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Breast density

Jeffrey R Hawley, Prateek Kalra, Xiaokui Mo, Brian Raterman, Lisa D Yee, Arunark Kolipaka
PURPOSE: Previous studies of breast MR elastography (MRE) evaluated the technique at magnetic field strengths of 1.5 Tesla (T) with the breast in contact with the driver. The aim of this study is to evaluate breast stiffness measurements and their reproducibility using a soft sternal driver at 3T and compare the results with qualitative measures of breast density. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-two healthy volunteers each underwent two separate breast MRE scans in a 3T MRI...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Chris Mills, Amy Sanchez, Joanna Scurr
As human breast tissue is continuously deformed by gravity, it is difficult to identify the non-loaded neutral breast position from which to take measurements. To estimate the neutral nipple position, this study proposed a simple novel method to counteract the three dimensional effect of gravity on the breast using the buoyant forces from water and soybean oil (ρWATER = 994kgm(-3); ρOIL = 909kgm(-3)). Fourteen female participants with breast sizes ranging from 30 to 34in. under band and B to E cup size took part in this study...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
Cecilia W Huo, Mark Waltham, Christine Khoo, Stephen B Fox, Prue Hill, Shou Chen, Grace L Chew, John T Price, Chau H Nguyen, Elizabeth D Williams, Michael Henderson, Erik W Thompson, Kara L Britt
BACKGROUND: High mammographic density (HMD) not only confers a significantly increased risk of breast cancer (BC) but also is associated with BCs of more advanced stages. However, it is unclear whether BC progression and metastasis are stimulated by HMD. We investigated whether patient-derived HMD breast tissue could stimulate the progression of cells compared with patient-matched low mammographic density (LMD) tissue. METHODS: Sterile breast specimens were obtained immediately after prophylactic mastectomy from high-risk women (n = 10)...
October 25, 2016: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
Jorge L Gutierrez-Pajares, Céline Ben Hassen, Stéphan Chevalier, Philippe G Frank
Studies have demonstrated the significant role of cholesterol and lipoprotein metabolism in the progression of cancer. The SCARB1 gene encodes the scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI), which is an 82-kDa glycoprotein with two transmembrane domains separated by a large extracellular loop. SR-BI plays an important role in the regulation of cholesterol exchange between cells and high-density lipoproteins. Accordingly, hepatic SR-BI has been shown to play an essential role in the regulation of the reverse cholesterol transport pathway, which promotes the removal and excretion of excess body cholesterol...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Md Shifat-E Rabbi, Md Kamrul Hasan
Strain imaging though for solid lesions provides an effective way for determining their pathologic condition by displaying the tissue stiffness contrast, for fluid filled lesions such an imaging is yet an open problem. In this paper, we propose a novel speckle content based strain imaging technique for visualization and classification of fluid filled lesions in elastography after automatic identification of the presence of fluid filled lesions. Speckle content based strain, defined as a function of speckle density based on the relationship between strain and speckle density, gives an indirect strain value for fluid filled lesions...
October 12, 2016: Ultrasonics
Yujin Myung, Heeyeon Kwon, Changsik Pak, Hobin Lee, Jae Hoon Jeong, Chan Yeong Heo
BACKGROUND: Breast augmentation with fat transfer does not bear the risks associated with silicone implantation. The method can potentially be especially useful in Asian women, who often reject augmentation mammoplasty with implants. This prospective clinical trial evaluated the effects of external breast expansion on breast density and vessel count using magnetic resonance imaging. METHODS: Thirty-four enrolled patients were instructed to apply one of two devices, the conventional BRAVA device (used in the AESTES trial) or a novel external expansion device (EVERA) designed for Asian women, continuously for 8 h per day for 12 weeks...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
Ernest U Ekpo, Claudia Mello-Thoms, Mary Rickard, Patrick C Brennan, Mark F McEntee
PURPOSE: To assess the agreement between digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) breast density (BD) assessment made using Quantra™ and fifth edition BI-RADS(®). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This board approved study involved BD assessment of 234 women undergoing DBT investigation. BD estimation was performed from the raw DBT images using Quantra™ 3 (v.2.1.1, Hologic, Bedford MA). BI-RADS(®) assessment was performed using prior digital mammograms displayed simultaneously with 2D images synthesized from DBT by three radiologists using the fifth edition BI-RADS(®) (A, B, C, D)...
