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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921641/pharmacokinetic-guided-dosing-of-new-oral-cancer-agents
#1
Catherine J Lucas, Jennifer H Martin
Generally, licensed drug-dosing recommendations for chemotherapy are based on results from clinical trials in which subjects are usually of relatively normal body size, middle-aged, and are relatively racially homogeneous, with minimal comorbidity and specific tumor characteristics. Very few nontrial patients meet these characteristics, resulting in clinical practice having to extrapolate dosing recommendations to the specific patient. There is insufficient research on the impact of obesity-associated physiological changes prevalent in patients with common cancers on standard pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters...
October 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919982/effective-management-of-spasticity-and-impacts-on-weight-change-and-resting-energy-expenditure-in-a-female-with-spinal-cord-injury-a-case-report
#2
Amy N Nevin, Khanh Nguyen, Sridhar Atresh, Angela Vivanti, Ingrid J Hickman
INTRODUCTION: The impact of muscle spasticity on weight change and energy expenditure after spinal cord injury (SCI) is not well understood. CASE PRESENTATION: This case study reports changes to body weight and resting energy expenditure (REE) in a 36-year-old female (T3 AIS A SCI; 80 kg; body mass index=28 kg m(-)(2) at injury) requiring escalating therapies to manage severe spasticity. Body weight, spasticity medications and fasted REE (measured using indirect calorimetry, canopy hood) were recorded at 4, 16, 17, 20 and 44 months post injury...
2017: Spinal Cord Series and Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887739/an-evaluation-of-a-handheld-spectroradiometer-for-the-near-real-time-measurement-of-cyanobacteria-for-bloom-management-purposes
#3
Lee C Bowling, Mustak Shaikh, John Brayan, Tim Malthus
A commercially available handheld spectroradiometer, the WISP-3, was assessed as a tool for monitoring freshwater cyanobacterial blooms for management purposes. Three small eutrophic urban ponds which displayed considerable within-pond and between-pond variability in water quality and cyanobacterial community composition were used as trial sites. On-board algorithms provide field measurements of phycocyanin (CPC) and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) from surface reflectance spectra measured by the instrument. These were compared with laboratory measurements...
September 9, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861906/aquatic-exposures-of-chemical-mixtures-in-urban-environments-approaches-to-impact-assessment
#4
Dick de Zwart, William Adams, Malyka Galay Burgos, Juliane Hollender, Marion Junghans, Graham Merrington, Derek Muir, Thomas Parkerton, Karel De Schamphelaere, Graham Whale, Richard Williams
Urban regions of the world are expanding rapidly, placing additional stress on water resources. Urban water bodies serve many purposes from washing and sources of drinking water to transport and conduits for storm drainage and effluent discharge. These water bodies receive chemical emissions arising from either single or multiple point sources, diffuse sources which can be continuous, intermittent or seasonal. Thus, aquatic organisms in these water bodies are exposed to temporally and compositionally variable mixtures...
September 1, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858057/effects-of-six-weeks-sprint-strength-and-agility-training-on-body-composition-cardiovascular-and-physiological-parameters-of-male-field-hockey-players
#5
Hanjabam Barun Sharma, Jyotsna Kailashiya
Optimal physiological and cardiovascular characteristics are essential for optimal physical performance. Different types of training regimes affect these characteristics and lead to trainee's adaptation and changes in relevant parameters. In present interventional study we have evaluated effects of six weeks sprint-strength & agility training on such parameters. Twenty four young Indian national hockey players volunteered for this study. BW(weight), BMI, BF (%body fat), LBM (lean body mass), rHR (resting heart rate), rBP (blood pressure), rDP (double-product), P/power (using Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test), VJ (vertical jump), SP (seated shot-put test), BS (ball-hitting speed), Tm (505-agility test) & VO2max were measured, and changes (d) after specified training regime were studied...
