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pregnancy nutritional factors

Dries S Martens, Michelle Plusquin, Wilfried Gyselaers, Immaculata De Vivo, Tim S Nawrot
BACKGROUND: Newborn telomere length sets telomere length for later life. At birth, telomere length is highly variable among newborns and the environmental factors during in utero life for this observation remain largely unidentified. Obesity during pregnancy might reflect an adverse nutritional status affecting pregnancy and offspring outcomes, but the association of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) with newborn telomere length, as a mechanism of maternal obesity, on the next generation has not been addressed...
October 18, 2016: BMC Medicine
Tomoko Kawai, Kenichiro Hata
Foetal environmental factors, including maternal nutrition, hormonal disturbance, and chemical exposure, affect foetal growth and can cause birth defects. Recent studies have shown the link of poor foetal growth with increased risks of coronary heart disease, type II diabetes, kidney disease, and brain disorders in adulthood. Epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, are involved in tissue- and developmental stage-specific gene expression and silencing, and they can be transmitted stably through mitotic cell division, thereby inducing long-term changes in gene regulation...
2016: Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Hygiene
Helene McNulty, J J Strain, Catherine F Hughes, Mary Ward
Hypertension is the leading risk factor contributing to mortality worldwide, primarily from cardiovascular disease (CVD), while effective treatment of hypertension is proven to reduce CVD events. Along with the well recognized nutrition and lifestyle determinants, genetic factors are implicated in the development and progression of hypertension. In recent years genome-wide association studies have identified a region near the gene encoding the folate-metabolizing enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) among eight loci associated with blood pressure...
October 6, 2016: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
Mary K Horan, Jean M Donnelly, Ciara A McGowan, Eileen R Gibney, Fionnuala M McAuliffe
AIM: To examine the association between maternal nutrition and lifestyle factors and offspring adiposity, using baseline and 2-year postpartum follow-up data from a randomised control trial of low glycaemic index diet. SUBJECT AND METHODS: Food diaries and lifestyle questionnaires were completed during pregnancy and infant feeding and maternal lifestyle questionnaires 2 years postpartum for 281 mother and infant pairs from the ROLO study. Maternal anthropometry was measured throughout pregnancy and infant and maternal anthropometry was measured 2 years postpartum...
2016: Zeitschrift Für Gesundheitswissenschaften, Journal of Public Health
Eva-Charlotte Ekström, Emma Lindström, Rubhana Raqib, Shams El Arifeen, Samar Basu, Kerstin Brismar, Katarina Selling, Lars-Åke Persson
BACKGROUND: Fetal nutritional insults may alter the later metabolic phenotype. We hypothesized that early timing of prenatal food supplementation and multiple micronutrient supplementation (MMS) would favourably influence childhood metabolic phenotype. METHODS: Pregnant women recruited 1 January to 31 December 2002 in Matlab, Bangladesh, were randomized into supplementation with capsules of either 30 mg of iron and 400 μg of folic acid, 60 mg of iron and 400 μg of folic acid, or MMS containing a daily allowance of 15 micronutrients, and randomized to food supplementation (608 kcal) either with early invitation (9 weeks' gestation) or usual invitation (at 20 weeks)...
September 30, 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
Abdul Razak Nurliyana, Zalilah Mohd Shariff, Mohd Nasir Mohd Taib, Wan Ying Gan, Kit-Aun Tan
BACKGROUND: The first 2 years of life is a critical period of rapid growth and brain development. During this period, nutrition and environmental factors play important roles in growth and cognitive development of a child. This report describes the study protocol of early nutrition, growth and cognitive development of infants from birth to 2 years of age. METHODS/DESIGN: This is a prospective cohort study of mothers and infants recruited from government health clinics in Seremban district in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia...
September 29, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
Derrick M Chu, Kristen M Meyer, Amanda L Prince, Kjersti M Aagaard
Evidence supporting the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease Hypothesis indicates that maternal nutrition in pregnancy has a significant impact on offspring disease risk later in life, likely by modulating developmental processes in utero. Gut microbiota have recently been explored as a potential mediating factor, as dietary components strongly influence microbiota abundance, function and its impact on host physiology. A growing body of evidence has additionally indicated that the intrauterine environment is not sterile as once presumed, indicating that maternal-fetal transmission of microbiota may occur during pregnancy...
