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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905385/synthetic-breast-phantoms-from-patient-based-eigenbreasts
#1
Gregory M Sturgeon, Subok Park, William Paul Segars, Joseph Y Lo
PURPOSE: The limited number of 3D patient-based breast phantoms available could be augmented by synthetic breast phantoms in order to facilitate virtual clinical trials using model observers for breast imaging optimization and evaluation. METHODS: These synthetic breast phantoms were developed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to reduce the number of dimensions needed to describe a training set of images. PCA decomposed a training set of M breast CT volumes (with millions of voxels each) into an M-1-dimensional space of eigenvectors, which we call eigenbreasts...
September 14, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904061/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-green-tea-extract-supplementation-and-mammographic-density-in-postmenopausal-women-at-increased-risk-of-breast-cancer
#2
Hamed Samavat, Giske Ursin, Tim H Emory, Eunjung Lee, Renwei Wang, Carolyn J Torkelson, Allison M Dostal, Karen Swenson, Chap T Le, Chung S Yang, Mimi C Yu, Douglas Yee, Anna H Wu, Jian-Min Yuan, Mindy S Kurzer
Epidemiological and animal studies suggest a protective role of green tea against breast cancer. However the underlying mechanism is not understood. We conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled phase II clinical trial to investigate whether supplementation with green tea extract (GTE) modifies mammographic density (MD), as a potential mechanism, involving 1,075 healthy postmenopausal women. Women assigned to the treatment arm consumed daily 4 decaffeinated GTE capsules containing 1315 mg total catechins including 843 mg epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) for 12 months...
September 13, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903319/loss-of-giant-obscurins-alters-breast-epithelial-cell-mechanosensing-of-matrix-stiffness
#3
Kimberly M Stroka, Bin Sheng Wong, Marey Shriver, Jude M Phillip, Denis Wirtz, Aikaterini Kontrogianni-Konstantopoulos, Konstantinos Konstantopoulos
Obscurins are a family of RhoGEF-containing proteins with tumor and metastasis suppressing roles in breast epithelium. Downregulation of giant obscurins in normal breast epithelial cells leads to reduced levels of active RhoA and of its downstream effectors. Herein, we elucidate how depletion of giant obscurins affects the response of breast epithelial cells to changes in the mechanical properties of the microenvironment. We find that knockdown of obscurins increases cell morphodynamics, migration speed, and diffusivity on polyacrylamide gels of ≥ 1 kPa, presumably by decreasing focal adhesion area and density as well as cell traction forces...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902197/fast-and-reproducible-isers-microscopy-of-single-her2-positive-breast-cancer-cells-using-gold-nanostars-as-sers-nanotags
#4
Xin-Ping Wang, Bernd Walkenfort, Matthias König, Lisa König, Sabine Kasimir-Bauer, Sebastian Schlücker
Speed is often a bottleneck in conventional Raman microscopy on biological specimens. In immuno-Raman microspectroscopy, or for short iSERS microscopy, the acquisition times per pixel have been reduced by more than one order of magnitude over the past decade since its proof of concept. Typically rather high laser power densities are employed with the intention of compensating for the shorter acquisition times, without checking the reproducibility of the results in repeated experiments on the same sample. Here, we systematically analyze this aspect at the single-cell level since it forms the basis of quantification and is very important for reinspection of the same specimen...
September 13, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900477/breast-density-and-impacts-on-health
#5
EDITORIAL
Cheryl Cruwys, JoAnn Pushkin
The World Health Organization states 'Early detection in order to improve breast cancer outcome and survival remains the cornerstone of breast cancer control' [WHO (World Health Organization) (2017) Breast cancer: prevention and control Available from: http://www.who.int/cancer/detection/breastcancer/en/]. Breast Density Matters UK is a non-profit breast cancer organization. The organization's mission is to educate about breast density and its screening and risk implications with the goal of achieving the earliest stage diagnosis possible for women with dense breasts...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898193/molecular-breast-imaging-in-breast-cancer-screening-and-problem-solving
#6
Robin B Shermis, Roberta E Redfern, Jessica Burns, Haris Kudrolli
In the United States, legislative actions in over 28 states require radiologists to notify women who undergo breast screening mammography of their breast density. This has led to increased public interest in supplemental screening, but radiologists have not come to a consensus on a supplemental screening modality. In choosing between the most common options, whole-breast ultrasonography (US) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, one must weigh the benefits and drawbacks of each modality, as increased cancer detection may be accompanied by increased examination costs and biopsy rates...
September 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891935/alteration-of-mammary-gland-development-and-gene-expression-by-in-utero-exposure-to-cadmium
#7
Daniela A Parodi, Morgan Greenfield, Claire Evans, Anna Chichura, Alexandra Alpaugh, James Williams, Kedra C Cyrus, Mary Beth Martin
Environmental exposure to estrogens and estrogen like contaminants during early development is thought to contribute to the risk of developing breast cancer primarily due to an early onset of puberty; however, exposure during key developing windows may also influence the risk of developing the disease. The goal of this study was to ask whether in utero exposure to the metalloestrogen cadmium alters mammary gland development due to acceleration of puberty onset or to an effect on early development of the mammary gland...
