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Helios immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643006/cerebellar-degeneration-and-progressive-ataxia-associated-with-hiv-virus-infection
#1
José Luiz Pedroso, Thiago Cardoso Vale, Maria Thereza Drumond Gama, Gustavo Ribas, Julio C G Kristochik, Francisco M B Germiniani, Maria Cristina Domingues da Silva Fink, Augusto Cesar Penalva de Oliveira, Helio A G Teive, Orlando G Barsottini
INTRODUCTION: The spectrum of neurologic disorders associated with HIV infection is very broad, resulting from direct virus invasion, opportunistic infections, malignancies and toxic effects of drugs. METHODS: Among a large cohort of ataxia patients (N = 1050) evaluated between 2008 and 2017, we detected four patients with HIV-infection who developed a pure progressive cerebellar ataxia syndrome combined with cerebellar atrophy. RESULTS: Adverse drug effects, opportunistic infections and malignancies as well as immune-reconstitution syndrome were ruled out based on history and laboratory data...
April 5, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522782/cortical-stimulation-in-conscious-rats-controls-joint-inflammation
#2
Gabriel Shimizu Bassi, Luis Ulloa, Victor Rodrigues Santos, Flávio Del Vecchio, Polianna Delfino-Pereira, Gerson Jonathan Rodrigues, Jaci Airton Castania, Fernando Queiróz Cunha, Hélio Cesar Salgado, Thiago Mattar Cunha, Norberto Garcia-Cairasco, Alexandre Kanashiro
The neuronal control of the immune system is fundamental to the development of new therapeutic strategies for inflammatory disorders. Recent studies reported that afferent vagal stimulation attenuates peripheral inflammation by activating specific sympathetic central and peripheral networks, but only few subcortical brain areas were investigated. In the present study, we report that afferent vagal stimulation also activates specific cortical areas, as the parietal and cingulate cortex. Since these cortical structures innervate sympathetic-related areas, we investigate whether electrical stimulation of parietal cortex can attenuate knee joint inflammation in non-anesthetized rats...
March 6, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455107/helios-expression-in-regulatory-t-cells-promotes-immunosuppression-angiogenesis-and-the-growth-of-leukemia-cells-in-pediatric-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#3
Xue Li, Dong Li, Xiaoyang Huang, Panpan Zhou, Qing Shi, Bing Zhang, Xiuli Ju
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) characterized by the transcription factor forkhead box P3 (FoxP3) are crucial for maintaining immune tolerance and preventing autoimmunity. However, FoxP3 does not function alone and Helios is considered a potential candidate for defining Treg subsets. In this study, we investigated the expression and function of Helios for identifying Tregs in childhood precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (pre-B ALL). Our results demonstrated that patients with pre-B ALL had a higher percentage of Helios+ FoxP3+ CD4+ Tregs...
February 14, 2018: Leukemia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440380/comparative-transcriptome-analysis-reveals-distinct-genetic-modules-associated-with-helios-expression-in-intratumoral-regulatory-t-cells
#4
Kathleen Yates, Kevin Bi, W Nicholas Haining, Harvey Cantor, Hye-Jung Kim
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are key modulators of immune tolerance, capable of suppressing inflammatory immune responses and promoting nonlymphoid tissue homeostasis. Helios, a transcription factor (TF) that is selectively expressed by Tregs, has been shown to be essential for the maintenance of Treg lineage stability in the face of inflammatory conditions that include autoimmune disease and cancer. Helios-deficient Tregs within tumors acquire effector T cell function and contribute to immune responses against cancer...
February 27, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246111/helios-regulatory-t-cell-frequencies-are-correlated-with-control-of-viral-replication-and-recovery-of-absolute-cd4-t-cells-counts-in-early-hiv-1-infection
#5
Raquel Matavele Chissumba, Eduardo Namalango, Vânia Maphossa, Ivalda Macicame, Nilesh Bhatt, Christina Polyak, Merlin Robb, Nelson Michael, Ilesh Jani, Luc Kestens
BACKGROUND: The acute phase of HIV infection is characterized by massive depletion of CD4 T cells, high viral plasma levels and pronounced systemic immune activation. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) have the potential to control systemic immune activation but also to suppress antigen specific T and B cell response. The co-expression of FoxP3 and Helios transcription factors, has been described for identification of highly suppressive Tregs. The aim of this study was to characterize the phenotype of classic Tregs during early HIV infection, and to assess the correlations between the frequencies and phenotype of Tregs with the plasma viral load, CD4 counts, immune activation and the frequency of antibodies reactive to HIV-1 proteins, measured by an immunochromatographic test...
