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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078090/the-effect-of-ongoing-feedback-on-physical-activity-levels-following-an-exercise-intervention-in-older-adults-a-randomised-controlled-trial-protocol
#1
Katie-Jane Brickwood, Stuart T Smith, Greig Watson, Andrew D Williams
BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity ranks as a major contributing factor in the development and progression of chronic disease. Lifestyle interventions reduce the progression of chronic disease, however, compliance decreases over time and health effects only persist as long as the new lifestyle is maintained. Telephone counselling (TC) is an effective way to provide individuals with ongoing support to maintain lifestyle changes. Remote physical activity monitoring and feedback (RAMF) via interactive technologies such as activity trackers and smartphones may be a cost-effective alternative to TC, however, this comparison has not been made...
2017: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035445/effect-of-progressive-high-impact-exercise-on-femoral-neck-structural-strength-in-postmenopausal-women-with-mild-knee-osteoarthritis-a-12-month-rct
#2
J Multanen, T Rantalainen, H Kautiainen, R Ahola, T Jämsä, M T Nieminen, E Lammentausta, A Häkkinen, I Kiviranta, A Heinonen
: It is uncertain whether subjects with mild knee osteoarthritis, and who may be at risk of osteoporosis, can exercise safely with the aim of improving hip bone strength. This RCT showed that participating in a high-impact exercise program improved femoral neck strength without any detrimental effects on knee cartilage composition. INTRODUCTION: No previous studies have examined whether high-impact exercise can improve bone strength and articular cartilage quality in subjects with mild knee osteoarthritis...
December 29, 2016: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033185/use-of-the-body-composition-monitor-for-fluid-status-measurements-in-elderly-malnourished-subjects
#3
David F Keane, Kim Bowra, Kathryn Kearney, Elizabeth Lindley
Most haemodialysis (HD) patients are able to finish dialysis at or below the normally hydrated weight determined using the body composition monitor (BCM). However, a minority become symptomatic when they are still fluid overloaded based on BCM-measured overhydration (OH). Malnourished patients frequently fall into this group, suggesting that they may have OH that is inaccessible to ultrafiltration. To isolate any effect of malnutrition on BCM-measured OH from those relating to renal failure, OH measurements for twenty elderly subjects with normal renal function who were classified as malnourished were compared with an age-matched cohort with no known nutritional issues...
December 26, 2016: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031025/estimation-of-prevalence-of-sarcopenia-by-using-a-new-bioelectrical-impedance-analysis-in-chinese-community-dwelling-elderly-people
#4
Hui Wang, Shan Hai, Li Cao, Jianghua Zhou, Ping Liu, Bi-Rong Dong
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to validate the usefulness of the new octapolar multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) for assessment of appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) by comparing it with that of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and to investigate the prevalence of sarcopenia in Chinese community-dwelling elderly according to Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) definition. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in communities of Chengdu, China...
December 28, 2016: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027608/portable-a-mode-ultrasound-for-body-composition-assessment-in-adolescents
#5
Wagner Luis Ripka, Leandra Ulbricht, Lucas Menghin, Pedro Miguel Gewehr
OBJECTIVES: Ultrasound (US) imaging is a low-cost, highly feasible alternative method for monitoring the nutritional status of a population; however, only a few studies have tested the body composition agreement between US and reference standard methods, especially in adolescents. The purposes of this study were to assess the agreement of portable US with a reference standard method, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), for body fat percentage (BF%) in adolescents and to verify whether the use of a new mathematical model, based on the anatomic thickness obtained by US, is capable of improving BF% prediction...
April 2016: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018712/spectral-spatial-fusion-model-for-robust-blood-pulse-waveform-extraction-in-photoplethysmographic-imaging
#6
Robert Amelard, David A Clausi, Alexander Wong
Photoplethysmographic imaging is an optical solution for non-contact cardiovascular monitoring from a distance. This camera-based technology enables physiological monitoring in situations where contact-based devices may be problematic or infeasible, such as ambulatory, sleep, and multi-individual monitoring. However, automatically extracting the blood pulse waveform signal is challenging due to the unknown mixture of relevant (pulsatile) and irrelevant pixels in the scene. Here, we propose a signal fusion framework, FusionPPG, for extracting a blood pulse waveform signal with strong temporal fidelity from a scene without requiring anatomical priors...
December 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000468/a-randomized-control-trial-for-reduction-of-caloric-and-non-caloric-sweetened-beverages-in-young-adults-effects-in-weight-body-composition-and-blood-pressure
#7
Marisela Vázquez-Durán, Arturo Orea-Tejeda, Lilia Castillo-Martínez, Ángeles Cano-García, Laura Téllez-Olvera, Candace Keirns-Davis
INTRODUCTION: Recently has been documented that the consumption of sweetened non-caloric beverages has increased as an option to weight control, however randomized control trials have demonstrated a modest weight loss. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of reducing consumption of beverage with caloric and non-caloric sweeteners on weight, body composition and blood pressure in young Mexican adults. METHODS: In an experimental study 148 nursing students were randomly assigned to one of 3 groups: 1) no sweetened beverages were permitted, only plain water, tea or coffee without sugar; 2) consumption of beverages with non-caloric sweeteners was allowed; and 3) no restriction of sweetened beverages was imposed...
