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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914529/agglutinin-isolated-from-arisema-heterophyllum-blume-induces-apoptosis-and-autophagy-in-a549-cells-through-inhibiting-pi3k-akt-pathway-and-inducing-er-stress
#1
Li-Xing Feng, Peng Sun, Tian Mi, Miao Liu, Wang Liu, Si Yao, Yi-Min Cao, Xiao-Lu Yu, Wan-Ying Wu, Bao-Hong Jiang, Min Yang, De-An Guo, Xuan Liu
Arisaema heterophyllum Blume is one of the three medicinal plants known as traditional Chinese medicine Rhizoma Arisaematis (RA). RA has been popularly used to treat patients with convulsions, inflammation, and cancer for a long time. However, the underlying mechanisms for RA effects are still unclear. The present study was designed to determine the cytotoxicity of agglutinin isolated from Arisema heterophyllum Blume (AHA) and explore the possible mechanisms in human non-small-cell lung cancer A549 cells. AHA with purity up to 95% was isolated and purified from Arisaema heterophyllum Blume using hydrophobic interaction chromatography...
November 2016: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913197/doxorubicin-induced-mitophagy-contributes-to-drug-resistance-in-cancer-stem-cells-from-hct8-human-colorectal-cancer-cells
#2
Chen Yan, Lan Luo, Chang-Ying Guo, Shinji Goto, Yoshishige Urata, Jiang-Hua Shao, Tao-Sheng Li
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are known to be drug resistant. Mitophagy selectively degrades unnecessary or damaged mitochondria by autophagy during cellular stress. To investigate the potential role of mitophagy in drug resistance in CSCs, we purified CD133(+)/CD44(+) CSCs from HCT8 human colorectal cancer cells and then exposed to doxorubicin (DXR). Compared with parental cells, CSCs were more resistant to DXR treatment. Although DXR treatment enhanced autophagy levels in both cell types, the inhibition of autophagy by ATG7 silencing significantly increased the toxicity of DXR only in parental cells, not in CSCs...
November 30, 2016: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904994/rapamycin-protects-sepsis-induced-cognitive-impairment-in-mouse-hippocampus-by-enhancing-autophagy
#3
Wenyu Liu, Jia'nan Guo, Jie Mu, Linyu Tian, Dong Zhou
The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway might mediate neuroprotection in a mouse model of septic encephalopathy and also to identify the role of autophagy. Mice were subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or a sham operation, and all 50 mice were randomly assigned to five groups: sham, CLP+ saline, CLP+ rapamycin (1, 5, 10 mg/kg) groups. Two weeks after the operation, Morris water maze was conducted for behavioral test; Nissl staining was used for observing glia infiltration; immunohistochemical staining and biochemical measures in hippocampi were performed to detect mTOR targets and autophagy indicators...
December 1, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902742/chloroquine-sensitizes-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-cells-but-not-nasoepithelial-cells-to-irradiation-by-blocking-autophagy
#4
Anna Makowska, Michael Eble, Kirsten Prescher, Mareike Hoß, Udo Kontny
BACKGROUND: Treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma requires the application of high dosages of radiation, leading to severe long-term complications in the majority of patients. Sensitizing tumor cells to radiation could be a means to increase the therapeutic window of radiation. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells display alterations in autophagy and blockade of autophagy has been shown to sensitize them against chemotherapy. METHODS: We investigated the effect of chloroquine, a known inhibitor of autophagy, on sensitization against radiation-induced apoptosis in a panel of five nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines and a SV40-transformed nasoepithelial cell line...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899249/ginsenoside-20-s-rg3-induced-autophagy-to-inhibit-migration-and-invasion-of-ovarian-cancer
#5
Xia Zheng, Wei Chen, Huilian Hou, Jie Li, Huijin Li, Xiaomin Sun, Le Zhao, Xu Li
BACKGROUND: Autophagy maintains cellular homeostasis through engulfing cytoplasmic proteins and organelles, and plays an important role in cancer initiation and progression. Ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3, an active ingredient of Panax ginseng, exerts anti-cancer functions in various cancers. However, its molecular mechanisms, including its effect on autophagy, are not fully elucidated in tumor models. METHODS: Ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3 was treated by various concentrations of 20(S)-Rg3...