December 16, 2017: BMC Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243132/hiv-associated-opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia-syndrome-early-infection-immune-reconstitution-syndrome-or-secondary-to-other-diseases-case-report-and-literature-review
#6
Bruno F Guedes, Márcio A A Vieira Filho, Clarice Listik, Rafael B Carra, Cristiane B Pereira, Emanuelle R da Silva, Hélio R Gomes, José E Vidal
Opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia (OMA) syndrome is a debilitating autoimmune neurological disorder. Post-infectious opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia syndrome has been described with varying bacterial, spirochetal, and viral infections including several patients with HIV. However, specific immunopathological mechanisms that may lead to opsoclonus-myoclonus in HIV-positive patients are unknown.We report a case of HIV-associated opsoclonus-myoclonus and early HIV infection. A review of published literature shows opsoclonus-myoclonus can occur during early infection, in immune reconstitution syndrome or in association with other infections, especially tuberculosis...
February 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221730/ablation-of-transcription-factor-irf4-promotes-transplant-acceptance-by-driving-allogenic-cd4-t-cell-dysfunction
#7
Jie Wu, Hedong Zhang, Xiaomin Shi, Xiang Xiao, Yihui Fan, Laurie J Minze, Jin Wang, Rafik M Ghobrial, Jiahong Xia, Roger Sciammas, Xian C Li, Wenhao Chen
CD4+ T cells orchestrate immune responses and destruction of allogeneic organ transplants, but how this process is regulated on a transcriptional level remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated that interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) was a key transcriptional determinant controlling T cell responses during transplantation. IRF4 deletion in mice resulted in progressive establishment of CD4+ T cell dysfunction and long-term allograft survival. Mechanistically, IRF4 repressed PD-1, Helios, and other molecules associated with T cell dysfunction...
December 19, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193757/effects-of-the-consumption-of-milk-biofortified-with-selenium-vitamin-e-and-different-fatty-acid-profile-on-immune-response-in-the-elderly
#8
Karina Pfrimer, Eduardo Ferriolli, Paula Lumy Takeuchi, Márcia Sv Salles, Arlindo Saran-Netto, Marcus A Zanetti, Luiz C Roma-Junior, Camila Bitu Moreno Braga, Fernanda A Domenici, Yara Ml Valim, Adriana Bp Paschoalato, Larissa F Marchi, Ana Ecs Azzolini, Eduardo A Donadi, Edson Martinez, Helio Vannucchi
SCOPE: Nutrition is a major contributing factor for immunocompetence. The aim was to assess the immune status of older people after consuming milk produced by lactating cows fed with one of the following diets: control diet (C), C + vitamin E + selenium (C + A), C + sunflower oil (C + O), and C + sunflower oil + vitamin E + selenium (A + O). METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixty elderly people received one of these biofortified milks for 12 weeks. Immune response was assessed by measurement of the expression of COX-1, COX-2, MCP-1, PPAR (δ, α, and β/δ) genes, neutrophil production of oxygen reactive species induced by immune complexes, neutrophil phagocytosis and lytic activity of the alternative pathway of the complement system, and cytokine levels...
February 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127350/memory-regulatory-t-cells-increase-only-in-inflammatory-phase-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-infection-and-related-to-galectin-9-tim-3-interaction
#9
Ching-Chih Hu, Wen-Juei Jeng, Yi-Cheng Chen, Jian-He Fang, Chien-Hao Huang, Wei Teng, Yi-Chung Hsieh, Yung-Chang Lin, Rong-Nan Chien, I-Shyan Sheen, Chun-Yen Lin
CD4+ Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are the main immune suppressors with subpopulation of inflamed-tissue related memory Tregs (mTregs) and non-related resting Treg (rTregs). Previously, Treg was proposed to be the cause of chronicity of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection but with controversies. We then investigated the role of mTregs in distinct immune phases of chronic HBV infection, especially the non-inflammatory versus inflammatory phases. It was found mTregs but not rTregs increased only in the inflammatory phase and correlated with serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124456/serial-immunological-parameters-in-a-phase-ii-trial-of-exemestane-and-low-dose-oral-cyclophosphamide-in-advanced-hormone-receptor-positive-breast-cancer
#10
Maryann Kwa, Xiaochun Li, Yelena Novik, Ruth Oratz, Komal Jhaveri, Jennifer Wu, Ping Gu, Marleen Meyers, Franco Muggia, James Speyer, Alyssa Iwano, Maryam Bonakdar, Lina Kozhaya, Ece Tavukcuoglu, Bahar Budan, Roy Raad, Judith D Goldberg, Derya Unutmaz, Sylvia Adams
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Resistance to endocrine therapies in hormone receptor (HR)-positive breast cancer is a significant challenge. Prior studies have shown that low-dose oral cyclophosphamide can transiently deplete regulatory T cells (Tregs) and improve anti-tumor immunity. We investigated the combination of exemestane with cyclophosphamide in patients with advanced HR-positive breast cancer and assessed changes in circulating immune cell subsets. METHODS: This was a single-arm phase II trial of exemestane with cyclophosphamide in patients with metastatic HR-positive/HER2-negative breast cancer who had progressed on prior endocrine therapy (ClinicalTrials...