November 29, 2016: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987566/predictors-and-determinants-for-weight-reduction-in-overweight-and-obese-children-and-adolescents
#8
Ralf Schiel, Alexander Kaps, Günter Stein, Antje Steveling
INTRODUCTION: Worldwide, overweight and obesity are known as posing serious health risks. Successful methods for weight reduction have remained elusive. This multicenter non-randomised trial aimed to identify parameters and determinants of long-term weight reduction. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 143/159 overweight and obese children and adolescents (90 %) completed the prospective multicenter trial (age 13.9±2.4 years, BMI 31.2±5.4kg/m(2), BMI-SDS 2.51±0...
December 2016: Zeitschrift Für Evidenz, Fortbildung und Qualität Im Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974050/neonatal-milk-supplementation-in-lambs-has-persistent-effects-on-growth-and-metabolic-function-that-differ-by-sex-and-gestational-age
#9
Mary J Berry, Anne L Jaquiery, Mark H Oliver, Jane E Harding, Frank H Bloomfield
The perinatal environment has a major influence on long-term health and disease risk. Preterm birth alters early-life environment and is associated with altered metabolic function in adulthood. Whether preterm birth per se or the early nutritional interventions used to support growth in preterm infants underpins this association is unknown. Lambs born preterm, following dexamethasone induction of labour, or spontaneously at term were randomised to receive nutrient supplementation, analogous to the milk fortifier used clinically or water as a control for the first 2 weeks after birth...
December 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942979/use-of-dual-energy-computed-tomography-to-measure-skeletal-wide-marrow-composition-and-cancellous-bone-mineral-density
#10
Luke Arentsen, Karen E Hansen, Masashi Yagi, Yutaka Takahashi, Ryan Shanley, Angela McArthur, Patrick Bolan, Taiki Magome, Douglas Yee, Jerry Froelich, Susanta K Hui
Temporal and spatial variations in bone marrow adipose tissue (MAT) can be indicative of several pathologies and confound current methods of assessing immediate changes in bone mineral remodeling. We present a novel dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) method to monitor MAT and marrow-corrected volumetric BMD (mcvBMD) throughout the body. Twenty-three cancellous skeletal sites in 20 adult female cadavers aged 40-80 years old were measured using DECT (80 and 140 kVp). vBMD was simultaneous recorded using QCT...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942800/the-effects-of-2%C3%A2-weeks-of-interval-vs-continuous-walking-training-on-glycaemic-control-and-whole-body-oxidative-stress-in-individuals-with-type-2-diabetes-a-controlled-randomised-crossover-trial
#11
Kristian Karstoft, Margaret A Clark, Ida Jakobsen, Ida A Müller, Bente K Pedersen, Thomas P J Solomon, Mathias Ried-Larsen
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of oxygen consumption-matched short-term interval walking training (IWT) vs continuous walking training (CWT) on glycaemic control, including glycaemic variability, in individuals with type 2 diabetes. We also assessed whether any training-induced improvements in glycaemic control were associated with systemic oxidative stress levels. METHODS: Participants (n = 14) with type 2 diabetes completed a crossover trial using three interventions (control intervention [CON], CWT and IWT), each lasting 2 weeks...
December 9, 2016: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939485/postpartum-physiology-psychology-and-paediatric-follow-up-study-p4-study-study-protocol
#12
Gregory K Davis, Lynne Roberts, George Mangos, Amanda Henry, Franziska Pettit, Anthony O'Sullivan, Caroline S E Homer, Maria Craig, Samuel B Harvey, Mark A Brown
BACKGROUND: Women who have had hypertension in pregnancy are at greater risk of long term cardiovascular disease (CVD). Little is known about their cardiovascular risk postpartum or the effects on the woman's mental health and the outcomes of their infants. In this project we will study the physiological and psychological health of women and the physical health and development of their infants six months, two years and five years after birth. We will establish normal blood pressure (BP) and metabolic function for women who were normotensive in pregnancy and use these to assess women who had gestational hypertension (GH) or preeclampsia (PE)...
October 2016: Pregnancy Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912026/how-mammalian-predation-contributes-to-tropical-tree-community-structure
#13
C E Timothy Paine, Harald Beck, John Terborgh
The recruitment of seedlings from seeds is the key demographic transition for rain forest trees. Though tropical forest mammals are known to consume many seeds, their effects on tree community structure remain little known. To evaluate their effects, we monitored 8,000 seeds of 24 tree species using exclosure cages that were selectively permeable to three size classes of mammals for up to 4.4 years. Small and medium-bodied mammals removed many more seeds than did large mammals, and they alone generated beta diversity and negative density dependence, whereas all mammals reduced diversity and shaped local species composition...
