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Ct calcium score

John B Gordon, Jane C Burns
Background: A growing population of young adults is presenting to cardiologists with late manifestations of Kawasaki disease (KD) that include cardiomyopathy, ischemia, and infarction. The management of these conditions differs in important ways from atherosclerotic heart disease, and yet there is little awareness in the adult cardiology community regarding the special challenges posed by the cardiovascular sequelae of KD. Methods: Observations were made on a population of 140 adult KD patients enrolled in the San Diego Adult KD Collaborative Study...
October 31, 2017: Global Cardiology Science & Practice
Fang Wang, Tiewei Li, Xiangfeng Cong, Zhihui Hou, Bin Lu, Zhou Zhou, Xi Chen
Progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC) was significantly associated with all-cause mortality, and high coronary artery calcium score (CACS) portends a particularly high risk of cardiovascular events. But how often one should rescan is still an unanswered question. Preliminary screening by testing circulating biomarker may be an alternative before repeat computed tomography (CT) scan. The aim of this study was to investigate the value of big endothelin-1 (bigET-1), the precursor of endothelin-1 (ET-1), in predicting the severity of CAC...
January 1, 2018: Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/hemostasis
Frederique E C M Peeters, Manouk J W van Mourik, Steven J R Meex, Jan Bucerius, Simon M Schalla, Suzanne C Gerretsen, Casper Mihl, Marc R Dweck, Leon J Schurgers, Joachim E Wildberger, Harry J G M Crijns, Bas L J H Kietselaer
BASIK2 is a prospective, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial investigating the effect of vitamin K2 (menaquinone-7;MK7) on imaging measurements of calcification in the bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) and calcific aortic valve stenosis (CAVS). BAV is associated with early development of CAVS. Pathophysiologic mechanisms are incompletely defined, and the only treatment available is valve replacement upon progression to severe symptomatic stenosis. Matrix Gla protein (MGP) inactivity is suggested to be involved in progression...
March 21, 2018: Nutrients
Tania Pawade, Marie-Annick Clavel, Christophe Tribouilloy, Julien Dreyfus, Tiffany Mathieu, Lionel Tastet, Cedric Renard, Mesut Gun, William Steven Arthur Jenkins, Laurent Macron, Jacob W Sechrist, Joan M Lacomis, Virginia Nguyen, Laura Galian Gay, Hug Cuéllar Calabria, Ioannis Ntalas, Timothy Robert Graham Cartlidge, Bernard Prendergast, Ronak Rajani, Arturo Evangelista, João L Cavalcante, David E Newby, Philippe Pibarot, David Messika Zeitoun, Marc R Dweck
BACKGROUND: Computed tomography aortic valve calcium scoring (CT-AVC) holds promise for the assessment of patients with aortic stenosis (AS). We sought to establish the clinical utility of CT-AVC in an international multicenter cohort of patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with AS who underwent ECG-gated CT-AVC within 3 months of echocardiography were entered into an international, multicenter, observational registry. Optimal CT-AVC thresholds for diagnosing severe AS were determined in patients with concordant echocardiographic assessments, before being used to arbitrate disease severity in those with discordant measurements...
March 2018: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
George A Karpouzas, Joel Estis, Panteha Rezaeian, John Todd, Matthew J Budoff
Objectives: Patients with RA display greater occult coronary atherosclerosis burden and experience higher cardiovascular morbidity and mortality compared with controls. We here explored whether pro-inflammatory cytokines and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI), a biomarker of myocardial injury, correlated with plaque burden and cardiovascular events (CVEs) in RA. Methods: We evaluated 150 patients with 64-slice coronary CT angiography. Coronary artery calcium, number of segments with plaque (segment involvement score), stenotic severity and plaque burden were assessed...
March 14, 2018: Rheumatology
Marleen Vonder, Rozemarijn Vliegenthart, Merel A Kaatee, Carlijn M van der Aalst, Peter M A van Ooijen, Geertruida H de Bock, Jan Willem Gratama, Dirkjan Kuijpers, Harry J de Koning, Matthijs Oudkerk
BACKGROUND: To determine the impact of high-pitch spiral acquisition on radiation dose and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk stratification by coronary artery calcium (CAC) assessment with computed tomography in individuals with a high heart rate. METHODS: Of the ROBINSCA trial, 1990 participants with regular rhythm and heart rates >65 beats per minute (bpm) were included. As reference, 390 participants with regular heart rates ≤65 bpm were used. All participants underwent prospectively electrocardiographically(ECG)-triggered imaging of the coronary arteries using dual source CT at 120 kVp, 80 ref mAs using both high-pitch spiral mode and sequential mode...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
Gustavo Lemos Pelandré, Nathália Martins Pereira Sanches, Marcelo Souto Nacif, Edson Marchiori
Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of visual analysis and of the coronary artery calcium (CAC) score in nontriggered computed tomography (CT), in comparison with that of the CAC score in electrocardiogram-triggered CT, in identifying coronary calcification. Materials and Methods: A total of 174 patients for whom CT was indicated for CAC scoring underwent nontriggered and triggered CT in a 64-channel multislice scanner, in a single session without a change in position...