November 26, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897164/hmgb1-mediated-autophagy-decreases-sensitivity-to-oxymatrine-in-sw982-human-synovial-sarcoma-cells
#6
Yongsong Cai, Peng Xu, Le Yang, Ke Xu, Jialin Zhu, Xiaoqing Wu, Congshan Jiang, Qiling Yuan, Bo Wang, Yuanbo Li, Yusheng Qiu
Oxymatrine (OMT) is a type of alkaloid extracted from a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, Sophora flavescens. Although the antitumor activities of OMT have been observed in various cancers, there are no reports regarding the effects of OMT on human synovial sarcoma. In the present study, we analyzed the antitumor activities of OMT in SW982 human synovial sarcoma cells and determine whether high mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1)-mediated autophagy was associated with its therapeutic effects. We found that OMT exhibited antitumor activity in SW982 cells and facilitated increases in autophagy...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878249/ets-1-a-potential-target-of-glycolysis-for-metabolic-therapy-by-regulating-glucose-metabolism-in-pancreatic-cancer
#7
Xiu Zhang, Dan Wu, Mohanad Aldarouish, Xiaodong Yin, Chunyan Li, Cailian Wang
Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal malignancies of all types of cancer due to lack of early symptoms and its resistance to conventional therapy. In our previous study, we have shown that v‑ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog‑1 (ETS‑1) promote cell migration and invasion in pancreatic cancer cells. However, the function of ETS‑1 in regulation of glycolysis and autophagy during progression of pancreatic cancer has not been defined yet. In this study, we sought to identify the potential role for silencing ETS‑1 in reducing the expression of glucose transporter‑1 (GLUT‑1) to disturb glycolysis through alteration of 'Warburg effect', by which could result in AMP‑activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation, autophagy induction and reduction of cell viability...
November 16, 2016: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875278/ratiometric-analysis-of-acridine-orange-staining-in-the-study-of-acidic-organelles-and-autophagy
#8
Marcos Paulo Thomé, Eduardo Cremonese Filippi-Chiela, Emilly Schlee Villodre, Celina Borges Migliavaca, Giovana Ravizzoni Onzi, Karina Bettega Felipe, Guido Lenz
Acridine orange (AO) is a cell permeable green fluorophore that can be protonated and trapped in Acidic Vesicular Organelles (AVOs). Its metachromatic shift to red fluorescence is concentration-dependent and, therefore, AO fluoresces red in AVOs, such as autolysosomes. This makes AO staining a quick, accessible and reliable method to assess the volume of AVOs, which increases upon autophagy induction. Here we describe a ratiometric analysis of autophagy using AO, considering the red-to-green fluorescence intensity ratio (R/GFIR) to quantify flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy data of AO-stained cells...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866839/markers-for-toxicity-to-hepg2-exposed-to-cadmium-sulphide-quantum-dots-damage-to-mitochondria
#9
Laura Paesano, Alessio Perotti, Annamaria Buschini, Cecilia Carubbi, Marta Marmiroli, Elena Maestri, Salvatore Iannotta, Nelson Marmiroli
Interaction of living organisms with quantum dots (QDs) is certainly more focused on environment and occupational exposure associated with production and release or disposal. Here, the transcription of genes involved in mitochondrial organization and function in HepG2 cells exposed to cadmium sulphide (CdS) QDs has been profiled to highlight biomarkers of exposure and effect to be tested for other cadmium based QDs. At low concentrations, exposure to CdS QDs induced only minor damage to nuclear DNA, and none to mitochondrial DNA...
November 17, 2016: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857975/two-different-tales-of-atg7-clinical-relevance-to-myelodysplastic-syndromes
#10
Abdullah M Ali, Azra Raza
Somatic mutations in U2 Small Nuclear RNA Auxiliary Factor 1 (U2AF1) are associated with various cancers including myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Mutant U2AF1 promotes malignant transformation by inhibiting autophagy, partly as a result of alterations in the 3' tail of ATG7. This results in altered mitochondrial function, increased reactive oxygen species production, and genomic instability.
2016: Molecular & Cellular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837193/intact-initiation-of-autophagy-and-mitochondrial-fission-by-acute-exercise-in-skeletal-muscle-of-patientswith-type-2-diabetes
#11
Rikke Kruse, Andreas J T Pedersen, Jonas M Kristensen, Stine J Petersson, Jørgen F P Wojtaszewski, Kurt Højlund
AIMS: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is characterized by insulin resistance, mitochondrial dysregulation, and, in some studies, exercise resistance in skeletal muscle. Regulation of autophagy and mitochondrial dynamics during exercise and recovery is important for skeletal muscle homeostasis, and these responses may be altered in T2D. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined the effect of acute exercise on markers of autophagy and mitochondrial fusion and fission in skeletal muscle biopsies from patients with T2D (n=13) and weight-matched controls (n=14) before, immediately after and 3h after an acute bout of exercise...
