effects of selective sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors generally appear within about two or three months after treatment initiation in Japan. Therefore, we investigated the impact of tofogliflozin, a class of SGLT2 inhibitors, on glycemic control and body composition during this period in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods This single-arm open-label study enrolled 20 patients. Patients received tofogliflozin 20 mg once daily for 8 weeks. At week 8, changes from baseline in body weight, serum metabolic markers, and body composition were evaluated...
2016: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849463/core-temperature-in-service-members-with-and-without-traumatic-amputations-during-a-prolonged-endurance-event
#7
Anne M Andrews, Christina Deehl, Reva L Rogers, Alison L Pruziner
INTRODUCTION: Service members with traumatic amputations may be at an increased risk of elevated core body temperature, since their ability to dissipate heat may decrease with the reduction in body surface area (BSA) after injury. Elevated core temperature can impair physical performance during combat operations potentially putting the service members and their teams at risk. The purpose of this study was to compare core temperature between individuals with and without amputations during a prolonged endurance event...
November 2016: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834282/the-use-of-technology-for-estimating-body-composition-strengths-and-weaknesses-of-common-modalities-in-a-clinical-setting
#8
Levi M Teigen, Adam J Kuchnia, Marina Mourtzakis, Carrie P Earthman
Assessment of body composition, both at single time points and longitudinally, is particularly important in clinical nutrition practice. It provides a means for the clinician to characterize nutrition status at a single time point, aiding in the identification and diagnosis of malnutrition, and to monitor changes over time by providing real-time information on the adequacy of nutrition interventions. Objective body composition measurement tools are available clinically but are often underused in nutrition care, particularly in the United States...
November 9, 2016: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831929/improved-sensitivity-of-wearable-nanogenerators-made-of-electrospun-eu-3-doped-p-vdf-hfp-graphene-composite-nanofibers-for-self-powered-voice-recognition
#9
Prakriti Adhikary, Anirban Biswas, Dipankar Mandal
Composite nanofibers of Eu(3+) doped poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (P(VDF-HFP))/graphene are prepared by the electrospinning technique for the fabrication of ultrasensitive wearable piezoelectric nanogenerators (WPNGs) where the post-poling technique is not necessary. It is found that the complete conversion of the piezoelectric β-phase and the improvement of the degree of crystallinity is governed by the incorporation of Eu(3+) and graphene sheets into P(VDF-HFP) nanofibers. The flexible nanocomposite fibers are associated with a hypersensitive electronic transition that results in an intense red light emission, and WPNGs also have the capability of detecting external pressure as low as ~23 Pa with a higher degree of acoustic sensitivity, ~11 V Pa(-1), than has ever been previously reported...
December 9, 2016: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829577/chronic-early-life-stress-in-rat-pups-alters-basal-corticosterone-intestinal-permeability-and-fecal-microbiota-at-weaning-influence-of-sex
#10
Nabila Moussaoui, Jonathan P Jacobs, Muriel Larauche, Mandy Biraud, Mulugeta Million, Emeran Mayer, Yvette Taché
Background/Aims: Wistar rat dams exposed to limited nesting stress (LNS) from postnatal days (PND) 2 to 10 display erratic maternal behavior and their pups show delayed maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and impaired epithelial barrier at PND10 and a visceral hypersensitivity at adulthood. Little is known about the impact of early life stress on the offspring before adulthood and the influence of sex. We investigated whether male and female rats previously exposed to LNS displays at weaning altered corticosterone, intestinal permeability and microbiota...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827911/changes-in-body-composition-in-the-two-years-after-initiation-of-haemodialysis-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#11
David Keane, Claire Gardiner, Elizabeth Lindley, Simon Lines, Graham Woodrow, Mark Wright
Malnutrition is common in haemodialysis (HD) and is linked to poor outcomes. This study aimed to describe changes in body composition after the initiation of HD and investigate whether any routinely collected parameters were associated with these changes. The study cohort came from the HD population of a single centre between 2009 and 2014. Body composition measurements were obtained from a database of bioimpedance results using the Body Composition Monitor (BCM), while demographics and laboratory values came from the renal unit database...
November 4, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819161/performance-of-the-pegfilgrastim-on-body-injector-as-studied-with-placebo-buffer-in-healthy-volunteers
#12
Rajeshree S Joshi, Ogo I Egbuna, Alex S Cairns, Michael J Friedman, Bassam Abosaleem, Maureen T Reiner, Phuong Khanh Morrow
OBJECTIVE: The pegfilgrastim on-body injector (OBI) is a single-use, disposable, battery-powered injector that is designed to automatically deliver a single subcutaneous dose of pegfilgrastim beginning approximately 27 hours after activation and continuing over approximately 45 minutes. In this open-label study, we assessed performance of the OBI delivering placebo buffer in healthy volunteers. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Healthy men and women aged 18-55 years, with a body mass index of 18-35 kg/m(2), were enrolled...
December 2, 2016: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811407/improved-electrode-positions-for-local-impedance-measurements-in-the-lung-a-simulation-study
#13
Jakob Orschulik, Rudolf Petkau, Tobias Wartzek, Nadine Hochhausen, Michael Czaplik, Steffen Leonhardt, Daniel Teichmann
Impedance spectroscopy can be used to analyze the dielectric properties of various materials. In the biomedical domain, it is used as bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) to analyze the composition of body tissue. Being a non-invasive, real-time capable technique, it is a promising modality, especially in the field of lung monitoring. Unfortunately, up to now, BIS does not provide any regional lung information as the electrodes are usually placed in hand-to-hand or transthoracic configurations. Even though transthoracic electrode configurations are in general capable of monitoring the lung, no focusing to specific regions is achieved...
