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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617231/use-of-cross-reactivity-immunoassay-to-orient-insulin-replacement-in-diabetic-patients-with-high-levels-of-insulin-antibodies
#1
Alejandro Cardoso Landaburu, María Pomares, Alfredo Avalos, Silvia Lapertosa, Gustavo Frechtel, Edgardo Poskus
The prevalence and high levels of anti-insulin antibodies (IA) have frequently been associated with brittle diabetes, lipodystrophy in the areas where the insulin is injected and/or poor metabolic control. When this happens the usual criterion adopted is the empirical change of insulin type and/or formulation intending to diminish the IA level and then to decrease the undesirable side-effects. Here, we present a rational two step radiometric method consisting in: A) a first-line radioligand binding assay (RBA) to assess IA in sera of these patients and detecting those with high levels...
2016: MethodsX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26458403/pegylation-a-successful-approach-to-improve-the-biopharmaceutical-potential-of-snake-venom-thrombin-like-serine-protease
#2
Débora da-Silva-Freitas, Johara Boldrini-França, Eliane Candiani Arantes
PEGylation is considered a successful technique to enhance the therapeutic and biotechnological potentials of peptides, proteins, toxins and drugs. The conjugation of polyethylene glycol (PEG) increases the size and molecular weight of conjugated molecule and improves its pharmacokinetics and pharmacodinamics by increasing water solubility, protecting from enzymatic degradation, reducing renal clearance and limiting immunogenic and antigenic reactions. These features are very useful for therapeutic proteins, since PEGylated proteins exhibit high stability and very low immunogenicity, ensuring a sustained clinical response with minimal dose and less frequent administration...
2015: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26291788/uplc-ms-ms-method-with-automated-on-line-spe-for-the-isomer-specific-quantification-of-the-first-generation-anti-hcv-protease-inhibitors-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells
#3
Amedeo De Nicolò, Adnan Mohamed Abdi, Lucio Boglione, Lorena Baiett, Sarah Allegra, Giovanni Di Perri, Antonio D'Avolio
HCV infection affects over 170 million people worldwide. The current standard for treatment of genotype 1 infection is the association of the first generation protease inhibitors boceprevir or telaprevir to ribavirin and peginterferon α. Although the response rate has been improved with these new drugs, some pharmacokinetic/pharmacodinamic issues emerged in the past years. To date, some analytical methods are available for the quantification of these drugs in plasma; however, the real active concentrations of the two drugs are those in hepatocytes...
November 10, 2015: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26065445/-pharmacokinetics-pharmacodinamic-pk-pd-evaluation-of-a-short-course-of-oral-administration-of-metronidazole-for-the-management-of-infections-caused-by-bacteroides-fragilis
#4
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Felipe Morales-León, Carlos von Plessing-Rossel, Lorenzo Villa-Zapata, Pola Fernández-Rocca, Cindy Sanhueza-Sanhueza, Helia Bello-Toledo, Sergio Mella-Montecinos
INTRODUCTION: Metronidazole is the antibiotic of choice for the management of infections caused by anaerobes. Its administration requires multiple daily doses causing increased medication errors. Due to its high post-antibiotic effect and rapid concentration-dependent bactericidal activity, administration of this antibiotic in an extended dosing interval would achieve PK/PD parameters effectively. OBJECTIVE: To assess the probability of achieving effective PK/PD relationship with the administration of 1,000 mg every 24 hours of metronidazole for Bacteroides fragilis infections...
April 2015: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25860036/-pharmacokinetics-pharmacodinamic-pk-pd-evaluation-of-a-short-course-of-oral-administration-of-metronidazole-for-the-management-of-infections-caused-by-bacteroides-fragilis
#5
Felipe Morales-León, Carlos von Plessing-Rossel, Lorenzo Villa-Zapata, Pola Fernández-Rocca, Cindy Sanhueza-Sanhueza, Helia Bello-Toledo, Sergio Mella-Montecinos
INTRODUCTION: Metronidazole is the antibiotic of choice for the management of infections caused by anaerobes. Its administration requires multiple daily doses causing increased medication errors. Due to its high post-antibiotic effect and rapid concentration-dependent bactericidal activity, administration of this antibiotic in an extended dosing interval would achieve PK/PD parameters effectively. OBJECTIVE: To assess the probability of achieving effective PK/PD relationship with the administration of 1,000 mg every 24 hours of metronidazole for Bacteroides fragilis infections...
February 2015: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23540282/diphenyl-diselenide-protects-cultured-mcf-7-cells-against-tamoxifen-induced-oxidative-dna-damage
#6
M T Melo, I M de Oliveira, I Grivicich, T N Guecheva, J Saffi, J A P Henriques, R M Rosa
Diphenyl diselenide (DPDS) is an electrophilic reagent used in the synthesis of a variety of pharmacologically active organoselenium compounds. Studies have shown its interesting pharmacodinamic properties, as antioxidant, antimutagenic and antitumoral effects. Here we report the antigenotoxic properties of DPDS against tamoxifen (TAM)-induced oxidative DNA damage in MCF-7 cultured cell line. We determined the cytotoxicity by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage assay and evaluated oxidative DNA damage by modified comet assay employing the enzymes formamidopyrimidine DNA-glycosylase (Fpg) and endonuclease III (Endo III)...