January 2018: Radiologia Brasileira
Mohammadbagher Tavakoli, Reihane Faraji, Zahra Alirezaei, Zohre Nateghian
Computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) has generated a great interest over the past two decades, due to its high diagnostic accuracy and efficacy in the assessment of patients having coronary artery disease. This method is associated with high radiation dose and this has raised serious concerns in the literature. Effective dose (E) is a single parameter meant to reflect the relative risk from exposure to ionizing radiation. Therefore, it is necessary to calculate this parameter to indicate ionizing radiation relative risk...
January 2018: Journal of Medical Signals and Sensors
Philippa Howlett, Jane K Cleal, Huihai Wu, Nikunj Shah, Alex Horton, Nick Curzen, Michael Mahmoudi
Objective: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) may serve as potential biomarkers in a variety of pathologies. The aim of this study was to determine whether miRNAs could serve as blood-based markers of isolated coronary artery calcification (CAC) defined as CAC in the absence of an underlying metabolic abnormality. Methods: 24 age-matched and sex-matched patients who had been referred for elective CT coronary calcium score and angiography as part of investigation for cardiac chest pain were recruited...
2018: Open Heart
Fabian Plank, Christoph Beyer, Guy Friedrich, Markus Stühlinger, Florian Hintringer, Wolfgang Dichtl, Matthias Wildauer, Gudrun Feuchtner
OBJECTIVE: Vitamin K antagonists (VKA) are associated with increased vascular calcification which may lead to an elevated cardiovascular risk. If the direct anticoagulants (DOACs) have similar negative vascular effects is unknown. We evaluated the influence of different anticoagulation strategies on coronary artery disease (CAD) using coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA). METHODS: Overall 702 consecutive patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) who underwent CTA for AF ablation planning were enrolled and stratified according to their anticoagulation into VKA, DOAC (all agents) and a control group without oral anticoagulation...
March 6, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Jen-Ta Shih, Chun-Lin Kuo, Tsu-Te Yeh, Hsain-Chung Shen, Ru-Yu Pan, Chia-Chun Wu
BACKGROUND: The ideal treatment for comminuted intraarticular calcaneal fractures is still debated. Open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) is the most popular surgical procedure; however, wound complications, implant choice, and infection remain major concerns. This study aimed to demonstrate the results of an innovative, minimally invasive surgical procedure, namely, a closed reduction technique using large-diameter Steinmann pins and percutaneous calcaneoplasty using injectable calcium sulfate cement (MIIG X3, Wright Medical Technology, Inc...
March 9, 2018: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Karen V Danielsen, Signe Wiese, Jens Hove, Flemming Bendtsen, Søren Møller
BACKGROUND: The relation between excessive alcohol consumption and coronary arteriosclerosis has remained controversial. The etiology of cirrhosis has been considered a substantial risk factor for development of arteriosclerotic lesions. The coronary artery calcium-score derived from coronary CT angiography is a robust marker of coronary arteriosclerosis. AIMS: To study the burden of coronary arteriosclerosis in cirrhotic patients of various etiologies and association to cardiac dysfunction and survival...
March 8, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Ruben V C Buijs, Eva L Leemans, Marcel Greuter, Ignace F J Tielliu, Clark J Zeebregts, Tineke P Willems
OBJECTIVE: Quantification software for coronary calcification is often used to measure abdominal aortic calcification on computed tomography (CT) images. However, there is no evidence substantiating the reliability and accuracy of these tools in this setting. Differences in coronary and abdominal CT acquisition and presence of intravascular contrast may affect the results of these tools. Therefore, this study investigates the effects of CT acquisition parameters and iodine contrast on automated quantification of aortic calcium on CT...
2018: PloS One
Ivo M Wagensveld, Britt M Blokker, Andrea Pezzato, Piotr A Wielopolski, Nomdo S Renken, Jan H von der Thüsen, Gabriel P Krestin, M G Myriam Hunink, J Wolter Oosterhuis, Annick C Weustink
Aims: The autopsy rate worldwide is alarmingly low (0-15%). Mortality statistics are important, and it is, therefore, essential to perform autopsies in a sufficient proportion of deaths. The imaging autopsy, non-invasive, or minimally invasive autopsy (MIA) can be used as an alternative to the conventional autopsy in an attempt to improve postmortem diagnostics by increasing the number of postmortem procedures. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of postmortem magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and CT-guided biopsy for the detection of acute and chronic myocardial ischaemia...