September 9, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891042/a-novel-and-reliable-computational-intelligence-system-for-breast-cancer-detection
#8
Amin Zadeh Shirazi, Seyyed Javad Seyyed Mahdavi Chabok, Zahra Mohammadi
Cancer is the second important morbidity and mortality factor among women and the most incident type is breast cancer. This paper suggests a hybrid computational intelligence model based on unsupervised and supervised learning techniques, i.e., self-organizing map (SOM) and complex-valued neural network (CVNN), for reliable detection of breast cancer. The dataset used in this paper consists of 822 patients with five features (patient's breast mass shape, margin, density, patient's age, and Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System assessment)...
September 11, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885890/qualitative-radiogenomics-association-between-oncotype-dx-test-recurrence-score-and-bi-rads-mammographic-and-breast-mr-imaging-features
#9
Genevieve A Woodard, Kimberly M Ray, Bonnie N Joe, Elissa R Price
Purpose To evaluate the association between Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) mammographic and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features and breast cancer recurrence risk in patients with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer who underwent the Oncotype DX assay. Materials and Methods In this institutional review board-approved and HIPAA-compliant protocol, 408 patients diagnosed with invasive breast cancer between 2004 and 2013 who underwent the Oncotype DX assay were identified. Mammographic and MR imaging features were retrospectively collected according to the BI-RADS lexicon...
September 8, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885152/multimodal-breast-parenchymal-patterns-correlation-using-a-patient-specific-biomechanical-model
#10
Eloy Garcia, Yago Diez, Oliver Diaz, Xavier Llado, Albert Gubern-Merida, Robert Marti, Joan Marti, Arnau Oliver
In this paper we aim to produce a realistic 2D projection of the breast parenchymal distribution from a 3D breast magnetic resonance image (MRI). To evaluate the accuracy of our simulation, we compare our results with the local breast density (i.e. density map) obtained from the complementary fullfield digital mammogram. To achieve this goal, we have developed a fully automatic framework which registers MRI volumes to X-ray mammograms using a subject-specific biomechanical model of the breast. The optimization step modifies the position, orientation and elastic parameters of the breast model to perform the alignment between the images...
September 7, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885130/a-comparison-of-relative-proton-stopping-power-measurements-across-patient-size-using-dual-and-single-energy-ct
#11
Gregory Michalak, Vicki Taasti, Bernhard Krauss, Amanda Deisher, Ahmed Halaweish, Cynthia McCollough
PURPOSE: To evaluate the accuracy and precision across phantom size of a dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) technique used to calculate relative proton stopping power (SPR) in tissue-simulating materials and a silicone implant relative to conventional single-energy CT (SECT). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A 32 cm lateral diameter (CIRS model 062M, Norfolk, Virginia) electron density phantom containing inserts which simulated the chemical composition of eight tissues in a solid-water background was scanned using SECT and DECT...
September 8, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877713/breast-tissue-organisation-and-its-association-with-breast-cancer-risk
#12
Maya Alsheh Ali, Kamila Czene, Louise Eriksson, Per Hall, Keith Humphreys
BACKGROUND: Mammographic percentage density is an established and important risk factor for breast cancer. In this paper, we investigate the role of the spatial organisation of (dense vs. fatty) regions of the breast defined from mammographic images in terms of breast cancer risk. METHODS: We present a novel approach that provides a thorough description of the spatial organisation of different types of tissue in the breast. Each mammogram is first segmented into four regions (fatty, semi-fatty, semi-dense and dense tissue)...
September 6, 2017: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877351/evaluation-of-a-novel-collimator-for-molecular-breast-tomosynthesis
#13
David R Gilland, Benjamin L Welch, Seungjoon Lee, Brian Kross, Andrew G Weisenberger
PURPOSE: This study investigated a novel gamma camera for molecular breast tomosynthesis (MBT), which is a nuclear breast imaging method that uses limited angle tomography. The camera is equipped with a variable angle, slant-hole (VASH) collimator that allows the camera to remain close to the breast throughout the acquisition. The goal of this study was to evaluate the spatial resolution and count sensitivity of this camera and to compare contrast and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) with conventional planar imaging using an experimental breast phantom...
September 6, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877332/socioeconomic-position-population-density-and-site-specific-cancer-mortality-a-multilevel-analysis-of-belgian-adults-2001-2011
#14
Paulien Hagedoorn, Hadewijch Vandenheede, Katrien Vanthomme, Sylvie Gadeyne
This study explores the association between individual and neighbourhood socioeconomic position (SEP) and all-cancer and site-specific cancer mortality. Data on all Belgian residents is retrieved from a population-based dataset constructed from the 2001 census linked to register data on emigration and mortality for 2001-2011. The study population contains all men and women aged 40 years or older during follow-up. Individual SEP is measured using education, employment status and housing conditions. Neighbourhood SEP is measured by a deprivation index (in quintiles)...
