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Obesity, adolesce

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819323/excessive-body-fat-linked-to-blunted-somatosensory-cortex-response-to-general-reward-in-adolescents
#1
J F Navas, A Barros-Loscertales, V Costumero-Ramos, J Verdejo-Román, R Vilar-López, A Verdejo-García
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The brain reward system is key to understanding adolescent obesity in the current obesogenic environment, rich in highly appetising stimuli, to which adolescents are particularly sensitive. We aimed to examine the association between body fat levels and brain reward system responsivity to general (monetary) rewards in male and female adolescents. METHOD: Sixty-eight adolescents (34 females; mean age [standard deviation]=16.56 [1.35]) were measured for body fat levels with bioelectric impedance, and underwent a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan during the Monetary Incentive Delay (MID) task...
August 18, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818842/what-s-new-in-paediatric-hypertension
#2
REVIEW
Rowena Lalji, Kjell Tullus
Paediatric hypertension predisposes to hypertension and cardiovascular disease in adult life. Despite clear guidelines, there remains a lack of screening. Diagnosis remains challenging given the high rate of false-positive high blood pressure (BP) readings at a single visit; thus, multiple visits are required to confirm the diagnosis. Depending on the normative data sets used, hypertension in overweight and obese children can be underestimated by up to 20%. Specific BP targets are required for subgroups such as adolescents, children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and type 1 diabetes...
August 17, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818242/young-adult-risk-factors-for-cancer-obesity-inflammation-and-sociobehavioral-mechanisms
#3
Yang Claire Yang, Moira P Johnson, Kristen M Schorpp, Courtney E Boen, Kathleen Mullan Harris
INTRODUCTION: The paper assesses social disparities in the burdens of metabolic and inflammatory risks for cancer in the U.S. young adult population and examines psychosocial and behavioral mechanisms in such disparities. METHODS: Using data of 7,889 individuals aged 12-32 years from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health from 1994 to 2009, generalized linear models were used to assess the sex, race/ethnicity, and SES differences in the risks of obesity and inflammation, measured by C-reactive protein...
September 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818240/reducing-cancer-and-cancer-disparities-lessons-from-a-youth-generated-diabetes-prevention-campaign
#4
Dean Schillinger, Pamela M Ling, Sarah Fine, Cherrie B Boyer, Elizabeth Rogers, Roberto Ariel Vargas, Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo, Wen-Ying Sylvia Chou
Adolescence and young adulthood, a period essential for determining exposures over the life-course, is an ideal time to intervene to lower cancer risk. This demographic group can be viewed as both the target audience and generator of messages for cancer prevention, such as skin cancer, obesity-, tobacco-, and human papillomavirus-related cancers. The purpose of this paper is to encourage innovative health communications that target youth; youth behavior; and the structural, environmental, and social determinants of youth behavior as critical areas of focus for cancer prevention and disparities reduction...
September 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815416/what-is-the-evidence-for-paediatric-adolescent-bariatric-surgery
#5
REVIEW
Natalie Durkin, Ashish P Desai
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In spite of the increasing prevalence of severe and complex obesity in children, surgery as a potential management option is still not widely accepted. The purpose of this review is to examine the evidence for surgical options in the severely obese paediatric population. Increasing evidence supports early rather than later use of bariatric surgery in the treatment of extreme obesity. RECENT FINDINGS: Prior to 2007, the feasibility and safety of surgery have been reported by predominantly small, sporadic single-centre retrospective case series...
August 16, 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815383/a-5-year-follow-up-study-of-laparoscopic-sleeve-gastrectomy-among-morbidly-obese-adolescents-does-it-improve-body-image-and-prevent-and-treat-diabetes
#6
Moamena Ahmed El-Matbouly, Nesreen Khidir, Hussien Aly Touny, Walid El Ansari, Mohammed Al-Kuwari, Moataz Bashah
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is widely used, and it is important to examine its physiologic and psychological efficacy among adolescents. We assessed LSG's efficacy for weight loss, its short- and long-term effects on resolving and improving obesity-related comorbidities, and its psychological outcomes among morbidly obese adolescents. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 91 morbidly obese adolescents in Qatar who underwent LSG (2011-2014), with 1- and 5-year follow-ups...
