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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550305/dynamics-and-ligand-induced-conformational-changes-in-human-prolyl-oligopeptidase-analyzed-by-hydrogen-deuterium-exchange-mass-spectrometry
#1
Alexandra Tsirigotaki, Roos Van Elzen, Pieter Van Der Veken, Anne-Marie Lambeir, Anastassios Economou
Prolyl oligopeptidase (PREP) is conserved in many organisms across life. It is involved in numerous processes including brain function and neuropathology, that require more than its strict proteolytic role. It consists of a seven-bladed β-propeller juxtaposed to a catalytic α/β-hydrolase domain. The conformational dynamics of PREP involved in domain motions and the gating mechanism that allows substrate accessibility remain elusive. Here we used Hydrogen Deuterium eXchange Mass Spectrometry (HDX-MS) to derive the first near-residue resolution analysis of global PREP dynamics in the presence or absence of inhibitor bound in the active site...
May 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549599/accuracy-map-of-an-optical-motion-capture-system-with-42-or-21-cameras-in-a-large-measurement-volume
#2
Alexander M Aurand, Jonathan S Dufour, William S Marras
Optical motion capture is commonly used in biomechanics to measure human kinematics. However, no studies have yet examined the accuracy of optical motion capture in a large capture volume (>100m(3)), or how accuracy varies from the center to the extreme edges of the capture volume. This study measured the dynamic 3D errors of an optical motion capture system composed of 42 OptiTrack Prime 41 cameras (capture volume of 135m(3)) by comparing the motion of a single marker to the motion reported by a ThorLabs linear motion stage...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548647/acute-endophthalmitis-after-cataract-surgery-164-consecutive-cases-treated-at-a-referral-center-in-south-korea
#3
S H Jeong, H J Cho, H S Kim, J I Han, D W Lee, C G Kim, J W Kim
PurposeTo identify prognostic factors in patients referred with endophthalmitis after cataract surgery, and to evaluate the efficacy of primary vitrectomy as an initial management.MethodsOver an eight-year study period, we retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 164 patients who were referred with endophthalmitis following cataract surgery. Treatment generally conformed to standard guidelines, although primary vitrectomy was performed in several eyes with a visual acuity of hand motion or better, depending on the patient's status...
May 26, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547868/improving-three-dimensional-mechanical-imaging-of-breast-lesions-with-principal-component-analysis
#4
Mohit Tyagi, Yuqi Wang, Timothy Hall, Paul E Barbone, Assad A Oberai
PURPOSE: Elastography has emerged as a new tool for detecting and diagnosing many types of diseases including breast cancer. To date, most clinical applications of elastography have utilized two-dimensional strain images. The goal of this paper is to present a new quasi-static elastography technique that yields shear modulus images in three dimensions METHODS: An automated breast volume scanner was used to acquire ultrasound images of the breast as it was gently compressed. Cross-correlation between successive images was used to determine the displacement within the tissue...
May 26, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545983/feedback-from-higher-to-lower-visual-areas-for-visual-recognition-may-be-weaker-in-the-periphery-glimpses-from-the-perception-of-brief-dichoptic-stimuli
#5
Li Zhaoping
Eye movements bring attended visual inputs to the center of vision for further processing. Thus, central and peripheral vision should have different functional roles. Here, we use observations of visual perception under dichoptic stimuli to infer that there is a difference in the top-down feedback from higher brain centers to primary visual cortex. Visual stimuli to the two eyes were designed such that the sum and difference of the binocular input from the two eyes have the form of two different gratings. These gratings differed in their motion direction, tilt direction, or color, and duly evoked ambiguous percepts for the corresponding feature...
May 22, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545773/influence-of-body-mass-index-on-sagittal-knee-range-of-motion-and-gait-speed-recovery-1-year-after-total-knee-arthroplasty
#6
Alice Bonnefoy-Mazure, Pierre Martz, Stéphane Armand, Yoshimasa Sagawa, Domizio Suva, Katia Turcot, Hermes H Miozzari, Anne Lübbeke
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this prospective study was to investigate the influence of body mass index (BMI) on gait parameters preoperatively and 1 year after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). METHODS: Seventy-nine patients were evaluated before and 1 year after TKA using clinical gait analysis. The gait velocity, the knee range of motion (ROM) during gait, their gains (difference between baseline and 1 year after TKA), the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), quality of life, and patient satisfaction were assessed...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545397/jed-a-java-essential-dynamics-program-for-comparative-analysis-of-protein-trajectories
#7
Charles C David, Ettayapuram Ramaprasad Azhagiya Singam, Donald J Jacobs
BACKGROUND: Essential Dynamics (ED) is a common application of principal component analysis (PCA) to extract biologically relevant motions from atomic trajectories of proteins. Covariance and correlation based PCA are two common approaches to determine PCA modes (eigenvectors) and their eigenvalues. Protein dynamics can be characterized in terms of Cartesian coordinates or internal distance pairs. In understanding protein dynamics, a comparison of trajectories taken from a set of proteins for similarity assessment provides insight into conserved mechanisms...