September 6, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874753/identifying-dnase-i-hypersensitive-sites-as-driver-distal-regulatory-elements-in-breast-cancer
#15
Matteo D Antonio, Donate Weghorn, Agnieszka D Antonio-Chronowska, Florence Coulet, Katrina M Olson, Christopher DeBoever, Frauke Drees, Angelo Arias, Hakan Alakus, Andrea L Richardson, Richard B Schwab, Emma K Farley, Shamil R Sunyaev, Kelly A Frazer
Efforts to identify driver mutations in cancer have largely focused on genes, whereas non-coding sequences remain relatively unexplored. Here we develop a statistical method based on characteristics known to influence local mutation rate and a series of enrichment filters in order to identify distal regulatory elements harboring putative driver mutations in breast cancer. We identify ten DNase I hypersensitive sites that are significantly mutated in breast cancers and associated with the aberrant expression of neighboring genes...
September 5, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870933/clinicopathological-features-of-ductal-carcinoma-in-situ-from-18-f-fdg-pet-findings
#16
Takaaki Fujii, Keiko Yanai, Shoko Tokuda, Yuko Nakazawa, Sasagu Kurozumi, Sayaka Obayashi, Reina Yajima, Tomoko Hirakata, Hiroyuki Kuwano
AIM: The presence of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) can increase the risk of developing an invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), but it is difficult to predict what will occur if a DCIS is left untreated. We reported the usefulness of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) for DCIS, and that the presence of FDG uptake in the tumor could be considered a predictor of invasive potential in patients with DCIS. In this study, we retrospectively evaluated the clinicopathological features of DCIS by using FDG-PET findings, and we evaluated the possibility of using FDG-PET in DCIS cases as a biomarker of which lesions will go on to become invasive...
September 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870637/a-hierarchical-bayesian-approach-to-calibrating-the-linear-quadratic-model-from-clonogenic-survival-assay-data
#17
Joe Collis, Michael R Hill, James R Nicol, Philip J Paine, Jonathan A Coulter
We propose a Bayesian hierarchical model applicable to the calibration of the linear-quadratic model of radiation dose-response. Experimental data used in model calibration were taken from a clonogenic survival assay conducted on human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) across a range of radiation doses (0-6Gy). Employing Markov-chain Monte Carlo methods, we calibrated the proposed Bayesian hierarchical model, computed posterior distributions for the model parameters and survival fraction dose-response probability densities...
September 1, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870431/could-parenchymal-enhancement-on-contrast-enhanced-spectral-mammography-cesm-represent-a-new-breast-cancer-risk-factor-correlation-with-known-radiology-risk-factors
#18
S L Savaridas, D B Taylor, D Gunawardana, M Phillips
AIM: To compare background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) on contrast-enhanced (CE) spectral mammography (CESM) with CE magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and evaluate how these relate to hormonal status, mammographic breast density (MBD) and MRI fibroglandular tissue volume (FGTV). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between June 2012 to October 2015, participants in a cancer staging study underwent full-field digital mammography (FFDM), CEMRI, and CESM. Two readers independently rated FGTV, MBD, and BPE using the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) criteria...
September 1, 2017: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869796/anti-tumor-effects-of-eribulin-depend-on-the-modulation-of-tumor-microenvironment-by-vascular-remodeling-in-mouse-models
#19
Ken Ito, Shusei Hamamichi, Takanori Abe, Tsuyoshi Akagi, Hiroshi Shirota, Satoshi Kawano, Makoto Asano, Osamu Asano, Akira Yokoi, Junji Matsui, Izumi O Umeda, Hirofumi Fujii
We previously reported that eribulin mesylate (eribulin), a tubulin-binding drug (TBD), could remodel tumor vasculature (i.e., increased tumor vessels and perfusion) in human breast cancer xenograft models; however, a role of this vascular remodeling in anti-tumor effects is not fully understood. Here, we investigated the effects of eribulin-induced vascular remodeling on anti-tumor activities in multiple human cancer xenograft models. Microvessel densities (MVDs) were evaluated by immunohistochemistry (CD31 staining), and anti-tumor effects were examined in 10 human cancer xenograft models...
September 4, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867180/lactoferrin-promotes-autophagy-via-amp-activated-protein-kinase-activation-through-low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-related-protein-1
#20
Shu Aizawa, Minami Hoki, Yutaka Yamamuro
Lactoferrin (LF) is a multifunctional, iron-binding glycoprotein in mammalian secretions, such as breast milk, and has several beneficial effects for human health. However, how these effects are exerted at the cellular level is still largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of LF on autophagy activity in NIH/3T3 mouse fibroblasts. LF from bovine milk was found to increase LC3-I to LC3-II conversion and LC3-positive cytosolic punctate structures because of increased autophagy flux. Knockdown of the putative LF receptor low-density receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) completely abolished LC3 conversion in cells by LF treatment...
September 1, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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