August 17, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813474/binge-like-sucrose-consumption-reduces-the-dendritic-length-and-complexity-of-principal-neurons-in-the-adolescent-rat-basolateral-amygdala
#7
Masroor Shariff, Paul Klenowski, Michael Morgan, Omkar Patkar, Erica Mu, Mark Bellingham, Arnauld Belmer, Selena E Bartlett
A compelling body of evidence suggests that the worldwide obesity epidemic is underpinned by excessive sugar consumption, typified by the modern western diet. Furthermore, evidence is beginning to emerge of maladaptive changes in the mesolimbic reward pathway of the brain in relation to excess sugar consumption that highlights the importance of examining this neural circuitry in an attempt to understand and subsequently mitigate the associated morbidities with obesity. While the basolateral amygdala (BLA) has been shown to mediate the reinforcing properties of drugs of abuse, it has also been shown to play an important role in affective and motivated behaviours and has been shown to undergo maladaptive changes in response to drugs of abuse and stress...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813108/consequences-of-gestational-diabetes-to-the-brain-and-behavior-of-the-offspring
#8
Ricardo A L DE Sousa, Yasmin S Torres, Claudia P Figueiredo, Giselle F Passos, Julia R Clarke
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GD) is a form of insulin resistance triggered during the second/third trimesters of pregnancy in previously normoglycemic women. It is currently estimated that 10% of all pregnancies in the United States show this condition. For many years, the transient nature of GD has led researchers and physicians to assume that long-term consequences were absent. However, GD diagnosis leads to a six-fold increase in the risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) in women and incidence of obesity and T2D is also higher among their infants...
August 14, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809783/role-of-omentin-vaspin-cardiotrophin-1-tweak-and-nov-ccn3-in-obesity-and-diabetes-development
#9
REVIEW
Xavier Escoté, Saioa Gómez-Zorita, Miguel López-Yoldi, Iñaki Milton-Laskibar, Alfredo Fernández-Quintela, J Alfredo Martínez, María J Moreno-Aliaga, María P Portillo
Adipose tissue releases bioactive mediators called adipokines. This review focuses on the effects of omentin, vaspin, cardiotrophin-1, Tumor necrosis factor-like Weak Inducer of Apoptosis (TWEAK) and nephroblastoma overexpressed (NOV/CCN3) on obesity and diabetes. Omentin is produced by the stromal-vascular fraction of visceral adipose tissue. Obesity reduces omentin serum concentrations and adipose tissue secretion in adults and adolescents. This adipokine regulates insulin sensitivity, but its clinical relevance has to be confirmed...
August 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809754/associations-of-built-environment-and-children-s-physical-activity-a-narrative-review
#10
Houshmand E Masoumi
PROBLEM: Childhood obesity has been an epidemic particularly in high-income countries. There is a considerable volume of data and studies depicting the rising number of obese children and adolescents in different countries. As suggested by the literature, physical inactivity is one the main drivers of childhood obesity. This paper addresses the associations of the built environment with physical activity of children in order to find to theoretically facilitate intervention and prevention measures...
August 15, 2017: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809752/association-of-obesity-and-health-related-quality-of-life-in-iranian-children-and-adolescents-the-weight-disorders-survey-of-the-caspian-iv-study
#11
Silva Hovsepian, Mostafa Qorbani, Mohammad Esmaeil Motlagh, Aryan Madady, Morteza Mansourian, Armita Mahdavi Gorabi, Roya Kelishadi
BACKGROUND: Considering the role of different ethnical, cultural and geographical factors in health related quality of life (HRQOL) as well as the perception of different populations regarding various weight disorders, we aimed to evaluate the association between body mass index (BMI) and HRQOL in Iranian children and adolescents. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was part of the Weight Disorders Survey of the CASPIAN-IV study. During this study, students aged 6-18 years from urban and rural areas of 30 provinces of Iran were selected...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804978/birthweight-and-serum-uric-acid-in-american-adolescents
#12
Erika T Rhone, J Bryan Carmody
Elevated serum uric acid is associated with hypertension and chronic kidney disease. We evaluated the relationship between birthweight and uric acid in a nationally representative sample of 5390 US adolescents aged 12-15 in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 1999 to 2012. There was an inverse association between birthweight and uric acid after adjustment for sex, age, race, obesity, and dietary sodium intake. Each 1 kg increase in birthweight was associated with decreased uric acid by 0...
August 2017: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804649/trends-and-disparities-in-the-prevalence-of-childhood-obesity-in-south-texas-between-2009-and-2015
#13
Byron A Foster, Trevor M Maness, Christian A Aquino
BACKGROUND: Recent reports have highlighted possible decreases over time in obesity, particularly among children aged 2-5 years. Hispanic children experience significantly higher obesity rates, and less is known about trends for Hispanic children. METHODS: A large healthcare system-based dataset from south Texas was used to analyze body mass index (BMI) values obtained clinically from 2009 through 2015. Age and race/ethnicity specific prevalence of overweight and obesity were calculated using CDC standards and trends were examined over time using regression analyses, and mapping software was used to identify geographic variation...
2017: Journal of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803504/the-pharmacological-management-of-nafld-in-children-and-adolescents
#14
Savinda Liyanagedera, Robert Patrick Williams, Silvio Veraldi, Valerio Nobili, Jake P Mann
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a spectrum, including 'simple' steatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and fibrosis. Increasing prevalence of NAFLD has followed the international rise in obesity and lifestyle modification is the mainstay therapy for children. To date, pharmacological trials have had varying efficacy but a large number of new agents are in early phase trials for adults. Areas covered: This review explores the effect of current and potential future paediatric NAFLD treatments in terms of histological and biochemical endpoints...