May 25, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545245/multimodal-bio-inspired-tactile-sensing-module-for-surface-characterization
#8
Thiago Eustaquio Alves de Oliveira, Ana-Maria Cretu, Emil M Petriu
Robots are expected to recognize the properties of objects in order to handle them safely and efficiently in a variety of applications, such as health and elder care, manufacturing, or high-risk environments. This paper explores the issue of surface characterization by monitoring the signals acquired by a novel bio-inspired tactile probe in contact with ridged surfaces. The tactile module comprises a nine Degree of Freedom Microelectromechanical Magnetic, Angular Rate, and Gravity system (9-DOF MEMS MARG) and a deep MEMS pressure sensor embedded in a compliant structure that mimics the function and the organization of mechanoreceptors in human skin as well as the hardness of the human skin...
May 23, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545068/automatically-tracking-neurons-in-a-moving-and-deforming-brain
#9
Jeffrey P Nguyen, Ashley N Linder, George S Plummer, Joshua W Shaevitz, Andrew M Leifer
Advances in optical neuroimaging techniques now allow neural activity to be recorded with cellular resolution in awake and behaving animals. Brain motion in these recordings pose a unique challenge. The location of individual neurons must be tracked in 3D over time to accurately extract single neuron activity traces. Recordings from small invertebrates like C. elegans are especially challenging because they undergo very large brain motion and deformation during animal movement. Here we present an automated computer vision pipeline to reliably track populations of neurons with single neuron resolution in the brain of a freely moving C...
May 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544076/challenges-in-measuring-individual-differences-in-functional-connectivity-using-fmri-the-case-of-healthy-aging
#10
Linda Geerligs, Kamen A Tsvetanov, Cam-Can, Richard N Henson
Many studies report individual differences in functional connectivity, such as those related to age. However, estimates of connectivity from fMRI are confounded by other factors, such as vascular health, head motion and changes in the location of functional regions. Here, we investigate the impact of these confounds, and pre-processing strategies that can mitigate them, using data from the Cambridge Centre for Ageing & Neuroscience (www.cam-can.com). This dataset contained two sessions of resting-state fMRI from 214 adults aged 18-88...
May 23, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543850/structures-and-kinetics-for-plant-nucleoside-triphosphate-diphosphohydrolases-ntpdases-support-a-domain-motion-catalytic-mechanism
#11
Emma L Summers, Mathew H Cumming, Tifany Oulavallickal, Nick Roberts, Vickery L Arcus
Extracellular nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (NTPDases) are enzymes that hydrolyse extracellular nucleotides to the respective monophosphate nucleotides. In the past 20 years, NTPDases belonging to mammalian, parasitic and prokaryotic domains of life have been discovered, cloned and characterized. We reveal the first structures of NTPDases from the legume plant species Trifolium repens (7WC) and Vigna unguiculata subsp. cylindrica (DbLNP). Four crystal structures of 7WC and DbLNP were determined at resolutions between 1...
May 24, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542374/targeted-box-and-blocks-test-normative-data-and-comparison-to-standard-tests
#12
Kimberly Kontson, Ian Marcus, Barbara Myklebust, Eugene Civillico
BACKGROUND: The Box and Block Test (BBT) is a functional outcome measure that is commonly used across multiple clinical populations due to its benefits of ease and speed of implementation; reliable, objective measurement; and repetition of motion. In this study, we introduce a novel outcome measure called the targeted BBT that allows for the study of initiation, grasping, and transport of objects, and also of object release. These modifications to the existing test may increase the ecological validity of the measure while still retaining the previously stated benefits of the standard BBT...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542305/patterns-of-change-and-continuity-in-ochre-use-during-the-late-middle-stone-age-of-the-horn-of-africa-the-porc-epic-cave-record
#13
Daniela Eugenia Rosso, Francesco d'Errico, Alain Queffelec
Ochre is found at numerous Middle Stone Age (MSA) sites and plays a key role in early modern human archaeology. Here we analyse the largest known East African MSA ochre assemblage, comprising 40 kg of ochre, found at Porc-Epic Cave, Ethiopia, spanning a period of at least 4,500 years. Visual characterisation of ochre types, microscopic identification of traces of modification, morphological and morphometric analysis of ochre pieces and modified areas, experimental reproduction of grinding processes, surface texture analysis of archaeological and experimentally ground ochre facets, laser granulometry of ochre powder produced experimentally on different grindstones and by Hamar and Ovahimba women from Ethiopia and Namibia respectively, were, for the first time, combined to explore diachronic shifts in ochre processing technology...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539973/are-ultrasound-features-at-the-first-metatarsophalangeal-joint-associated-with-clinically-assessed-pain-and-function-a-study-of-people-with-gout-asymptomatic-hyperuricaemia-and-normouricaemia
#14
Sarah Stewart, Nicola Dalbeth, Alain C Vandal, Bruce Allen, Rhian Miranda, Keith Rome
BACKGROUND: The first metatatarsophalangeal joint (1st MTP joint) is a common location for sonographic evidence of urate deposition in people with gout and asymptomatic hyperuricaemia. However, it is unclear whether these are related to clinically-assessed pain and function. This study aimed to determine the association between ultrasound features and clinical characteristics of the 1st MTP joint in people with gout, asymptomatic hyperuricaemia and age- and sex-matched normouricaemic individuals...