October 18, 2016: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
Urszula K Komarnicka, Radosław Starosta, Agnieszka Kyzioł, Michał Płotek, Małgorzata Puchalska, Małgorzata Jeżowska-Bojczuk
In this paper we present lomefloxacin's (HLm, 2nd generation fluoroquinolone antibiotic agent) organic and inorganic derivatives: aminomethyl(diphenyl)phosphine (PLm), its oxide as well as new copper(I) iodide or copper(I) thiocyanate complexes with PLm and 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (dmp) or 2,2'-biquinoline (bq) as the auxiliary ligands. The synthesized compounds were fully characterised by NMR, UV-Vis and luminescence spectroscopies. Selected structures were analysed by theoretical DFT (density functional theory) methods...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Azhar Z Abbasi, Claudia R Gordijo, Mohammad Ali Amini, Azusa Maeda, Andrew M Rauth, Ralph S DaCosta, Xiao Yu Wu
Hypoxia in the tumor microenvironment (TME) mediates resistance to radiotherapy (RT) and contributes to poor prognosis in patients receiving RT. Here we report the design of clinically suitable formulations of hybrid manganese dioxide (MnO2) nanoparticles (MDNP) using biocompatible materials to re-oxygenate the TME by reacting with endogenous H2O2. MDNP containing hydrophilic terpolymer-protein-MnO2 or hydrophobic polymer-lipid-MnO2 provided different oxygen generation rates in the TME relevant to different clinical settings...
October 6, 2016: Cancer Research
Caroline Dickens, Ruth M Pfeiffer, William F Anderson, Raquel Duarte, Patricia Kellett, Joachim Schüz, Danuta Kielkowski, Valerie A McCormack
PURPOSE: Bimodal age distributions at diagnosis have been widely observed among US and European female breast cancer populations. To determine whether bimodal breast cancer distributions are also present in a sub-Saharan African population, we investigated female breast cancer in South Africa. METHODS: Using the South African National Cancer Registry data, we examined age-at-diagnosis frequency distributions (density plots) for breast cancer overall and by their receptor (oestrogen, progesterone and HER2) determinants among black and white women diagnosed during 2009-2011 in the public healthcare sector...
October 18, 2016: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Jack R Staunton, Wilfred Vieira, King Leung Fung, Ross Lake, Alexus Devine, Kandice Tanner
One of the hallmarks of the malignant transformation of epithelial tissue is the modulation of stromal components of the microenvironment. In particular, aberrant extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and stiffening enhances tumor growth and survival and promotes metastasis. Type I collagen is one of the major ECM components. It serves as a scaffold protein in the stroma contributing to the tissue's mechanical properties, imparting tensile strength and rigidity to tissues such as those of the skin, tendons, and lungs...
September 2016: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
M C Carrera Gómez, M C Estrada Blan
High breast density and its relationship to the risk of breast cancer has become a hot topic in the medical literature and in the lay press, especially in the United States, where it has brought about changes in the legal framework that require radiologists to inform clinicians and patients about breast density. Radiologists, who are mainly responsible for this information, need to know the scientific evidence and controversies regarding this subject. The discussion is centered on the real importance of the risk, the limitation that not having standardized methods of measurement represents, and the possible application of complementary screening techniques (ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, or tomosynthesis) for which clear recommendations have yet to be established...
October 14, 2016: Radiología
Domenico Ribatti, Beatrice Nico, Simona Ruggieri, Roberto Tamma, Giovanni Simone, Anita Mangia
Several data support a central role for angiogenesis in breast cancer growth and metastasis. Observational studies have demonstrated that microvascular density (MVD) is a prognostic factor in invasive breast cancer, whereas others reached the opposite conclusion. Vascular endothelial growth factor is the most important angiogenic factor with proven significance in breast cancer, as it has been assessed in both experimental and clinical studies. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a type of breast cancer which lacks estrogen, progesterone, and HER-2/neu receptors...