May 2013: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22456302/severe-hypoglycemia-associated-with-levofloxacin-in-type-2-diabetic-patients-receiving-polytherapy-two-case-reports
#7
Lucia Micheli, Marcello Sbrilli, Cristina Nencini
OBJECTIVE: Although hypoglycemia is known to be associated with levofloxacin, patients are continually being hospitalized because of this adverse event. Here we have reported two further cases of severe hypoglycemia and discussed the possibility that the hypoglycemia is the result of interactions between levofloxacin and certain drugs, in order to alert physicians to be aware that geriatric patients, particularly those with Type 2 diabetes and in polytherapy, are at risk of showing this adverse reaction...
April 2012: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22301397/tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors-and-drug-interactions-a-review-with-practical-recommendations
#8
REVIEW
Bella Pajares, Esperanza Torres, José Manuel Trigo, María Isabel Sáez, Nuria Ribelles, Begoña Jiménez, Emilio Alba
The adverse effects associated to traditional chemotherapy are well known and broadly studied. In the recent years several tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been approved for cancer treatment and numerous are under investigation. These drugs target specific mutated/overexpressed tyrosin kinase receptors and frecuently their pharmacokinetic/pharmacodinamic behavior is not fully elucidated. These new drugs may interact with non-antineoplastic drugs leading to undesirable adverse effects. In this article, we will discuss different types of drug interactions and briefly review the pharmacokinetics and mechanisms of action of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in clinical use, with a particular emphasis on the risk of the occurrence of such interactions based on currently available scientific evidence...
February 2012: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21892917/pegylation-of-proteins-and-liposomes-a-powerful-and-flexible-strategy-to-improve-the-drug-delivery
#9
REVIEW
Paola Milla, Franco Dosio, Luigi Cattel
PEGylation is one of the most successful strategies to improve the delivery of therapeutic molecules such as proteins, macromolecular carriers, small drugs, oligonucleotides, and other biomolecules. PEGylation increase the size and molecular weight of conjugated biomolecules and improves their pharmacokinetics and pharmacodinamics by increasing water solubility, protecting from enzymatic degradation, reducing renal clearance and limiting immunogenic and antigenic reactions. PEGylated molecules show increased half-life, decreased plasma clearance, and different biodistribution, in comparison with non-PEGylated counterparts...
January 2012: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20688006/-warfarin-hipersensitivity-how-to-deal-with-it
#10
Ana Furtado Lima, José Reis, Fátima Serrano, Augusta Borges
The authors report a clinical case of warfarin hypersensitivity noticed when a patient, with thromboembolic risk, was submitted to warfarin. She was found to be heterozigotic to -1639G>A (gene VKORC1) and homozygotic to 1075A>C (genotype CYP2C9*3/*3). In this article the warfarin pharmacodinamics and its role over Vitamin K is revisited. It includes some suggested indications for investigating genetic polymorphisms, in order to avoid complications associated with warfarin.
July 2010: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20449528/major-diet-drug-interactions-affecting-the-kinetic-characteristics-and-hypolipidaemic-properties-of-statins
#11
REVIEW
M P Vaquero, F J Sánchez Muniz, S Jiménez Redondo, P Prats Oliván, F J Higueras, S Bastida
Concomitant administration of statins with food may alter statin pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics, increasing the risk of adverse reactions such as myopathy or rhabdomyolysis or reducing their pharmacological action. This paper reviews major interactions between statins and dietary compounds. Consumption of pectin or oat bran together with Lovastatin reduces absorption of the drug, while alcohol intake does not appear to affect the efficacy and safety of Fluvastatin treatment. Grapefruit juice components inhibit cytochrome P-4503A4, reducing the presystemic metabolism of drugs such as Simvastatin, Lovastatin and Atorvastatin...
March 2010: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19149716/individual-triptan-selection-in-migraine-attack-therapy
#12
REVIEW
Robert Belvís, Javier Pagonabarraga, Jaime Kulisevsky
About 6% of men and 18% of women suffer migraine attacks. Migraine can induce a great impact in the quality of life of the patient and the costs of medical care and lost productivity can be also high. There are two therapeutic approaches in the treatment of migraine: preventive therapy and acute treatment of migraine attack. Immediate treatment with selective serotonin [5-HT1B/1T] receptor agonists (so-called triptans) is the first-line option in the acute treatment of moderate-severe migraine attacks. The introduction in early nineties of triptans was a revolution in migraine therapy and evidences about their efficacy are at present irrefutable...
