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indication of lumbar puncture in neonate

M A Ryan, C A Ryan, E Dempsey, R O'Connell
The Irish National Consent Policy (NCP) proposes that the legal requirement for consent extends to all forms of interventions, investigations and treatment, carried out on or behalf of the Health Service Executive (HSE). This study employs a quantitative descriptive approach to investigate the practices for obtaining consent for an identified group of routine neonatal procedures in neonatal facilities throughout Ireland. The BAPM (British Association of Perinatal Medicine) guidelines were identified as 'gold standard' for the purposes of this study...
June 9, 2017: Irish Medical Journal
Jann P Foster, Christine Taylor, Kaye Spence
BACKGROUND: Hospitalised newborn neonates frequently undergo painful invasive procedures that involve penetration of the skin and other tissues by a needle. One intervention that can be used prior to a needle insertion procedure is application of a topical local anaesthetic. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of topical anaesthetics such as amethocaine and EMLA in newborn term or preterm infants requiring an invasive procedure involving puncture of skin and other tissues with a needle...
February 4, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
D Lagae, V Rigo, J-M Senterre, M Kalenga, J Piérart
Enterovirus (EV) may cause a broad spectrum of clinical syndromes and even cause a sepsis-like picture. Although they are responsible for high morbidity and mortality rates, viral testing does not appear in the algorithms for the evaluation of neonatal infections. During the month of June 2013, we identified 3 cases of EV meningitis in our unit of neonatology. All three infants had fever during the first week of life and their clinical examination revealed an irritability. The EV infection was detected by Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) EV on the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)...
February 2016: Revue Médicale de Liège
Monika Lachowska, Krzysztof Lachowski, Barbara Królak-Olejnik
INTRODUCTION: Percutaneously inserted central venous catheters (epicutaneo-cava-catheter - ECC) are widely used in neonatal intensive care, facilitating the parenteral nutrition and the treatment of critically ill newborns. This invasive procedure is regarded as safe and associated with low complication rate. Possible life-threatening complications may result from malpositioning of ECC. Paraspinal misplacement of ECC is one of the most serious complications. CASE PRESENTATION: The authors report a case of misplacement of ECC inserted via left saphenous vein for intravenous feeding...
July 12, 2016: Journal of Vascular Access
Shawna Shafer, Deborah Rooney, Robert Schumacher, Joseph B House
ISSUE: Pediatric residents commonly perform lumbar punctures during their clinical training. The objective of this study was to assess residents' rate of nontraumatic lumbar punctures, examine the adequacy of samples, and implement proper documentation of the procedure in an academic Level 4 Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. We hypothesize that traumatic taps are common and that documentation of the procedure is poor. EVIDENCE: A retrospective chart review was done of infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit from January 2011 to November 2011 who underwent a lumbar puncture...
2015: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
Juliana de Oliveira Marcatto, Eduardo Carlos Tavares, Yerkes Pereira E Silva
Premature neonates are customarily submitted to invasive painful procedures during their stay in NICUs that are necessary to maintain their clinically stability. Topical anesthesia is a good option to be considered in the treatment of interventions that lead to mild to moderate pain and has the advantage of no systemic effects. In Brazil the most known topical anesthetic available for use is the eutectic mixture of local anesthetics (EMLA® cream). Its efficacy in the treatment of cutaneous painful procedures is well established for children and adults...
March 2010: Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva
Phoebe Stewart, Ameneh Khatami, Alison Loughran-Fowlds, David Isaacs
A 24-day-old boy presented with fever, irritability and poor feeding. Blood culture grew methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed pleocytosis, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus grew from enrichment broth. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an epidural abscess extending from C2-3 to T8-9. Staphylococcal infections of the central nervous system are uncommon in neonates. This case demonstrates the importance of performing a lumbar puncture in isolated staphylococcal bacteraemia...
