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Rna cancer

Hanseol Kim, Jihye Ryu, Chaeyoung Lee
A genome-wide association study was conducted to identify expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) for human telomerase.We tested the genetic associations of nucleotide variants with expression of the genes encoding human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and telomerase RNA components (TERC) in lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from 373 Europeans.Our results revealed 6 eQTLs associated with hTERT (P < 5 × 10). One eQTL (rs17755753) was located in the intron 1 of the gene encoding R-spondin-3 (RSPO3), a well-known Wnt signaling regulator...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Stefan Holdenrieder
Liquid profiling is a traditional concept in laboratory diagnostics using patterns of blood-derived biochemical molecules for disease detection and characterization. Beyond protein and cellular parameters, molecular biomarkers at the DNA, RNA and miRNA level have been developed as promising diagnostic tools in metabolic and malignant diseases as new technologies for ultrasensitive profiling of nucleic acids in blood and body fluids became available. In cancer disease, they are successfully applied for the stratification of patients for individually tailored therapies, treatment monitoring and the sensitive detection of minimal residual disease...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Bernd Schmidt, Grit Rehbein, Michael Fleischhacker
Extracellular miRNAs cannot only be isolated from different body fluids like plasma and serum, but also from bronchial lavage samples (BL) obtained by bronchoscopy. Alterations in the expression of microRNAs might be useful for a discrimination of lung cancer patients from patients with a benign lung disease. We profiled extracellular microRNAs from three BL pools of lung cancer patients and three BL pools from a control group (patients with a benign lung disease) with TaqMan MicroRNA Array cards. For the confirmation of these results, we analyzed a panel of eight miRNAs in a qRT-PCR of the BL of 30 different lung cancer and non-cancerous patients...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Qian Sun, Jing Bai, Renrong Lv
Since hedgehog (HH)/Gli1 that contributes to cancer proliferation and metastasis has been masked for decades, the signaling pathway was investigated about its exact role in proliferation and metastasis of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Sonic hedgehog homolog (Shh), GLI family zinc finger 1 (Gli1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expressions in cutaneous SCC tissues were analyzed with immunohistochemistry, and their correlations with cutaneous SCC patients' prognosis were conducted with Kaplan-Meier curve...
October 17, 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
O Sakiragaoglu, A L Munn
To inhibit telomerase activity, a construct which contains artificial introns in the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene that encodes small hairpin RNA (shRNA) sequences that target human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene expression was designed and tested for its effect on lung cancer cell line. On intron splicing from the construct, intronic sequences were released and formed shRNA in the cells. After transfection of the construct, hTERT mRNA expression decreased by approximately 55 % in A549 cells...
October 17, 2016: Molecular Biotechnology
Mozhgan Abasi, Zahra Bazi, Samira Mohammadi-Yeganeh, Masoud Soleimani, Vahid Haghpanah, Nosratollah Zargami, Hossein Ghanbarian
The small nuclear noncoding RNA (snRNA) 7SK is a highly conserved noncoding RNA of 331 nucleotides in animals, which is present in a nuclear ribonucleoprotein complex with proteins such as methylphosphate capping enzyme (MePCE), hexamethylene bisacetamide-inducible proteins 1 and 2 (HEXIM1 and HEXIM2) and La-related protein 7 (Larp7). Regulating the activity of the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) is the key function of 7SK noncoding RNA. Recently, we have shown that 7SK snRNA over-expression reduces human embryonic kidney 293T cell line viability...