December 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903767/characterization-of-body-composition-and-fat-mass-distribution-1-year-after-kidney-transplantation
#14
Catherine Pantik, Young-Eun Cho, Donna Hathaway, Elizabeth Tolley, Ann Cashion
PURPOSE: In some recipients, significant weight gain occurs after kidney transplantation. Weight gain is associated with poor outcomes, particularly increased cardiovascular risk. In this study, we characterized changes in body mass index and body fat mass and compared them based on gender and race. METHODS: Fifty-two kidney transplant recipients (aged ≥18 years old, 50% men, 58% African American) were enrolled into a prospective study. Body mass index and body fat mass were measured at baseline and 12 months posttransplant...
November 30, 2016: Progress in Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897412/systemic-inflammation-body-composition-and-physical-performance-in-old-community-dwellers
#15
Riccardo Calvani, Federico Marini, Matteo Cesari, Thomas W Buford, Todd M Manini, Marco Pahor, Christiaan Leeuwenburgh, Roberto Bernabei, Francesco Landi, Emanuele Marzetti
BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammation, changes in body composition, and declining physical function are hallmarks of the ageing process. The aim of the present study was to provide a preliminary characterisation of the relationship among these age-related phenomena via multivariate modelling. METHODS: Thirty-five old adults (OAs) and 17 young adults (YAs) were enrolled. The volume of skeletal muscle, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) of the thigh was quantified by three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging...
August 8, 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893564/instrumented-test-of-sensory-integration-for-balance-a-validation-study
#16
Lynn Freeman, Geetanjali Gera, Fay B Horak, Mary T Blackinton, Mark Besch, Laurie King
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Abnormal postural sway is associated with an increase in risk of falls but is difficult for clinicians to accurately quantify without access to laboratory equipment. Instrumenting clinical outcome measures using body-worn movement monitors is a low-cost alternative. This is the first study to compare the modified Clinical Test of Sensory Integration for Balance (i-mCTSIB) to the laboratory test of the Sensory Organization Test (SOT) with dynamic posturography in a group of participants with Parkinson's disease (PD) and subtle balance limitations...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854193/a-comprehensive-review-on-edible-bird-nests-and-swiftlet-farming
#17
REVIEW
Lee Suan Chua, Siti Najihah Zukefli
Edible bird's nest (EBN) is currently widely consumed by the Chinese community as tonic food and functional food, which is believed to have many medicinal benefits. Some studies have reported the biochemical compositions of EBN, graded on the basis of colour, nitrate and nitrite contents. Other studies have shown significant biological effects, while ongoing research is in progress to explore potential pharmacological applications. The high demand for EBNs in the global market has forced the local regulatory bodies to monitor swiftlet farming activities, including the EBN cleaning process...
November 2016: Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853064/impact-of-the-8-week-administration-of-tofogliflozin-for-glycemic-control-and-body-composition-in-japanese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#18
Sachie Hirose, Shinsuke Nakajima, Yasuyuki Iwahashi, Akane Seo, Tetsuya Takahashi, Yoshikazu Tamori
Objective The adverse effects of selective sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors generally appear within about two or three months after treatment initiation in Japan. Therefore, we investigated the impact of tofogliflozin, a class of SGLT2 inhibitors, on glycemic control and body composition during this period in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods This single-arm open-label study enrolled 20 patients. Patients received tofogliflozin 20 mg once daily for 8 weeks. At week 8, changes from baseline in body weight, serum metabolic markers, and body composition were evaluated...
2016: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849463/core-temperature-in-service-members-with-and-without-traumatic-amputations-during-a-prolonged-endurance-event
#19
Anne M Andrews, Christina Deehl, Reva L Rogers, Alison L Pruziner
INTRODUCTION: Service members with traumatic amputations may be at an increased risk of elevated core body temperature, since their ability to dissipate heat may decrease with the reduction in body surface area (BSA) after injury. Elevated core temperature can impair physical performance during combat operations potentially putting the service members and their teams at risk. The purpose of this study was to compare core temperature between individuals with and without amputations during a prolonged endurance event...
November 2016: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834282/the-use-of-technology-for-estimating-body-composition-strengths-and-weaknesses-of-common-modalities-in-a-clinical-setting
#20
Levi M Teigen, Adam J Kuchnia, Marina Mourtzakis, Carrie P Earthman
Assessment of body composition, both at single time points and longitudinally, is particularly important in clinical nutrition practice. It provides a means for the clinician to characterize nutrition status at a single time point, aiding in the identification and diagnosis of malnutrition, and to monitor changes over time by providing real-time information on the adequacy of nutrition interventions. Objective body composition measurement tools are available clinically but are often underused in nutrition care, particularly in the United States...
November 9, 2016: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
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