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Breast density

Ozlem Colak, Kadri Ozer, Adile Dikmen, Hilal Ozakinci, Ozay Ozkaya
PURPOSE: The toll-like receptors (TLRs) stand at the interface of innate immune activation. We hypothesize to decrease the response of innate immunity activated by TLR4 by a safe, short-term, systemic immunosuppression. METHODS: Two silicone block implants were placed into two dorsal subcutaneous pockets in 32 rats that were subdivided into four groups: The two study groups were the IV DEX group (single intravenous injection of dexamethasone 1 h before surgery) and the IV DEX + IP DEX group (in addition to a single intravenous injection of dexamethasone 1 h before surgery, intraperitoneal dexamethasone was administered for 10 days after surgery), and the two control groups were the untreated control group and the saline-treated control group...
March 21, 2018: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
Yukio Nakamura, Mikio Kamimura, Akio Morikawa, Akira Taguchi, Takako Suzuki, Hiroyuki Kato
Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of denosumab in patients with osteoporosis (OP) and non-metastatic breast cancer following treatment of 1) surgery, 2) surgery and aromatase inhibitors, and 3) surgery, aromatase inhibitors, and anti-cancer agents, compared with those in primary OP patients. Patients and methods: In this retrospective 24-month study, patients were divided into the primary OP group (34 cases) or OP receiving breast cancer treatment group (breast cancer group; 17 cases)...
2018: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Anya Romanoff, Hank Schmidt, Matthew McMurray, Christina Weltz, Monica Schwartzman, Kathryn Friedman, Laurie Margolies, Elisa Port
The role of MRI in the workup of newly diagnosed breast cancer patients remains controversial. Breast MRI detects additional disease, but this has not translated into improved outcomes. In light of a dramatic rise in MRI use, we investigated patterns of MRI ordering for newly diagnosed breast cancer. All newly diagnosed breast cancer cases presenting for surgical management to a specialized breast center from 2011 to 2013 were reviewed. Patients who had an MRI ordered by their operating surgeon were compared with those who had an MRI completed previously...
March 1, 2018: American Surgeon
Sergio J Sanabria, Orcun Goksel, Katharina Martini, Serafino Forte, Thomas Frauenfelder, Rahel A Kubik-Huch, Marga B Rominger
OBJECTIVES: To assess feasibility and diagnostic accuracy of a novel hand-held ultrasound (US) method for breast density assessment that measures the speed of sound (SoS), in comparison to the ACR mammographic (MG) categories. METHODS: ACR-MG density (a=fatty to d=extremely dense) and SoS-US were assessed in the retromamillary, inner and outer segments of 106 women by two radiographers. A conventional US system was used for SoS-US. A reflector served as timing reference for US signals transmitted through the breasts...
March 19, 2018: European Radiology
Justine Ngoma, Eddy Moors, Bart Kruijt, James H Speer, Royd Vinya, Emmanuel N Chidumayo, Rik Leemans
This paper presents data on carbon stocks of tropical tree species along a rainfall gradient. The data was generated from the Sesheke, Namwala, and Kabompo sites in Zambia. Though above-ground data was generated for all these three sites, we uprooted trees to determine below-ground biomass from the Sesheke site only. The vegetation was assessed in all three sites. The data includes tree diameter at breast height (DBH), total tree height, wood density, wood dry weight and root dry weight for large (≥ 5 cm DBH) and small (< 5 cm DBH) trees...
April 2018: Data in Brief
Qinqin Huang, Fu-Bing Wang, Chun-Hui Yuan, Zhaobo He, Lang Rao, Bo Cai, Bolei Chen, Susu Jiang, Zhiqiang Li, Jincao Chen, Wei Liu, Feng Guo, Zheng Ao, Shi Chen, Xing-Zhong Zhao
Background: Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are a burgeoning topic in cancer biomarker discovery research with minimal invasive blood draws. CTCs can be used as potential biomarkers for disease prognosis, early cancer diagnosis and pharmacodynamics. However, the extremely low abundance of CTCs limits their clinical utility because of technical challenges such as the isolation and subsequent detailed molecular and functional characterization of rare CTCs from patient blood samples. Methods: In this study, we present a novel density gradient centrifugation method employing biodegradable gelatin nanoparticles coated on silicon beads for the isolation, release, and downstream analysis of CTCs from colorectal and breast cancer patients...