November 2016: Medical Oncology
Peter Jo, Manuel Nietert, Linda Gusky, Julia Kitz, Lena C Conradi, Annegret Müller-Dornieden, Philipp Schüler, Hendrik A Wolff, Josef Rüschoff, Philipp Ströbel, Marian Grade, Torsten Liersch, Tim Beißbarth, Michael B Ghadimi, Ulrich Sax, Jochen Gaedcke
Translational research relies on high-quality biospecimens. In patients with rectal cancer treated preoperatively with radiochemotherapy tissue based analyses are challenging. To assess quality challenges we analyzed tissue samples taken over the last years in a multicenter setting. We retrospectively evaluated overall 197 patients of the CAO/ARO/AIO-94- and 04-trial with locally advanced rectal cancer that were biopsied preoperatively at the University Medical Center Goettingen as well as in 10 cooperating hospitals in Germany...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Wenjia Xia, Mantang Qiu, Rui Chen, Siwei Wang, Xuechun Leng, Jie Wang, Youtao Xu, Jingwen Hu, Gaochao Dong, Prof Lin Xu, Rong Yin
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most prevalent and deadly types of cancer worldwide especially in Eastern Asia and the prognosis of ESCC remain poor. Recent evidence suggests that circular RNAs (circRNAs) play important roles in multiple diseases, including cancer. In this study, we characterized a novel circRNA termed hsa_circ_0067934 in ESCC tumor tissues and cell lines. We analyzed a cohort of 51 patients and found that hsa_circ_0067934 was significantly overexpressed in ESCC tissues compared with paired adjacent normal tissues...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Yi-Te Lin, Yu-Chin Liu, Chuck C-K Chao
Cisplatin is a potent chemotherapeutic drug widely used for the treatment of human cancer. However, its efficacy against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is poor for reasons that remain unclear. We show here that prothymosin-alpha (PTMA) is overexpressed in HCC cell lines. Silencing PTMA using short-hairpin RNA sensitizes HCC cells to cisplatin, while ectopic expression of PTMA induces cell resistance to the drug. Cisplatin inhibits both the JNK pathway and PTMA in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with a JNK inhibitor also reduces PTMA protein stability and sensitizes HCC cells to cisplatin...
October 14, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
Philip H Abbosh, Jonathan E Rosenberg, Elizabeth R Plimack
There are very few biomarkers used to diagnose bladder cancer and no clinically approved biomarkers for prediction or prognostication of this disease. All currently available biomarkers are based on urine tests, and thus, they may not be applicable to patients with extravesical tumors. Biopsy of metastatic sites requires an invasive procedure, whereas serum-based markers, which can be easily obtained and serially measured, thus have obvious merit. These deficiencies may be overcome with advances in genome sequencing, identification of circulating tumor cells, and RNA-, protein-, and DNA-based biomarkers...
October 14, 2016: Urologic Oncology
Ting Ma, Rui-Ping Wang, Xi Zou
BACKGROUND: As a member of non-coding RNAs family, long non-coding RNAs' functions in cancer needs to be further investigated. It has been indicated that the functions of Hox transcript antisense intergenic RNA (lncRNA: HOTAIR) include reprogramming chromatin organization and promoting tumor metastasis such as breast and colorectal tumor. The aim of this study is to investigate the functions of Hox in gastric cancer. METHODS: In the present study, the expression level of HOTAIR was determined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), 20 gastric cancer tissues and 20 normal tissues was included...
September 30, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Zachery R Reichert, Maha Hussain
The development of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) signals the terminal disease phase. The preceding hormone-dependent disease setting is effectively managed with androgen deprivation therapy. This foundation of treatment has a high rate of biochemical and clinical response and meaningful clinical benefit but is finite in duration as most cancers will progress to castration resistance. Historically, treatment for mCRPC entailed androgen receptor (AR) inhibitors (nilutamide, flutamide, bicalutamide), nonspecific steroidal biosynthesis inhibitors (ketoconazole, itraconazole), steroids (prednisone, diethylstilbesterol, dexamethasone), or palliative chemotherapy (mitoxantrone, estramustine), but none of these strategies impacted survival...
September 2016: Cancer Journal
Julia L Marcus, Roger Baxter, Wendy A Leyden, Dharushana Muthulingam, Arnold Yee, Michael A Horberg, Daniel B Klein, William J Towner, Chun R Chao, Charles P Quesenberry, Michael J Silverberg
It is unclear whether HIV-infected individuals remain at higher risk of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) compared with HIV-uninfected individuals. We conducted a cohort study of HIV-infected and demographically matched HIV-uninfected adults within Kaiser Permanente Northern California during the period 1996-2011. We used Poisson models to obtain rate ratios (RRs) for incident IPD associated with HIV infection and other risk factors. Among 13,079 HIV-infected and 137,643 HIV-uninfected adults, the IPD rate per 100,000 person-years was 160 (n = 109 events) for HIV-infected and 8 (n = 75 events) for HIV-uninfected subjects, with an adjusted RR of 13...
October 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
E Rizos, N Siafakas, E Skourti, C Papageorgiou, J Tsoporis, T H Parker, D I Christodoulou, D A Spandidos, E Katsantoni, V Zoumpourlis
Schizophrenia (SZ) and cancer (Ca) have a broad spectrum of clinical phenotypes and a complex biological background, implicating a large number of genetic and epigenetic factors. SZ is a chronic neurodevelopmental disorder signified by an increase in the expression of apoptotic molecular signals, whereas Ca is conversely characterized by an increase in appropriate molecular signaling that stimulates uncontrolled cell proliferation. The rather low risk of developing Ca in patients suffering from SZ is a hypothesis that is still under debate...