November 9, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124315/the-class-i-iv-hdac-inhibitor-mocetinostat-increases-tumor-antigen-presentation-decreases-immune-suppressive-cell-types-and-augments-checkpoint-inhibitor-therapy
#11
David Briere, Niranjan Sudhakar, David M Woods, Jill Hallin, Lars D Engstrom, Ruth Aranda, Harrah Chiang, Andressa L Sodré, Peter Olson, Jeffrey S Weber, James G Christensen
Checkpoint inhibitor therapy has led to major treatment advances for several cancers including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Despite this, a significant percentage of patients do not respond or develop resistance. Potential mechanisms of resistance include lack of expression of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1), decreased capacity to present tumor antigens, and the presence of an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Mocetinostat is a spectrum-selective inhibitor of class I/IV histone deacetylases (HDACs), a family of proteins implicated in epigenetic silencing of immune regulatory genes in tumor and immune cells...
November 9, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975683/involvement-of-the-jak-stat-pathway-in-collagen-regulation-of-decidual-nk-cells
#12
Qiang Fu, Yufei Sun, Yu Tao, Hailan Piao, Xiaoqiu Wang, Xiying Luan, Meirong Du, Dajin Li
PROBLEM: The mechanisms underlying the regulation of decidual natural killer cells (dNKs) at the maternal-fetal interface are unclear. METHOD OF STUDY: Primary trophoblasts (TROs), decidual stromal cells (DSCs), and dNKs were cocultured, and responses to LAIR-2 (LAIR-1 inhibitor) and P4H shRNA (collagen inhibitor) were studied. RESULTS: Coculture of dNKs with primary TROs/DSCs resulted in downregulation of Th1 cytokine production by dNKs. These effects were abrogated by LAIR-2 and P4H shRNA...
October 4, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970196/stereotactic-radiotherapy-increases-functionally-suppressive-regulatory-t-cells-in-the-tumor-microenvironment
#13
Yuki Muroyama, Thomas R Nirschl, Christina M Kochel, Zoila Lopez-Bujanda, Debebe Theodros, Wendy Mao, Maria A Carrera-Haro, Ali Ghasemzadeh, Ariel E Marciscano, Esteban Velarde, Ada J Tam, Christopher J Thoburn, Muniza Uddin, Alan K Meeker, Robert A Anders, Drew M Pardoll, Charles G Drake
Radiotherapy (RT) enhances innate and adaptive antitumor immunity; however, the effects of radiation on suppressive immune cells, such as regulatory T cells (Treg), in the tumor microenvironment (TME) are not fully elucidated. Although previous reports suggest an increased Treg infiltration after radiation, whether these Tregs are functionally suppressive remains undetermined. To test the hypothesis that RT enhances the suppressive function of Treg in the TME, we selectively irradiated implanted tumors using the small animal radiation research platform (SARRP), which models stereotactic radiotherapy in human patients...
October 2, 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963773/in-vitro-effect-of-pembrolizumab-on-different-t-regulatory-cell-subsets
#14
S M Toor, A S Syed Khaja, I Alkurd, E Elkord
Programmed death-1 (PD-1) and interactions with PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1) play critical roles in the tumour evasion of immune responses through different mechanisms, including inhibition of effector T cell proliferation, reducing cytotoxic activity, induction of apoptosis in tumour-infiltrating T cells and regulatory T cell (Treg ) expansion. Effective blockade of immune checkpoints can therefore potentially eliminate these detrimental effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of anti-PD-1 antibody, pembrolizumab, on various Treg subpopulations...
February 2018: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931834/mild-hypothermia-provides-treg-stability
#15
Natalia Marek-Trzonkowska, Karolina Piekarska, Natalia Filipowicz, Arkadiusz Piotrowski, Magdalena Gucwa, Katrin Vogt, Birgit Sawitzki, Janusz Siebert, Piotr Trzonkowski
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play crucial role in maintenance of peripheral tolerance. Recent clinical trials confirmed safety and efficacy of Treg treatment of deleterious immune responses. However, Tregs lose their characteristic phenotype and suppressive potential during expansion ex vivo. Therefore, multiple research teams have been studding Treg biology in aim to improve their stability in vitro. In the current paper, we demonstrate that mild hypothermia of 33 °C induces robust proliferation of Tregs, preserves expression of FoxP3, CD25 and Helios, and prevents TSDR methylation during culture in vitro...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895517/assessment-of-molecular-and-genetic-evolution-antigenicity-and-virulence-properties-during-the-persistence-of-the-infectious-bronchitis-virus-in-broiler-breeders
#16
Filipe Santos Fernando, Thaiane Coelho Kasmanas, Priscila Diniz Lopes, Maria de Fátima da Silva Montassier, Marcos Antônio Zanella Mores, Viviane Casagrande Mariguela, Caren Pavani, Romeu Moreira Dos Santos, Mário Sérgio Assayag, Helio José Montassier
The infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) causes a highly contagious disease [infectious bronchitis (IB)] that results in substantial economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. We conducted a molecular and phylogenetic analysis of the S1 gene of Brazilian (BR) IBV isolates from a routinely vaccinated commercial flock of broiler breeders, obtained from clinical IB episodes that occurred in 24-, 46- and 62-week-old chickens. We also characterized the antigenicity, pathogenesis, tissue tropism and spreading of three IBV isolates by experimental infection of specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens and contact sentinel birds...