2018: Theranostics
Xiaokang Li, Yaqing Li, Ying Zhu, Li Fu, Peifang Liu
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between enhancement patterns and parameters in contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) and microvessel distribution and histological prognostic tumor characteristics of breast cancer. Between September 2011 and April 2013, 109 breast lesions were prospectively analyzed, which were classified into Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System class 4-5 by conventional ultrasound. Before core-needle biopsy, CEUS examination was performed. Different enhancement patterns (homogeneous, peripheral and regional enhancement) were evaluated...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Shota Fukai, Atsushi Yoshida, Futoshi Akiyama, Hiroko Tsunoda, Alan Kawarai Lefor, Jiro Kimura, Takashi Sakamoto, Koyu Suzuki, Ken Mizokami
INTRODUCTION: Ductal Carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast can develop in areas of sclerosing adenosis. The radiographic finding of sclerosing adenosis is a spiculated mass and can look like invasive ductal carcinoma. We report a patient with DCIS in sclerosing adenosis encapsulated by a hamartoma, with imaging findings quite different from the typical findings of sclerosing adenosis. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 73-year old woman, with no previous mammography, presented with a palpable mass in the left breast...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Oguzhan Alagoz, Mehmet Ali Ergun, Mucahit Cevik, Brian L Sprague, Dennis G Fryback, Ronald E Gangnon, John M Hampton, Natasha K Stout, Amy Trentham-Dietz
The University of Wisconsin Breast Cancer Epidemiology Simulation Model (UWBCS), also referred to as Model W, is a discrete-event microsimulation model that uses a systems engineering approach to replicate breast cancer epidemiology in the US over time. This population-based model simulates the lifetimes of individual women through 4 main model components: breast cancer natural history, detection, treatment, and mortality. A key feature of the UWBCS is that, in addition to specifying a population distribution in tumor growth rates, the model allows for heterogeneity in tumor behavior, with some tumors having limited malignant potential (i...
April 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
Jeroen J van den Broek, Nicolien T van Ravesteyn, Eveline A Heijnsdijk, Harry J de Koning
The MISCAN-Fadia microsimulation model uses continuous tumor growth to simulate the natural history of breast cancer and has been used extensively to estimate the impact of screening and adjuvant treatment on breast cancer incidence and mortality trends. The model simulates individual life histories from birth to death, with and without breast cancer, in the presence and in the absence of screening and treatment. Life histories are simulated according to discrete events such as birth, tumor inception, the tumor's clinical diagnosis diameter in the absence of screening, and death from breast cancer or death from other causes...
April 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
Sandra J Lee, Xiaoxue Li, Hui Huang, Marvin Zelen
BACKGROUND: We present updated features to a model developed by Dana-Farber investigators within the Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network (CISNET). The initial model was developed to evaluate the impact of mammography screening strategies. METHODS: This major update includes the incorporation of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) as part of the natural history of breast cancer. The updated model allows DCIS in the pre-clinical state to regress to undetectable early-stage DCIS, or to transition to invasive breast cancer, or to clinical DCIS...
April 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
Jun He, Heyang Zheng, Daodong Pan, Tao Liu, Yangying Sun, Jinxuan Cao, Zhen Wu, Xiaoqun Zeng
Sheldrake is a duck breed widely used for its meat and eggs. In this study, the quantities of abdominal fat, sebum, intramuscular fat and liver fat, meat quality (pH, cooking loss, drip loss, and shear force), and expression and activity of several enzymes at different ages were determined. The results showed that the fat content increased (P < 0.05) during the aging process (90 d, 180 d, 270 d, and 360 d). Fatty acid synthase (FAS) and malic enzyme (ME) were chosen to represent the activity of lipid biosynthesis in Sheldrake ducks...
March 15, 2018: Poultry Science
P Xie, X P Wan, Z Bu, E J Diao, D Q Gong, X T Zou
The present study was conducted to determine the changes in concentrations of hormones and growth factors and their related receptor gene expressions in crop tissue, relative organ weight, and serum biochemical parameters in male and female pigeons during incubation and chick-rearing periods under artificial farming conditions. Seventy-eight pairs of 60-week-old White King pigeons with 2 fertile eggs per pair were randomly divided into 13 groups by different breeding stages. Serum prolactin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentrations in crop tissue homogenates were the highest in both male and female pigeons at 1 d of chick-rearing (R1), while epidermal growth factor (EGF) in female pigeons peaked at d 17 of incubation (I17) (P < 0...
March 15, 2018: Poultry Science
Patrick Nasarre, Ingrid V Bonilla, John S Metcalf, Eleanor G Hilliard, Nancy Klauber-DeMore
TRAF3-interacting protein 3 (TRAF3IP3) is expressed in the immune system and participates in cell maturation, tissue development, and immune response. In a previous study, we reported that TRAF3IP3 levels were substantially increased in the vasculature of breast cancer tissues, suggesting a proangiogenic role. In this study, we investigated TRAF3IP3 tumorigenic function. TRAF3IP3 protein was present in several cancer cell lines, with highest levels in melanoma. In addition, tumor microarray analysis on 23 primary melanoma and nine positive lymph nodes revealed that 70% of human primary melanoma and 66% of lymph node metastases were positive for TRAF3IP3...