November 4, 2016: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810310/probiotic-with-or-without-fiber-controls-body-fat-mass-associated-with-serum-zonulin-in-overweight-and-obese-adults-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Lotta K Stenman, Markus J Lehtinen, Nils Meland, Jeffrey E Christensen, Nicolas Yeung, Markku T Saarinen, Michael Courtney, Rémy Burcelin, Marja-Leena Lähdeaho, Jüri Linros, Dan Apter, Mika Scheinin, Hilde Kloster Smerud, Aila Rissanen, Sampo Lahtinen
BACKGROUND: The gut microbiota is interlinked with obesity, but direct evidence of effects of its modulation on body fat mass is still scarce. We investigated the possible effects of Bifidobacterium animalisssp. lactis 420 (B420) and the dietary fiber Litesse® Ultra polydextrose (LU) on body fat mass and other obesity-related parameters. METHODS: 225 healthy volunteers (healthy, BMI 28-34.9) were randomized into four groups (1:1:1:1), using a computer-generated sequence, for 6months of double-blind, parallel treatment: 1) Placebo, microcrystalline cellulose, 12g/d; 2) LU, 12g/d; 3) B420, 10(10)CFU/d in microcrystalline cellulose, 12g/d; 4) LU+B420, 12g+10(10)CFU/d...
October 26, 2016: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806978/new-body-composition-reference-charts-for-preterm-infants
#15
Ellen W Demerath, William Johnson, Bridget A Davern, Christina G Anderson, Jeffrey S Shenberger, Sonya Misra, Sara E Ramel
BACKGROUND: The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) has recommended that nutritional management of the preterm infant should aim to achieve body composition that replicates the in utero fetus, but intrauterine body composition reference charts for preterm infants are lacking. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to create body composition reference curves for preterm infants that approximate the body composition of the in utero fetus from 30 to 36 wk of gestation. DESIGN: A total of 223 ethnically diverse infants born at 30 + 0 to 36 + 6 wk of gestation were enrolled...
November 2, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801417/-acute-phase-serum-proteins-and-adipocytokines-in-women-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-relationships-with-body-composition-and-blood-glucose-fluctuations
#16
V V Klimontov, N V Tyan, O N Fazullina, N E Myakina, N B Orlov, V I Konenkov
AIM: To estimate the relationships between the serum concentrations of acute-phase proteins (APPs) and adipocytokines, body composition (BC), and blood glucose (BG) fluctuations in women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 165 women with T2DM and 22 with a normal body mass index (BMI) at the age of 40 to 70 years were examined. The concentrations of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and acid α1-glycoprotein (α1-AGP) were determined by ELISA...
2016: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798279/label-free-in-situ-imaging-of-oil-body-dynamics-and-chemistry-in-germination
#17
Gustav Waschatko, Nils Billecke, Sascha Schwendy, Henriette Jaurich, Mischa Bonn, Thomas A Vilgis, Sapun H Parekh
Plant oleosomes are uniquely emulsified lipid reservoirs that serve as the primary energy source during seed germination. These oil bodies undergo significant changes regarding their size, composition and structure during normal seedling development; however, a detailed characterization of these oil body dynamics, which critically affect oil body extractability and nutritional value, has remained challenging because of a limited ability to monitor oil body location and composition during germination in situ Here, we demonstrate via in situ, label-free imaging that oil bodies are highly dynamic intracellular organelles that are morphologically and biochemically remodelled extensively during germination...
October 2016: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798038/evaluating-a-community-based-exercise-intervention-with-adults-living-with-hiv-protocol-for-an-interrupted-time-series-study
#18
Kelly K O'Brien, Ahmed M Bayoumi, Patricia Solomon, Ada Tang, Kate Murzin, Soo Chan Carusone, Mehdi Zobeiry, Ayesha Nayar, Aileen M Davis
INTRODUCTION: Our aim was to evaluate a community-based exercise (CBE) intervention with the goal of reducing disability and enhancing health for community-dwelling people living with HIV (PLWH). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will use a mixed-methods implementation science study design, including a prospective longitudinal interrupted time series study, to evaluate a CBE intervention with PLWH in Toronto, Canada. We will recruit PLWH who consider themselves medically stable and safe to participate in exercise...
October 20, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788472/characterization-of-postmortem-biochemical-changes-in-rabbit-plasma-using-atr-ftir-combined-with-chemometrics-a-preliminary-study
#19
Ji Zhang, Bing Li, Qi Wang, Chengzhi Li, Yinming Zhang, Hancheng Lin, Zhenyuan Wang
Postmortem interval (PMI) determination is one of the most challenging tasks in forensic medicine due to a lack of accurate and reliable methods. It is especially difficult for late PMI determination. Although many attempts with various types of body fluids based on chemical methods have been made to solve this problem, few investigations are focused on blood samples. In this study, we employed an attenuated total reflection (ATR)-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) technique coupled with principle component analysis (PCA) to monitor biochemical changes in rabbit plasma with increasing PMI...
October 23, 2016: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782053/circulating-micrornas-as-potential-biomarkers-of-exercise-response
#20
REVIEW
Mája Polakovičová, Peter Musil, Eugen Laczo, Dušan Hamar, Ján Kyselovič
Systematic physical activity increases physical fitness and exercise capacity that lead to the improvement of health status and athletic performance. Considerable effort is devoted to identifying new biomarkers capable of evaluating exercise performance capacity and progress in training, early detection of overtraining, and monitoring health-related adaptation changes. Recent advances in OMICS technologies have opened new opportunities in the detection of genetic, epigenetic and transcriptomic biomarkers. Very promising are mainly small non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs)...
October 5, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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