September 29, 2016: Gut Microbes
Chantel L Martin, Anna Maria Siega-Riz, Daniela Sotres-Alvarez, Whitney R Robinson, Julie L Daniels, Eliana M Perrin, Alison M Stuebe
BACKGROUND: Child obesity is a major problem in the United States. Identifying early-life risk factors is necessary for prevention. Maternal diet during pregnancy is a primary source of fetal energy and might influence risk of child obesity. OBJECTIVE: We prospectively investigated the influence of maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy on child growth in the first 3 y of life in 389 mother-child pairs from the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition study. METHODS: Dietary patterns were derived with the use of latent class analysis (LCA) based on maternal diet, collected with the use of a food-frequency questionnaire at 26-29 wk gestation...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
Michio Hirata, Isao Kusakawa, Sachiko Ohde, Michiko Yamanaka, Hitoshi Yoda
BACKGROUND: Infants are at particular risk of iron-deficiency anemia. We investigated the changes in the blood count of mother and infant as well as the relationship between them and the relationship between an infant's nutrition method and infant anemia. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included healthy neonates born between August 2011 and July 2014 in St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo, Japan. Data from blood samples of mothers obtained during late pregnancy and those of infants obtained at birth and at the age of 3, 6, and 9 months were analyzed...
September 24, 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Scott B Ickes, Grace A Heymsfield, Timothy W Wright, Charles Baguma
: We conducted 40 in-depth interviews and eight focus groups among mothers and fathers (n = 91) of diverse ages in western Uganda to define the relevant domains of maternal capabilities and their relationship to infant and young child feeding practices. This study was directed by a developing theory of maternal capabilities that posits that the impact of health-directed interventions may be limited by unmeasured and poorly understood maternal characteristics. Ugandan caregivers defined three major life events that constrain women's capabilities for childcare: early pregnancy, close child spacing, and polygamous marriage...
September 20, 2016: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Olufunke Tolulope Owa, Biobele J Brown, Oluwagbemiga O Adeodu
Iron deficiency remains a global public health challenge, with a higher burden in children in the tropics. When it occurs early in life, it may have long-term effects on neurodevelopment. The aims of this study were to assess the iron status of children aged 6-24 months, to determine the prevalence of iron deficiency and its associated factors in Ibadan, Nigeria. The authors conducted a cross-sectional study between March and June 2014. A total of 202 apparently healthy children aged between 6 and 24 months attending 2 major immunization clinics in Ibadan were included...
August 2016: Pediatric Hematology and Oncology
Hatice Kansu-Celik, Burcu Kisa Karakaya, Ali Irfan Guzel, Yasemin Tasci, Salim Erkaya
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of pre-pregnancy body mass index on maternal and perinatal outcomes among adolescent pregnant women. METHODS: In this prospective cross sectional study, we conducted with 365 singleton adolescent pregnancies (between aged 16-20 years) at a Maternity Hospital, between December 2014 and March 2015. We divided participants into two groups based on pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI): Overweight and obese adolescent (BMI at or above 25...
September 18, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Freda Dzifa Intiful, Edwin Kwame Wiredu, George Awuku Asare, Matilda Asante, David Nana Adjei
INTRODUCTION: Pregnancy during the adolescent period is challenging mainly because of the nutritional demands of both the adolescent and pregnancy period. The risk for anaemia increases especially in developing countries such as Ghana where malaria is endemic and the practice of pica is common. In this study, we sought to determine the prevalence of anaemia, pica practice and malaria infection among pregnant adolescent girls and assess the extent to which these factors are associated...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
Vicky M Oelze, Pamela Heidi Douglas, Colleen R Stephens, Martin Surbeck, Verena Behringer, Michael P Richards, Barbara Fruth, Gottfried Hohmann
Dietary ecology of extant great apes is known to respond to environmental conditions such as climate and food availability, but also to vary depending on social status and life history characteristics. Bonobos (Pan paniscus) live under comparatively steady ecological conditions in the evergreen rainforests of the Congo Basin. Bonobos are an ideal species for investigating influences of sociodemographic and physiological factors, such as female reproductive status, on diet. We investigate the long term dietary pattern in wild but fully habituated bonobos by stable isotope analysis in hair and integrating a variety of long-term sociodemographic information obtained through observations...