March 16, 2018: Melanoma Research
L Bua, E Tibaldi, L Falcioni, M Lauriola, L De Angelis, F Gnudi, M Manservigi, F Manservisi, I Manzoli, I Menghetti, R Montella, S Panzacchi, D Sgargi, V Strollo, A Vornoli, D Mandrioli, F Belpoggi
BACKGROUND: Up to now, experimental studies on rodents have failed to provide definitive confirmation of the carcinogenicity of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELFEMF). Two recent studies performed in our laboratory on Sprague-Dawley rats reported a statistically significant increase in malignant tumors of different sites (mammary gland, C-cells carcinoma, hemolymphoreticular neoplasia, and malignant heart Schwannoma) when ELFEMF exposure was associated with exposure to formaldehyde (50 mg/l) or acute low dose of γ-radiation (0...
March 14, 2018: Environmental Research
H Zhao, J Wang, D Fang, O Lee, R T Chatterton, V Stearns, S A Khan, S E Bulun
Obesity is associated with increased risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal but not in premenopausal women. Many factors may be responsible for this difference. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanisms by which the genes related to the AMPK pathway, inflammation, and estrogen actions are affected by adiposity in breast tissue with the objective of identifying differences that may explain the different breast cancer risk in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Random fine needle aspirates (rFNAs) of breast tissue were collected from 57 premenopausal and 55 postmenopausal women and were classified as normal weight, overweight, or obese...
March 15, 2018: Hormones & Cancer
C Wilson, R Bell, S Hinsley, H Marshall, J Brown, D Cameron, D Dodwell, R Coleman
The fracture impact of adjuvant bisphosphonates in breast cancer is not defined with most trials reporting changes in bone mineral density as a surrogate. The AZURE trial (ISRCTN79831382) evaluated the impact of adjuvant zoledronic acid (ZOL) on fractures. The AZURE trial is an academic, multi-centre, randomised phase III study evaluating the addition of ZOL 4 mg to standard therapy (neo/adjuvant chemotherapy and/or endocrine therapy) for 5 years (administered by intravenous (iv) infusion every 3-4 weeks for 6 doses, then 3 monthly × 8 and 6 monthly × 5) in patients with stage II/III early breast cancer...
March 12, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
Anne Munck, Rym Boulkedid, Laurence Weiss, Pierre Foucaud, Nathalie Wizla-Derambure, Philippe Reix, François Bremont, Jocelyne Derelle, Julien Schroedt, Corinne Alberti
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate nutritional status and associated factors in a cystic fibrosis (CF) cohort diagnosed by newborn screening and followed up to month 24. METHODS: A prospective longitudinal multicenter study assessing nutritional status according to pancreatic status, feeding modalities, prescriptions, pulmonary outcome and biological nutritional parameters. RESULTS: One-hundred-and-five infants were recruited and 99 completed the study...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Shulian Wu, Yudian Huang, Qinggong Tang, Zhifang Li, Hannah Horng, Jiatian Li, Zaihua Wu, Yu Chen, Hui Li
Preoperative neoadjuvant treatment in locally advanced breast cancer is recognized as an effective adjuvant therapy, as it improves treatment outcomes. However, the potential complications remain a threat, so there is an urgent clinical need to assess both the tumor response and changes in its microenvironment using non-invasive and precise identification techniques. Here, two-photon microscopy was employed to detect morphological alterations in breast cancer progression and recession throughout chemotherapy...
March 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Joao Incio, Jennifer A Ligibel, Daniel T McManus, Priya Suboj, Keehoon Jung, Kosuke Kawaguchi, Matthias Pinter, Suboj Babykutty, Shan M Chin, Trupti D Vardam, Yuhui Huang, Nuh N Rahbari, Sylvie Roberge, Dannie Wang, Igor L Gomes-Santos, Stefan B Puchner, Christopher L Schlett, Udo Hoffmman, Marek Ancukiewicz, Sara M Tolaney, Ian E Krop, Dan G Duda, Yves Boucher, Dai Fukumura, Rakesh K Jain
Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy has failed to improve survival in patients with breast cancer (BC). Potential mechanisms of resistance to anti-VEGF therapy include the up-regulation of alternative angiogenic and proinflammatory factors. Obesity is associated with hypoxic adipose tissues, including those in the breast, resulting in increased production of some of the aforementioned factors. Hence, we hypothesized that obesity could contribute to anti-VEGF therapy's lack of efficacy. We found that BC patients with obesity harbored increased systemic concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and/or fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2), and their tumor vasculature was less sensitive to anti-VEGF treatment...
March 14, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
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