August 26, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846486/flexible-automation-system-for-determination-of-elemental-composition-of-incrustations-in-clogged-biliary-endoprostheses-using-icp-ms
#6
Heidi Fleischer, Kinjal Ramani, Koffi Blitti, Thomas Roddelkopf, Mareike Warkentin, Detlef Behrend, Kerstin Thurow
Automation systems are well established in industries and life science laboratories, especially in bioscreening and high-throughput applications. An increasing demand of automation solutions can be seen in the field of analytical measurement in chemical synthesis, quality control, and medical and pharmaceutical fields, as well as research and development. In this study, an automation solution was developed and optimized for the investigation of new biliary endoprostheses (stents), which should reduce clogging after implantation in the human body...
August 1, 2017: SLAS Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839124/biochemical-phosphates-observed-using-hyperpolarized-31-p-in-physiological-aqueous-solutions
#7
Atara Nardi-Schreiber, Ayelet Gamliel, Talia Harris, Gal Sapir, Jacob Sosna, J Moshe Gomori, Rachel Katz-Brull
The dissolution-dynamic nuclear polarization technology had previously enabled nuclear magnetic resonance detection of various nuclei in a hyperpolarized state. Here, we show the hyperpolarization of (31)P nuclei in important biological phosphates (inorganic phosphate and phosphocreatine) in aqueous solutions. The hyperpolarized inorganic phosphate showed an enhancement factor >11,000 (at 5.8 T, 9.3% polarization) in D2O (T1 29.4 s). Deuteration and the solution composition and pH all affected the lifetime of the hyperpolarized state...
August 24, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828277/diversity-of-compounds-in-femoral-secretions-of-gal%C3%A3-pagos-iguanas-genera-amblyrhynchus-and-conolophus-and-their-potential-role-in-sexual-communication-in-lek-mating-marine-iguanas-amblyrhynchus-cristatus
#8
Alejandro Ibáñez, Markus Menke, Galo Quezada, Gustavo Jiménez-Uzcátegui, Stefan Schulz, Sebastian Steinfartz
BACKGROUND: Chemical signals are widely used in the animal kingdom, enabling communication in various social contexts, including mate selection and the establishment of dominance. Femoral glands, which produce and release waxy secretions into the environment, are organs of central importance in lizard chemical communication. The Galápagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) is a squamate reptile with a lek-mating system. Although the lekking behaviour of marine iguanas has been well-studied, their potential for sexual communication via chemical cues has not yet been investigated...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828183/hilic-ms-rat-brain-analysis-a-new-approach-for-the-study-of-ischemic-attack
#9
Natalia Miękus, Lucyna Konieczna, Przemysław Kowiański, Janusz Moryś, Tomasz Bączek
Clinicians often rely on selected small molecular compounds from body fluids for the detection, screening or monitoring of numerous life-threatening diseases. Among others, important monoamines - biogenic amines (BAs) - and their metabolites serve as sensitive biomarkers to study the progression or even early detection of on-going brain pathologies or tumors of neuroendocrine origins. Undertaking the task to optimize a reliable method for the simultaneous analysis of the most relevant BAs in biological matrices is of utmost importance for scientists...
2017: Translational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825967/dietary-acid-load-and-renal-function-have-varying-effects-on-blood-acid-base-status-and-exercise-performance-across-age-and-gender
#10
Enni-Maria Hietavala, Jeffrey R Stout, Lynda A Frassetto, Risto Puurtinen, Hannu Pitkänen, Harri Selänne, Harri Suominen, Antti A Mero
PURPOSE: Diet composition influences acid-base status of the body. This may become more relevant as renal functional capacity declines with aging. We examined the effects of low (LD) versus high dietary acid load (HD) on blood acid-base status and exercise performance. METHODS: Participants included 22 adolescents (AD), 33 young adults (YA) and 33 elderly (EL), who followed a 7-day LD and HD in a randomized order. At the end of both diet periods the subjects performed a cycle ergometer test (3x10 min at 35%, 55%, 75%, and (except EL) until exhaustion at 100% of VO2max)...