February 20, 2018: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
Benjamin Zorach, Peter W Shaw, Jamieson Bourque, Sujith Kuruvilla, Pelbreton C Balfour, Yang Yang, Roshin Mathew, Jonathan Pan, Jorge A Gonzalez, Angela M Taylor, Craig H Meyer, Frederick H Epstein, Christopher M Kramer, Michael Salerno
BACKGROUND: Preliminary semi-quantitative cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) perfusion studies have demonstrated reduced myocardial perfusion reserve (MPR) in patients with angina and risk factors for microvascular disease (MVD), however fully quantitative CMR has not been studied. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether fully quantitative CMR identifies reduced MPR in this population, and to investigate the relationship between epicardial atherosclerosis, left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), extracellular volume (ECV), and perfusion...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
Chun Lap Pang, Nicola Pilkington, Yinghui Wei, Jaime Peters, Carl Roobottom, Chris Hyde
BACKGROUND: Computed tomography (CT) biomarkers claim to improve cardiovascular risk stratification. This review focuses on significant differences in incremental measures between adequate and inadequate reporting practise. METHODS: Studies included were those that used Framingham Risk Score as a baseline and described the incremental value of adding calcium score or CT coronary angiogram in predicting cardiovascular risk. Searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science and Cochrane Central were performed with no language restriction...
February 21, 2018: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
Isac C Thomas, Robyn L McClelland, Matthew A Allison, Joachim H Ix, Erin D Michos, Nketi I Forbang, Wendy S Post, Nathan D Wong, Matthew J Budoff, Michael H Criqui
Aims: Little is known regarding the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) conferred by changes in the volume and density of ascending thoracic aorta calcium (ATAC) over time. We evaluated changes in ATAC volume and density scores and incident ASCVD events. Methods and results: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis is a prospective cohort study of individuals without baseline clinical ASCVD. Ascending thoracic aorta calcium was measured from baseline and follow-up (mean interval 2...
February 5, 2018: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
Nikolas Lessmann, Bram van Ginneken, Majd Zreik, Pim A de Jong, Bob D de Vos, Max A Viergever, Ivana Isgum
Heavy smokers undergoing screening with low-dose chest CT are affected by cardiovascular disease as much as by lung cancer. Low-dose chest CT scans acquired in screening enable quantification of atherosclerotic calcifications and thus enable identification of subjects at increased cardiovascular risk. This paper presents a method for automatic detection of coronary artery, thoracic aorta, and cardiac valve calcifications in low-dose chest CT using two consecutive convolutional neural networks. The first network identifies and labels potential calcifications according to their anatomical location and the second network identifies true calcifications among the detected candidates...
February 2018: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Paul Gabriel Peterson, Michael Berge, John P Lichtenberger, Maureen N Hood, Vincent B Ho
Cardiovascular imaging with calcium scoring computed tomography (CT), coronary CT angiography (CCTA), and cardiac MRI (CMR) have advanced rapidly over recent years. These imaging modalities have increased in availability, accessibility, and clinical practicality due to technological advances allowing for significant radiation dose reduction for high-quality CCTA and for rapid and reliable imaging techniques in CMR. Hardware and software developments are continually increasing efficiency and accuracy of postprocessing...
March 2018: Primary Care
Rachael O Forsythe, Marc R Dweck, Olivia M B McBride, Alex T Vesey, Scott I Semple, Anoop S V Shah, Philip D Adamson, William A Wallace, Jakub Kaczynski, Weiyang Ho, Edwin J R van Beek, Calum D Gray, Alison Fletcher, Christophe Lucatelli, Aleksander Marin, Paul Burns, Andrew Tambyraja, Roderick T A Chalmers, Graeme Weir, Neil Mitchard, Adriana Tavares, Jennifer M J Robson, David E Newby
BACKGROUND: Fluorine-18-sodium fluoride (18 F-NaF) uptake is a marker of active vascular calcification associated with high-risk atherosclerotic plaque. OBJECTIVES: In patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), the authors assessed whether18 F-NaF positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) predicts AAA growth and clinical outcomes. METHODS: In prospective case-control (n = 20 per group) and longitudinal cohort (n = 72) studies, patients with AAA (aortic diameter >40 mm) and control subjects (aortic diameter <30 mm) underwent abdominal ultrasound,18 F-NaF PET-CT, CT angiography, and calcium scoring...
February 6, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
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