October 2016: Translational Oncology
Chenfang Zhu, Xiaoliang Qi, Xin Zhou, Xin Nie, Yan Gu
In our previous studies, sulfatase 2 (Sulf2) was found to upregulate vascular endothelial growth factor-D (VEGF-D) expression in breast cancer. As VEGF-D plays an important role in lymphangiogenesis, we hypothesized that Sulf2 facilitates lymphangiogenesis in breast cancer by regulating VEGF-D. To evaluate the functions of Sulf2 on lymphangiogenesis in breast cancer, proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle, cell mobility and tube-formation of lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) were measured in vitro. Lymphangiogenesis in nude mouse ears and breast cancer xenografts were examined in vivo...
October 4, 2016: Oncology Reports
Michael W Cho, Lars J Grimm, Karen S Johnson
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the utility of directed ultrasound and digital mammogram for evaluating focal breast pain in women with different mammographic breast densities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This institutional review board-approved and Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant retrospective study included 413 cases of focal breast pain in 369 women (mean age 53 years). All cases were evaluated with both mammogram and ultrasound and had at least 2 years of imaging follow-up...
October 13, 2016: Academic Radiology
Brett A Morris, Brian Burkel, Suzanne M Ponik, Jing Fan, John S Condeelis, Julio A Aguire-Ghiso, James Castracane, John M Denu, Patricia J Keely
Increased breast density attributed to collagen I deposition is associated with a 4-6 fold increased risk of developing breast cancer. Here, we assessed cellular metabolic reprogramming of mammary carcinoma cells in response to increased collagen matrix density using an in vitro 3D model. Our initial observations demonstrated changes in functional metabolism in both normal mammary epithelial cells and mammary carcinoma cells in response to changes in matrix density. Further, mammary carcinoma cells grown in high density collagen matrices displayed decreased oxygen consumption and glucose metabolism via the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle compared to cells cultured in low density matrices...
October 8, 2016: EBioMedicine
Matthew E Brice, Marisa Gossweiler, Larry Bennett
Artifacts are universal across all imaging modalities, varying in their conspicuity and significance. In this report three patients with pathology-proven breast cancer who had densities masquerading as microcalcifications at the resection margins of the lumpectomy specimens, but had negative microscopic margins, will be discussed. It was determined that these pseudocalcifications were the result of ink precipitates from a commonly utilized tissue marking dye. This artifact was further evaluated and reproduced by utilizing a boneless chicken breast as a phantom...
October 13, 2016: Radiology
X Cui, R Liu, H Cui, G Zhao, M Zheng, Q Li, J Liu, Z Liu, J Wen
Capons and ovariectomized chickens are birds that have been gonadectomized to improve the meat quality. This study investigated the effects of caponization and ovariectomy on physical, chemical, and fatty acid and amino acid profiles of meat from Beijing-You chickens (a Chinese local breed) at market age (17 wk). All birds (20 capons, 20 ovariectomized, and 40 controls) were reared under the same conditions. Breast muscle fiber diameter and area were significantly smaller and the fiber density was higher in capons and ovariectomized chickens than in controls (P < 0...
October 12, 2016: Poultry Science
Mark Manning, Terrance L Albrecht, Zeynep Yilmaz-Saab, Julie Shultz, Kristen Purrington
RATIONALE: Many states have adopted laws mandating breast density (BD) notification for applicable women; however, very little is known about what women knew or felt about BD and related breast cancer (BC) risk before implementation of BD notification laws. OBJECTIVE: We examined between-race differences in the extent to which having dense breasts was associated with women's related BD cognition and emotion, and with health care providers' communication about BD...
October 4, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Maneesha A Rajora, Gang Zheng
Scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) plays an important role in trafficking cholesteryl esters between the core of high density lipoprotein and the liver. Interestingly, this integral membrane protein receptor is also implicated in the metabolism of cholesterol by cancer cells, whereby overexpression of SR-BI has been observed in a number of tumors and cancer cell lines, including breast and prostate cancers. Consequently, SR-BI has recently gained attention as a cancer biomarker and exciting target for the direct cytosolic delivery of therapeutic agents...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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