August 21, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808490/the-influence-of-intermittent-fasting-on-the-circadian-pattern-of-melatonin-while-controlling-for-caloric-intake-energy-expenditure-light-exposure-and-sleep-schedules-a-preliminary-report
#11
Aljohara S Almeneessier, Ahmed S Bahammam, Munir M Sharif, Salman A Bahammam, Samar Z Nashwan, Seithikurippu R Pandi Perumal, Daniel P Cardinali, Mohammad Alzoghaibi
AIMS: We hypothesized that if we control for food composition, caloric intake, light exposure, sleep schedule, and exercise, intermittent fasting would not influence the circadian pattern of melatonin. Therefore, we designed this study to assess the effect of intermittent fasting on the circadian pattern of melatonin. METHODS: Eight healthy volunteers with a mean age of 26.6 ± 4.9 years and body mass index of 23.7 ± 3.5 kg/m(2) reported to the Sleep Disorders Center (the laboratory) on four occasions: (1) adaptation, (2) 4 weeks before Ramadan while performing Islamic intermittent fasting for 1 week (fasting outside Ramadan [FOR]), (3) 1 week before Ramadan (nonfasting baseline [BL]), and (4) during the 2(nd) week of Ramadan while fasting (Ramadan)...
July 2017: Annals of Thoracic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800687/the-profound-effect-of-harmful-cyanobacterial-blooms-from-food-web-and-management-perspectives
#12
Sigitas Šulčius, Danguolė Montvydienė, Hanna Mazur-Marzec, Jūratė Kasperovičienė, Rokas Rulevičius, Živilė Cibulskaitė
Sustainable and effective water management plans must have a reliable risk assessment strategies for harmful cyanobacterial blooms (HABs) that would enable timely decisions to be made, thus avoiding the trespassing of ecological thresholds, leading to the collapse of ecosystem structure and function. Such strategies are usually based on cyanobacterial biomass and/or on the monitoring of known toxins, which may, however, in many cases, under- or over-represent the actual toxicity of the HAB. Therefore, in this study, by the application of growth-inhibition assays using different bacteria, algae, zooplankton and fish species, we assessed the toxicological potential of two cyanobacterial blooms that differed in total cyanobacterial biomass, species composition and cyanopeptide profiles...
December 31, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799180/accuracy-of-octa-polar-bioelectrical-impedance-analysis-for-the-assessment-of-total-and-appendicular-body-composition-in-children-and-adolescents-with-hiv-comparison-with-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-and-air-displacement-plethysmography
#13
J A C de Castro, L R A de Lima, D A S Silva
BACKGROUND: Body composition analysis has been used to investigate fat mass (FM) and bone mineral content (BMC) in children and adolescents diagnosed with HIV. Investigating the validity of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is interesting with respect to testing useful techniques for monitoring body composition in children and adolescents in clinical practice. The present study aimed to determine the validity of body composition analysis by BIA compared to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and air displacement plethysmography (ADP) in children and adolescents an HIV diagnosis...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792474/the-effects-of-selective-hematopoietic-expression-of-human-il-37-on-systemic-inflammation-and-atherosclerosis-in-ldlr-deficient-mice
#14
Geerte Hoeke, P Padmini S J Khedoe, Janna A van Diepen, Karin Pike-Overzet, Britt van de Ven, Nadia Vazirpanah, Isabel Mol, Pieter S Hiemstra, Frank J T Staal, Rinke Stienstra, Mihai G Netea, Charles A Dinarello, Patrick C N Rensen, Jimmy F P Berbée
The human cytokine interleukin (IL)-37 has potent anti-inflammatory capacities, and hematopoietic cell-specific transgenic overexpression of IL-37 in mice protects against septic shock and colitis. In the present study we investigated the effect of hematopoietic expression of IL-37 on atherosclerosis development under low-grade inflammatory conditions. Low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr)-deficient mice were lethally irradiated and transplanted with bone marrow from IL-37-transgenic or control wild-type mice and fed a Western-type diet (WTD; 1% cholesterol) for eight weeks...