October 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871165/zoonotic-intestinal-helminths-interact-with-the-canine-immune-system-by-modulating-t-cell-responses-and-preventing-dendritic-cell-maturation
#17
Johannes Junginger, Katharina Raue, Karola Wolf, Elisabeth Janecek, Veronika M Stein, Andrea Tipold, Anne-Rose Günzel-Apel, Christina Strube, Marion Hewicker-Trautwein
Parasite co-evolution alongside the mammalian immune system gave rise to several modulatory strategies by which they prevent exaggerated pathology and facilitate a longer worm survival. As little is known about the immunoregulatory potential of the zoonotic canine parasites Ancylostoma caninum and Toxocara canis in the natural host, the present study aimed to investigate whether their larval excretory-secretory (ES) products can modulate the canine immune system. We demonstrated TcES to increase the frequency of CD4+ Foxp3(high) T cells, while both AcES and TcES were associated with elevated Helios expression in Foxp3(high) lymphocytes...
September 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757397/low-utility-of-serum-25-hydroxyvitamin-d3-and-1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d3-in-predicting-peripheral-treg-and-th17-cell-counts-in-esrd-and-renal-transplant-patients
#18
Mostafa G Aly, Li Zhu, Rolf Weimer, Gerhard Opelz, Christian Morath, Ruben Kuon, Mohammed Tohamy, Gamal Saadi, Mona Soliman, Walaa Ibrahim, Volker Daniel
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D has shown an immune-modulatory effect in different studies. Vitamin D stimulates Tregs and inhibits Th17 cells. The immune-modulatory role of vitamin D in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and renal transplant patients is unclear. We measured whether different serum levels of vitamin D were associated with an increased or decreased presence of lymphocyte subsets including Treg and Th17 cells in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and renal transplant recipients. METHODS: Eighty-seven renal transplant recipients and 53 end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients were enrolled in this study...
July 27, 2017: Transplant Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747257/cells-with-treg-specific-foxp3-demethylation-but-low-cd25-are-prevalent-in-autoimmunity
#19
Ricardo C Ferreira, Henry Z Simons, Whitney S Thompson, Daniel B Rainbow, Xin Yang, Antony J Cutler, Joao Oliveira, Xaquin Castro Dopico, Deborah J Smyth, Natalia Savinykh, Meghavi Mashar, Tim J Vyse, David B Dunger, Helen Baxendale, Anita Chandra, Chris Wallace, John A Todd, Linda S Wicker, Marcin L Pekalski
Identification of alterations in the cellular composition of the human immune system is key to understanding the autoimmune process. Recently, a subset of FOXP3(+) cells with low CD25 expression was found to be increased in peripheral blood from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, although its functional significance remains controversial. Here we find in comparisons with healthy donors that the frequency of FOXP3(+) cells within CD127(low)CD25(low) CD4(+) T cells (here defined as CD25(low)FOXP3(+) T cells) is increased in patients affected by autoimmune disease of varying severity, from combined immunodeficiency with active autoimmunity, SLE to type 1 diabetes...
November 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740186/carotid-sinus-nerve-electrical-stimulation-in-conscious-rats-attenuates-systemic-inflammation-via-chemoreceptor-activation
#20
Fernanda Machado Santos-Almeida, Gean Domingos-Souza, César A Meschiari, Laura Campos Fávaro, Christiane Becari, Jaci A Castania, Alexandre Lopes, Thiago M Cunha, Davi J A Moraes, Fernando Q Cunha, Luis Ulloa, Alexandre Kanashiro, Geisa C S V Tezini, Helio C Salgado
Recent studies demonstrated a critical functional connection between the autonomic (sympathetic and parasympathetic) nervous and the immune systems. The carotid sinus nerve (CSN) conveys electrical signals from the chemoreceptors of the carotid bifurcation to the central nervous system where the stimuli are processed to activate sympathetic and parasympathetic efferent signals. Here, we reported that chemoreflex activation via electrical CSN stimulation, in conscious rats, controls the innate immune response to lipopolysaccharide attenuating the plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and interleukin 6 (IL-6)...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
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