October 14, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Shanmei Du, Helou Li, Xiaochun Sun, Dongsheng Li, Yong Yang, Zehua Tao, Qian Li, Kui Liu
MicroRNA (miRNA) is a type of endogenous non‑coding RNA implicated in various cellular processes. Studies have shown that miR-124 is involved in the malignant progression of cancer, but little is known concerning its potential role in breast cancer. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to conduct a functional analysis of miR-124 in breast cancer, and to identify its target genes in this disease. To this end, we used quantitative real-time PCR to examine the expression level of miR-124 in breast cancer tissue specimens and cell lines...
October 11, 2016: Oncology Reports
Zhijie Dai, Jun Wu, Fenghua Chen, Quan Cheng, Mingyu Zhang, Ying Wang, Yong Guo, Tao Song
CXCL5 and its receptor CXCR2 have been found to be involved in tumorigenesis and cancer progression. Recent studies have shown that CXCR2 is upregulated in glioma tissues, and associated with poor prognosis and recurrence. However, the role of CXCL5/CXCR2 signaling in mediating the malignant phenotypes of glioma cells, as well as the underlying mechanism, still remains unclear. In the present study, we found that CXCL5 was upregulated in glioma tissues compared to that noted in normal brain tissues. High CXCL5 levels were significantly associated with higher tumor grade, advanced clinical stage, and shorter survival time of glioma patients...
October 10, 2016: Oncology Reports
Yuan-Yuan Zhang, Si-Han Huang, Hua-Rong Zhou, Cong-Jie Chen, Li-Hong Tian, Jian-Zhen Shen
HOX antisense intergenic RNA (HOTAIR), a long non-coding RNA, plays an important role in the development of many types of cancers. Its function in acute leukemia (AL), however, has not been examined. The present study investigated the role of HOTAIR and its downstream genes in AL, and determined whether it could act as a molecular marker for prediction of leukemia development and prognosis. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to examine the expression of each gene in the HOTAIR signaling pathway in AL patients...
October 4, 2016: Oncology Reports
Tian Lan, Lei Chang, Long Wu, Yufeng Yuan
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains one of the most common types of cancer worldwide and prognosis remains poor. Previous studies have suggested that long non‑coding RNAs (lncRNAs) may be key regulators of tumor development and progression in HCC. It has been determined that 61‑72% of transcribed regions contain lncRNAs in the antisense orientation (aslncRNAs). However, the function of aslncRNAs in HCC remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated the function of the aslncRNA zinc finger E‑box binding homeobox 2 antisense RNA 1 (ZEB2‑AS1) in 40 HCC tissues and 5 different human HCC cell lines using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction...
October 12, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Li Qi, Zhong Lu, Yong-Hong Sun, Hai-Tao Song, Wei-Kang Xu
Prostate carcinoma is a devastating disease which is characterized by insidious early symptoms, rapid progression and a poor prognosis. Tripartite motif-containing protein 16 (TRIM16) was identified as an estrogen- and antiestrogen-regulated gene in epithelial cells stably expressing estrogen receptors. The protein encoded by this gene contains two B-box domains and a coiled-coiled region that are characteristic of the B-box zinc finger protein family. Proteins belonging to this family have been reported to be involved in a variety of biological processes including cell growth, differentiation and pathogenesis...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
A Harrod, J Fulton, V T M Nguyen, M Periyasamy, L Ramos-Garcia, C-F Lai, G Metodieva, A de Giorgio, R L Williams, D B Santos, P J Gomez, M-L Lin, M V Metodiev, J Stebbing, L Castellano, L Magnani, R C Coombes, L Buluwela, S Ali
Drugs that inhibit estrogen receptor-α (ER) activity have been highly successful in treating and reducing breast cancer progression in ER-positive disease. However, resistance to these therapies presents a major clinical problem. Recent genetic studies have shown that mutations in the ER gene are found in >20% of tumours that progress on endocrine therapies. Remarkably, the great majority of these mutations localize to just a few amino acids within or near the critical helix 12 region of the ER hormone binding domain, where they are likely to be single allele mutations...
October 17, 2016: Oncogene
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