August 9, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790929/combined-interval-training-and-post-exercise-nutrition-in-type-2-diabetes-a-randomized-control-trial
#15
Monique E Francois, Cody Durrer, Kevin J Pistawka, Frank A Halperin, Courtney Chang, Jonathan P Little
Background: High-intensity interval training (HIIT) can improve several aspects of cardiometabolic health. Previous studies have suggested that adaptations to exercise training can be augmented with post-exercise milk or protein consumption, but whether this nutritional strategy can impact the cardiometabolic adaptations to HIIT in type 2 diabetes is unknown. Objective: To determine if the addition of a post-exercise milk or protein beverage to a high-intensity interval training (HIIT) intervention improves cardiometabolic health in individuals with type 2 diabetes...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780899/mapping-the-human-skeletal-muscle-proteome-progress-and-potential
#16
Daniele Capitanio, Manuela Moriggi, Cecilia Gelfi
Human skeletal muscle represents 40% of our body mass and deciphering its proteome composition to further understand mechanisms regulating muscle function under physiological and pathological conditions has proved a challenge. The inter-individual variability, the presence of structurally and functionally different muscle types and the high protein dynamic range require carefully selected methodologies for the assessment of the muscle proteome. Furthermore, physiological studies are understandingly hampered by ethical issues related to biopsies on healthy subjects, making it difficult to recruit matched controls essential for comparative studies...
August 14, 2017: Expert Review of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771177/direct-observation-of-dog-density-and-composition-during-street-counts-as-a-resource-efficient-method-of-measuring-variation-in-roaming-dog-populations-over-time-and-between-locations
#17
Elly Hiby, Lex Hiby
Dog population management is conducted in many countries to address the public health risks from roaming dogs and threats to their welfare. To assess its effectiveness, we need to monitor indicators from both the human and dog populations that are quick and easy to collect, precise and meaningful to intervention managers, donors and local citizens. We propose that the most appropriate indicators from the roaming dog population are population density and composition, based on counting dogs along standard routes using a standard survey protocol...
August 3, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769819/substantial-inter-subject-variability-in-blood-pressure-responses-to-glucose-in-a-healthy-non-obese-population
#18
Cathriona R Monnard, Benoît Fellay, Isabelle Scerri, Erik K Grasser
Aim: A large inter-subject variability in the blood pressure (BP) response to glucose drinks has been reported. However, the underlying factors remain elusive and we hypothesized that accompanying changes in glucose metabolism affect these BP responses. Methods: Cardiovascular and glycemic changes in response to a standard 75 g oral-glucose-tolerance-test were investigated in 30 healthy, non-obese males. Continuous cardiovascular monitoring, including beat-to-beat BP, electrocardiographically deduced heart rate and impedance cardiography, was performed during a 30 min baseline and continued up to 120 min after glucose ingestion...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767514/interrelationships-between-walkability-air-pollution-greenness-and-body-mass-index
#19
Peter James, Marianthi-Anna Kioumourtzoglou, Jaime E Hart, Rachel F Banay, Itai Kloog, Francine Laden
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have linked urban environmental factors and body mass index (BMI); however, such factors are often examined in isolation, ignoring correlations across exposures. METHODS: Using data on Nurses' Health Study participants living in the Northeastern United States in 2006, we estimated associations between neighborhood walkability (a composite of population density, street connectivity, and business access), greenness (from satellite imagery), and ambient air pollution (from satellite-based spatiotemporally resolved PM2...
July 31, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764148/the-anthropometric-correlates-for-the-physiological-demand-of-strength-and-flexibility-a-study-in-young-indian-field-hockey-players
#20
Hanjabam Barun Sharma, Jyotsna Kailashiya
INTRODUCTION: Optimal strength and flexibility are essential for performance enhancement and injury prevention in hockey, and anthropometry is known to influence these parameters. AIM: To find anthropometric correlates for strength and flexibility score in young Indian field hockey players. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirteen female and 19 male subjects volunteered for the study. Selected anthropometric variables: lengths, breadths, girths and body composition; strength and sit and reach score were measured for each subject...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
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