2017: Journal of Foot and Ankle Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539911/the-use-of-functional-electrical-stimulation-on-the-upper-limb-and-interscapular-muscles-of-patients-with-stroke-for-the-improvement-of-reaching-movements-a-feasibility-study
#15
Alicia Cuesta-Gómez, Francisco Molina-Rueda, Maria Carratala-Tejada, Eukene Imatz-Ojanguren, Diego Torricelli, Juan Carlos Miangolarra-Page
INTRODUCTION: Reaching movements in stroke patients are characterized by decreased amplitudes at the shoulder and elbow joints and greater displacements of the trunk, compared to healthy subjects. The importance of an appropriate and specific contraction of the interscapular and upper limb (UL) muscles is crucial to achieving proper reaching movements. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is used to activate the paretic muscles using short-duration electrical pulses. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the application of FES in the UL and interscapular muscles of stroke patients with motor impairments of the UL modifies patients' reaching patterns, measured using instrumental movement analysis systems...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539445/structure-of-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-envelope-spikes-bound-with-cd4-and-monoclonal-antibody-36d5
#16
Guiqing Hu, Jun Liu, Kenneth H Roux, Kenneth A Taylor
The HIV-1/SIV envelope spike (Env) mediates the viral entry into host cells. The V3 loop of the gp120 component of the Env trimer contributes to the co-receptor binding site and is a target for neutralizing antibodies. We have used cryoelectron tomography to visualize the binding of CD4 and the V3 loop monoclonal antibody 36D5 to gp120 of the SIV Env. Our results show that 36D5 binds gp120 at the base of the V3 loop and suggest the antibody exerts its neutralization effect by blocking the co-receptor binding site...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539395/optimal-motor-synergy-extraction-for-novel-actions-and-virtual-environments
#17
Arran T Reader
Dimensionality reduction techniques such as factor analysis can be used to identify the smallest number of components (motor synergies) that explain motion. Lambert-Shirzad and Van der Loos (2017) compared dimensionality reduction techniques in bimanual hand movements, concluding that non-negative matrix factorization was the optimal technique for extracting meaningful synergies. Their results provide a useful measure for examining how the motor system deals with novel motor tasks that allow the actor to engage with a virtual environment...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539149/mobility-and-agility-during-locomotion-in-the-mark-iii-space-suit
#18
Conor R Cullinane, Richard A Rhodes, Leia A Stirling
INTRODUCTION: The Mark III (MIII) space suit assembly (SSAs) implements a multibearing, hard-material hip brief assembly (HBA). We hypothesize that: 1) the MIII HBA restricts operator mobility and agility which manifests in effects to gait parameters; 2) the waist bearing provides rotational motion, partially alleviating the restrictions; and 3) there are resistive, speed-dependent torques associated with the spinning bearings which further diminish mobility and agility. METHODS: A subject (Suited and Unsuited) performed two planetary tasks-walking forward (WF) and backward (WB)...
June 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538515/effect-of-exposure-to-short-wavelength-light-on-susceptibility-to-motion-sickness
#19
Kyungshil Kim, Kazumi Hirayama, Kazuki Yoshida, Rika Yano, Masayuki Abe, Mika Otsuki, Satoshi Sakuraba, Shinya Sakai
This randomized cross-over study tested the hypothesis that exposure to short-wavelength light induces symptoms of motion sickness (MS). The study participants were 28 healthy adults (14 women; mean age±SD, 25.96±3.11 years). Two stimuli oscillating within a range of 0.4-0.6 Hz were used to induce MS: a blue wave stimulus with short-wavelength light (460 nm) and a green wave stimulus with middle-wavelength light (555 nm). All participants were exposed to both stimuli throughout two separate periods...
May 19, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538145/nmr-analysis-of-amide-hydrogen-exchange-rates-in-a-pentapeptide-repeat-protein-from-a-%C3%A2-thaliana
#20
Shenyuan Xu, Shuisong Ni, Michael A Kennedy
At2g44920 from Arabidopsis thaliana is a pentapeptide-repeat protein (PRP) composed of 25 repeats capped by N- and C-terminal α-helices. PRP structures are dominated by four-sided right-handed β-helices typically consisting of mixtures of type II and type IV β-turns. PRPs adopt repeated five-residue (Rfr) folds with an Rfr consensus sequence (STAV)(D/N)(L/F)(S/T/R)(X). Unlike other PRPs, At2g44920 consists exclusively of type II β-turns. At2g44920 is predicted to be located in the thylakoid lumen although its biochemical function remains unknown...
May 23, 2017: Biophysical Journal
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