August 14, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801145/body-image-dissatisfaction-and-dietary-patterns-according-to-nutritional-status-in-adolescents
#15
Rita de Cássia Ribeiro-Silva, Rosemeire Leovigildo Fiaccone, Maria Ester Pereira da Conceição-Machado, Ana Santos Ruiz, Maurício Lima Barreto, Mônica Leila Portela Santana
OBJECTIVE: There is a lack of data on the association between body self-perception and eating patterns in Brazil. Thus, this study aimed to explore the relationship between body image dissatisfaction (BID) and eating patterns by the anthropometric status in adolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 1496 adolescents was conducted. The participants completed the Body Shape Questionnaire. Demographic, anthropometric, and socioeconomic data were collected, as well as information regarding the pubertal development and dietary intake...
August 8, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801068/lepr-polymorphism-may-affect-energy-balance-during-weight-loss-among-brazilians-obese-adolescents
#16
Flávia Campos Corgosinho, Sandro Soares Almeida, Lian Tock, João Bosco Pesquero, Ronaldo Carvalho Araújo, Ana Paula Grotti Clemente, Bárbara Dal'Molin Netto, Raquel Munhoz da Silveira Campos, Deborah Cristina Landi Masquio, Joana Pereira de Carvalho Ferreira, Priscila de Lima Sanches, Aline de Piano Ganen, Marcelo Macedo Rogero, Lila Missae Oyama, Sergio Tufik, Marco Túlio de Mello, Ana Raimunda Dâmaso
OBJECTIVE: Leptin is an adipokine released mainly by adipose tissue, with many functions including regulation of energy balance. However, little is known about the effect of LEPR polymorphism on orexigenic and anorexigenic neuropeptides. Thus, the aim of the present study is to verify the influence of LEPR polymorphism (rs2767485) on serum orexigenic (NPY, MCH and AgRP) and anorexigenic (Leptin and α-MSH) neuropeptides levels among obese adolescents submitted to 1year of multicomponent weight loss therapy...
August 2, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800913/-prevalence-of-hypovitaminosis-d-and-associated-factors-in-spanish-population-of-school-children-and-adolescents
#17
Teodoro Durá-Travé, Fidel Gallinas-Victoriano, María Jesús Chueca-Guindulain, Sara Berrade-Zubiri, Paula Moreno-Gónzalez, María Malumbres-Chacón
OBJECTIVE: To analyse the prevalence of hypovitaminosisD and associated factors in school children and adolescents living in a region of northern Spain. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study (convenience sampling). SETTING: Primary Health Care. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 602 Caucasian individuals (aged 3.1 to 15.4years) were included in the study. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Prevalence of hypovitaminosisD were calculated (dependent variable)...
August 8, 2017: Atencion Primaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800814/phthalates-impact-human-health-epidemiological-evidences-and-plausible-mechanism-of-action
#18
REVIEW
Sailas Benjamin, Eiji Masai, Naofumi Kamimura, Kenji Takahashi, Robin C Anderson, Panichikkal Abdul Faisal
Disregarding the rising alarm on the hazardous nature of various phthalates and their metabolites, ruthless usage of phthalates as plasticizer in plastics and as additives in innumerable consumer products continues due low their cost, attractive properties, and lack of suitable alternatives. Globally, in silico computational, in vitro mechanistic, in vivo preclinical and limited clinical or epidemiological human studies showed that over a dozen phthalates and their metabolites ingested passively by man from the general environment, foods, drinks, breathing air, and routine household products cause various dysfunctions...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799060/association-between-anthropometric-indices-body-composition-and-bone-parameters-in-thai-female-adolescents
#19
Rapheeporn Khwanchuea, Chuchard Punsawad
OBJECTIVE: To investigate correlations between anthropometrics and body composition with bone parameters of the whole-body and lumbar spine in non-obese and obese Thai female adolescents. METHODS: This study was performed in 135 female adolescents aged 15 to 18 y enrolled in secondary schools in southern Thailand. Subjects were grouped into non-obesity (underweight and normal-to-overweight) (BMI < 25) and obesity (BMI ≥ 25) groups. Anthropometric indices for obesity [body weight (BW), waist circumference (WC), and body mass index (BMI)] were recorded...
August 11, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799014/breakfast-habits-dairy-product-consumption-physical-activity-and-their-associations-with-body-mass-index-in-children-aged-6-18
#20
Tugba Koca, Mustafa Akcam, Filiz Serdaroglu, Selim Dereci
The purpose of this study was to determine breakfast habits, dairy product consumption, and physical activity and their relations with body mass index (BMI) in schoolchildren and adolescents. This cross-sectional, school-based study was performed with children aged 6-18 years. Height and weight were measured, and a BMI z-score was calculated for each child. Breakfast consumption frequency, intake of milk and other dairy products, physical activity habits, and mothers' employment status were assessed via a self-report questionnaire...
August 11, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
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