January 2009: Recent Patents on CNS Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/18694376/targeting-tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-in-psoriasis-and-psoriatic-arthritis
#13
REVIEW
Francesca Fantuzzi, Micol Del Giglio, Paolo Gisondi, Giampiero Girolomoni
BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is an immune-mediated chronic inflammatory disease triggered and maintained by inflammatory mediators, including TNF-alpha. OBJECTIVE/METHODS: To summarize the role of anti-TNF-alpha agents psoriasis therapy, focusing on the mechanisms and biological pathways involved, by reviewing relevant literature. RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: The three TNF-alpha antagonists currently available (etanercept, infliximab and adalimumab) are effective in the therapy of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis...
September 2008: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17868523/-differences-between-ssri-s-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodinamics
#14
REVIEW
Diogo Telles-Correia, Diogo F Guerreiro, Sónia Oliveira, M Luísa Figueira
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) are nowadays the preferred treatment for patients with depression and anxiety disorders, when compared with traditional tricyclic antidepressants. All the SSRIs were designed to selectively potentiate serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] activity through inhibition of the 5 -HT neuronal reuptake transporter. However, despite a common mode of proven antidepressant efficacy and a similar range of indications, each SSRI has individual properties, not only pharmacodinamics, but also pharmacokinetics, which contributes for different pattern of clinical indications, side effects and interactions...
March 2007: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17058862/-baclofen-associated-encephalopathy-in-a-hemodialysis-patient-with-hiccups
#15
L F Quintana, A Lladó, M Butjosa, J Santamaría, A Torras, E Poch
Baclofen is a centrally acting gamma-ammino butyric acid agonist that is used like muscular relaxant in disorders with spasticity and intractable hiccups. Although encouraging and safe results were provided 5 mg/day in hemodialysis patients, his pharmacokinetic and pharmacodinamic properties are not well known in end stage renal disease. We present here the case of a hemodialysis patient with intractable hiccups who developed baclofen-associated encephalopathy with this recommended dose.
2006: Nefrología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/16752855/-rhinosinusitis-etiopathogenesis-and-antimicrobial-therapy-an-update
#16
REVIEW
M De Benedetto, L Salerni, L De Benedetto, G C Passali, D Passali
The aim of the current study is to underline once again the etiopathogenetic aspects of rhinosinusitis, by a revision of most significative and updated study in otorhinolaryngologic literature to guide the right management of this disease. The focal role of ostio-meatal complex is reported; epidemiological data on old and emergent pathogens are described together with their role on acute or chronic or recurrent rhinosinusitis pathogenesis. According to recent evidence based medicine documents, diagnostic criteria and methodologies are reported to control surgical and medical long-term results...
February 2006: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/14677375/bioavailability-of-two-dermal-formulations-of-s-ibuprofen-in-rabbit
#17
Elena González-Peñas, Hugo Carlos Echeverría, Javier Mosquera, Antonio Esteras, Leo Bruseghini
Ibuprofen (CAS 15687-27-1) is widely used in painful situations and, usually, is administered in the racemic form. Since enantiomers may exert different pharmacodinamic and pharmacokinetic effects, the pharmaceutical industry has placed new emphasis on the preparation of new formulations of enantiomerically pure drugs that must be pharmacokinetically characterised prior to their administration in human beings. In this study, the absorption kinetics of two topical formulations of S(+)ibuprofen in rabbits was investigated...
2003: Arzneimittel-Forschung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/14563523/supportive-care-of-the-older-cancer-patient
#18
REVIEW
Lodovico Balducci, Ignazio Carreca
Aging is associated with decreased functional reserve of multiple organ systems and with changes in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodinamics of drugs. Older individuals express enhanced susceptibility to the complications of cytotoxic chemotherapy, especially to myleotoxicity, mucositis, cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity. The management of older individuals with chemotherapy involves then prevention of these complications. General precautions include proper patient selection, based on the comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA), dose adjustment for agents that are renally excreted to the patient creatinine clearance and maintenance of hemoglobin levels > or =12 g/dl...
October 15, 2003: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/11750714/single-agent-pegylated-liposomal-doxorubicin-caelix-in-chemotherapy-pretreated-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients-a-pilot-trial
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Gianmauro Numico, Federico Castiglione, Cristina Granetto, Ornella Garrone, Gabriella Mariani, Gianna Di Costanzo, Pietro La Ciura, Milena Gasco, Oliviero Ostellino, Gianfranco Porcile, Marco Merlano
Polyethylene glycol-coated (pegylated) liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) is a new formulation of doxorubicin with peculiar pharmacokinetic and pharmacodinamic properties, a favorable toxic profile and a demonstrated activity in solid tumors. We tested PLD in locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC patients, progressed after a platinum-based first-line chemotherapy. PLD was administered at the dose of 35 mg/m(2) every 21 days. After the first six patients had been accrued, due to the low toxicity shown in the first six patients, the dose was escalated to 45 mg/m(2)...
January 2002: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
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