April 2015: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
L Mahieu, J-P Langhendries, V Cossey, C De Praeter, P Lepage, P Melin
Despite group B streptococcal (GBS) screening in late pregnancy and intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis, early-onset sepsis in neonates remains a common source of neonatal morbidity and mortality especially in preterm neonates. The identification of neonates with early-onset sepsis is usually based on perinatal risk factors. Clinical signs are aspecific and laboratory tests are not sensitive. Therefore, many clinicians will overtreat at-risk infants. Inappropriate treatment with antibiotics increases the risk for late-onset sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis, mortality, and prolongs hospitalisation and costs...
October 2014: Acta Clinica Belgica
Irum Naureen, Kh A Irfan Waheed, Ahsen W Rathore, Suresh Victor, Conor Mallucci, John R Goodden, Shahid N Chohan, Jaleel A Miyan
PURPOSE: Hydrocephalus (HC) has a multifactorial and complex picture of pathophysiology due to aetiology, age at and duration since onset. We have previously identified distinctions in markers of cell death associated with different aetiologies. Here, we examined cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from human HC neonates for cytokines to identify further distinguishing features of different aetiologies. METHODS: CSF was collected during routine lumbar puncture or ventricular tap from neonates with hydrocephalus, or with no neurological condition (normal controls)...
July 2014: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Irum Naureen, Khawaja A Irfan Waheed, Ahsen W Rathore, Suresh Victor, Conor Mallucci, John R Goodden, Shahid N Chohan, Jaleel A Miyan
BACKGROUND: In hydrocephalus an imbalance between production and absorption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) results in fluid accumulation, compression and stretching of the brain parenchyma. In addition, changes in CSF composition have a profound influence on the development and function of the brain and together, these can result in severe life-long neurological deficits. Brain damage or degenerative conditions can result in release of proteins expressed predominantly in neurons, astroglia, or oligodendroglia into the brain interstitial fluid, CSF and blood...
2013: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
Ashraf Soliman, Husam Salama, Sufwan Alomar, Emad Shatla, Khaled Ellithy, Elsaid Bedair
INTRODUCTION: The Clinical and radiological manifestations of newborns with severe VDD have not been studied well. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied the clinical, biochemical, and radiological manifestations of 10 full-term (FT) newborns (6: M, 4: F) infant presented to with symptomatic hypocalcemia (seizure) secondary to vitamin D deficiency (VDD) during the first 10 days of life are described. All were exclusively breastfed since birth. All their mothers have low 25 hydroxy vitamin D (25OHD) level <10 ng/mL and were not taking vitamin supplements during pregnancy...
July 2013: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Jennifer L Hamilton, Sony P John
Febrile illness in children younger than 36 months is common and has potentially serious consequences. With the widespread use of immunizations against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b, the epidemiology of bacterial infections causing fever has changed. Although an extensive diagnostic evaluation is still recommended for neonates, lumbar puncture and chest radiography are no longer recommended for older children with fever but no other indications. With an increase in the incidence of urinary tract infections in children, urine testing is important in those with unexplained fever...
February 15, 2013: American Family Physician
Lakshmi Srinivasan, Mary C Harris, Samir S Shah
Multiple studies have provided normative ranges for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) parameters in term and preterm infants and described changes with advancing postnatal age, as well as in special circumstances, such as traumatic lumbar puncture (LP), previous antibiotic administration, seizures, and concomitant infections at other sites. Although guidelines exist for the interpretation of CSF parameters in neonates, there appears to be no single combination of parameters that conclusively excludes meningitis. It remains important for clinicians to perform LPs early in the course of illness, ideally before the administration of antibiotic therapy...
December 2012: Seminars in Perinatology
Marjorie L White, Rachel Jones, Lynn Zinkan, Nancy M Tofil
OBJECTIVE: To show that with a combination of evidence-based didactic and hands-on skill demonstration, pediatric interns will be able to correctly perform lumbar punctures (LPs) on neonates in the actual clinical setting. METHODS: Twenty-three pediatric and internal medicine/pediatric first year residents attended a 1-hour course during their orientation. The course consisted of an evidence-based presentation, reviewing anatomy, indications, complications, and techniques for performing LPs, including a video presentation, followed by hands-on practice of LPs...