2016: PloS One
Abdulai Abubakari, Albrecht Jahn
BACKGROUND: Adequate maternal nutrition is a key factor for achieving good pregnancy outcomes. Moreover, inadequate dietary intake during pregnancy is considered an important contributor to maternal malnutrition in developing countries. Although some studies have examined the effect of the entire diet on birth outcome, most studies have been very narrow because they considered the effect of single nutrient. The single nutrient approach is a major setback because usually several nutrient deficiencies are more likely to occur than single deficiencies especially in low-income settings...
2016: PloS One
Lisa G Pell, Diego G Bassani, Lucy Nyaga, Isaac Njagi, Catherine Wanjiku, Thulasi Thiruchselvam, William Macharia, Ripudaman S Minhas, Patricia Kitsao-Wekulo, Amyn Lakhani, Zulfiqar A Bhutta, Robert Armstrong, Shaun K Morris
BACKGROUND: Each year, more than 200 million children under the age of 5 years, almost all in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), fail to achieve their developmental potential. Risk factors for compromised development often coexist and include inadequate cognitive stimulation, poverty, nutritional deficiencies, infection and complications of being born low birthweight and/or premature. Moreover, many of these risk factors are closely associated with newborn morbidity and mortality...
2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Anthony R Mawson
Neither the mechanisms of parturition nor the pathogenesis of preterm birth are well understood. Poor nutritional status has been suspected as a major causal factor, since vitamin A concentrations are low in preterm infants. However, even large enteral doses of vitamin A from birth fail to increase plasma concentrations of vitamin A or improve outcomes in preterm and/or extremely low birthweight infants. These findings suggest an underlying impairment in the secretion of vitamin A from the liver, where about 80% of the vitamin is stored...
2016: Journal of Translational Science
A Valente, D Silva, E Neves, F Almeida, J L Cruz, C C Dias, A da Costa-Pereira, A Caldas-Afonso, A Guerra
OBJECTIVE: Undernutrition is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in infants and children worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional status and their predictors in children from 0 to 5 years of age in São Tomé. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was conducted in São Tomé Island. METHODS: A total of 1285 individuals were enrolled between January and May 2011. Children were measured, and height for age (HAZ), weight for height (WHZ) and body mass index (BAZ) Z-score were computed...
August 26, 2016: Public Health
Jennifer Di Noia, Dorothy Monica, Karen Weber Cullen, Rafael Pérez-Escamilla, Heewon Lee Gray, Alla Sikorskii
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this exploratory study was to determine whether fruit and vegetable consumption differed by race/ethnicity, by origin and nativity among Hispanics, and by language preference (as an indicator of acculturation) among foreign-born Hispanics. METHODS: We recruited 723 women enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) and orally administered a questionnaire containing demographic items, validated measures of food security status and social desirability trait, and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System fruit and vegetable module...
2016: Preventing Chronic Disease
Kavita Nadendla, Amelia Sutton, David Kelly, Reed Dimmitt, Linda Wilkinson, Carroll Harmon, Colin Martin
OBJECTIVE: To review a case of quintuplets with all babies developing necrotizing enterocolitis. METHODS: A retrospective study of preterm quintuplets all developing necrotizing enterocolitis. Clinical outcomes were reviewed. RESULTS: Quintuplets were born at 24 weeks gestation. Each baby developed NEC and was treated. One baby died. Currently the remaining 4 infants are on full enteral nutrition. CONCLUSION: Further studies are needed to better understand this emerging population of multiple birth pregnancy and the frequency of NEC development...
August 23, 2016: Fetal and Pediatric Pathology
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