October 2012: Pediatric Emergency Care
Stephen W Patrick, Robert E Schumacher, Matthew M Davis
BACKGROUND: Whether lumbar punctures (LPs) should be performed routinely for term newborns suspected of having early onset neonatal sepsis (EONS) is subject to debate. It is unclear whether variations in performance of LPs for EONS may be associated with patient, hospital, insurance or regional factors. Our objective was to identify characteristics associated with the practice of performing LPs for suspected EONS in a nationally representative sample. METHODS: Utilizing data from the 2003, 2006 and 2009 Kids' Inpatient Database (KID) compiled by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, we examined the frequency and characteristics of term, normal-birth weight newborns receiving an LP for EONS...
August 28, 2012: BMC Pediatrics
Riaz Ahmed
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyze the lumbar puncture of all suspected cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for suspected meningitis. METHODS: This study was undertaken in the department of Child Health, the Royal Hospital. The details of CSF of all files of the children who had undergone lumbar puncture for suspected meningitis from January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2004; were enrolled for the study. RESULTS: A total of 395 lumbar punctures were done to exclude bacterial meningitis...
January 2008: Oman Medical Journal
Marc Tebruegge, Anastasia Pantazidou, Vanessa Clifford, Gena Gonis, Nicole Ritz, Tom Connell, Nigel Curtis
OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this study was to determine age-stratified rates of co-existing bacterial meningitis in children with urinary tract infection (UTI). The secondary aims of this study were to determine the causative pathogens of UTI, and the clinical features and outcome of children with co-existing meningitis. METHODS: Analysis of data collected over a nine-year period at a tertiary pediatric hospital in Australia. STUDY POPULATION: children below 16 years of age with culture-confirmed UTI and a paired CSF sample...
2011: PloS One
Michael K Mwaniki, Alison W Talbert, Patricia Njuguna, Mike English, Eugene Were, Brett S Lowe, Charles R Newton, James A Berkley
BACKGROUND: Meningitis is notoriously difficult to diagnose in infancy because its clinical features are non-specific. World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines suggest several indicative signs, based on limited data. We aimed to identify indicators of bacterial meningitis in young infants in Kenya, and compared their performance to the WHO guidelines. We also examined the feasibility of developing a scoring system for meningitis. METHODS: We studied all admissions aged < 60 days to Kilifi District Hospital, 2001 through 2005...
November 1, 2011: BMC Infectious Diseases
Udi Nussinovitch, Yaron Finkelstein, Daniella Harel, Naomi Nussinovitch, Moshe Nussinovitch
Bacterial and aseptic meningitis are characterized by distinctive lactic dehydrogenase isoenzyme patterns. No studies have quantified the dynamics of lactic dehydrogenase isoenzyme distribution during treated bacterial meningitis. We used a retrospective case-series design, and reviewed files of all neonates with bacterial meningitis who attended our pediatric tertiary medical center for 8 years period. We identified neonates in whom a repeated lumbar puncture was indicated. Findings of cerebrospinal fluid analysis, including levels of lactic dehydrogenase isoenzymes, were compared with an age-matched reference group...
June 2010: Pediatric Neurology
David Pérez Solís, Juan José Díaz Martín, Etelvina Suárez Menéndez
INTRODUCTION: The relation between cellulitis and Group B streptococcus infection in newborns and small infants was first reported during the early 1980s and named cellulitis-adenitis syndrome. We report a case of a neonate with cellulitis-adenitis syndrome in an unusual location (retroauricular). CASE PRESENTATION: A 21-day-old Caucasian female infant was brought to the emergency department with fever, irritability and a decreased appetite. Physical examination revealed erythema and painful, mild swelling in the right retroauricular region...
2009: Journal of Medical Case Reports
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