November 11, 2016: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833530/inhibition-of-the-autophagy-pathway-synergistically-potentiates-the-cytotoxic-activity-of-givinostat-itf2357-on-human-glioblastoma-cancer-stem-cells
#12
Francesca Angeletti, Gianluca Fossati, Alessandra Pattarozzi, Roberto Würth, Agnese Solari, Antonio Daga, Irene Masiello, Federica Barbieri, Tullio Florio, Sergio Comincini
Increasing evidence highlighted the role of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in the development of tumor resistance to therapy, particularly in glioblastoma (GBM). Therefore, the development of new therapies, specifically directed against GBM CSCs, constitutes an important research avenue. Considering the extended range of cancer-related pathways modulated by histone acetylation/deacetylation processes, we studied the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic efficacy of givinostat (GVS), a pan-histone deacetylase inhibitor, on cell cultures enriched in CSCs, isolated from nine human GBMs...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822409/autophagy-inhibition-promotes-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-through-ros-ho-1-pathway-in-ovarian-cancer-cells
#13
Zhe Zhao, Jing Zhao, Jing Xue, Xinrui Zhao, Peishu Liu
Autophagy has been proved to be involved in metastasis of cancers. However, the detailed mechanisms are still unclear. In this work, we aim to provide the first study of the role that autophagy plays in migration and invasion in ovarian cancer cells. Transwell chamber was used to examine migration and invasion capacities. Western blotting and immunofluorescence were performed to investigate the expressions of mesenchymal markers (Vimentin, N-cadherin), epithelial marker (Keratin), transcript factor (Zeb1) and HO-1...
2016: American Journal of Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803889/microrna-20a-inhibits-autophagic-process-by-targeting-atg7-and-atg16l1-and-favors-mycobacterial-survival-in-macrophage-cells
#14
Le Guo, Jin Zhao, Yuliang Qu, Runting Yin, Qian Gao, Shuqin Ding, Ying Zhang, Jun Wei, Guangxian Xu
Autophagy plays important roles in the host immune response against mycobacterial infection. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) can live in macrophages owing to its ability to evade attacks by regulating autophagic response. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding, endogenously encoded RNA which plays critical roles in precise regulation of macrophage functions. Whether miRNAs specifically influence the activation of macrophage autophagy during M. tuberculosis infection are largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that BCG infection of macrophages resulted in enhanced expression of miRNA-20a, which inhibits autophagic process by targeting ATG7 and ATG16L1 and promotes BCG survival in macrophages...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797294/targeting-autophagy-to-overcome-chemoresistance-in-acute-myleogenous-leukemia
#15
Sujan Piya, Michael Andreeff, Gautam Borthakur
Therapeutic inhibition of macroautophagy/autophagy is expected to increase chemosensitivity of cancers and alter tumor-stroma interdependence. The hypoxic, metabolically challenged bone marrow microenvironment confers chemoresistance to leukemia cells. The impact of autophagy inhibition in the context of microenvironment-mediated resistance in leukemia is less explored. Our recent studies demonstrated that co-culture of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) cells with marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) induces autophagy in AML cells and increases resistance to genotoxic agents (cytarabine and idarubicin)...
October 31, 2016: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793649/coxsackievirus-b3-induces-the-formation-of-autophagosomes-in-cardiac-fibroblasts-both-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#16
Xia Zhai, Ying Qin, Yang Chen, Lexun Lin, Tianying Wang, Xiaoyan Zhong, Xiaoyu Wu, Sijia Chen, Jing Li, Yan Wang, Fengmin Zhang, Wenran Zhao, Zhaohua Zhong
Coxsackievirus group B (CVB) is one of the common pathogens that cause myocarditis and cardiomyopathy. Evidence has shown that CVB replication in cardiomyocytes is responsible for the damage and loss of cardiac muscle and the dysfunction of the heart. However, it remains largely undefined how CVB would directly impact cardiac fibroblasts, the most abundant cells in human heart. In this study, cardiac fibroblasts were isolated from Balb/c mice and infected with CVB type 3 (CVB3). Increased double-membraned, autophagosome-like vesicles in the CVB3-infected cardiac fibroblasts were observed with electron microscope...
October 25, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791458/store-operated-calcium-entry-activated-autophagy-protects-epc-proliferation-via-the-camkk2-mtor-pathway-in-ox-ldl-exposure
#17
Jie Yang, Jie Yu, Dongdong Li, Sanjiu Yu, Jingbin Ke, Lianyou Wang, Yanwei Wang, Youzhu Qiu, Xubin Gao, Jihang Zhang, Lan Huang
Improving biological functions of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) is beneficial to maintaining endothelium homeostasis and promoting vascular re-endothelialization. Because macroautophagy/autophagy has been documented as a double-edged sword in cell functions, its effects on EPCs remain to be elucidated. This study was designed to explore the role and molecular mechanisms of store-operated calcium entry (SOCE)-activated autophagy in proliferation of EPCs under hypercholesterolemia. We employed oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) to mimic hypercholesterolemia in bone marrow-derived EPCs from rat...
October 28, 2016: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777042/the-steroid-hormone-20-hydroxyecdysone-promotes-switching-from-autophagy-to-apoptosis-by-increasing-intracellular-calcium-levels
#18
Yong-Bo Li, Xiang-Ru Li, Ting Yang, Jin-Xing Wang, Xiao-Fan Zhao
Autophagy regulates cell survival (or cell death in several cases), whereas apoptosis regulates cell death. However, the relationship between autophagy and apoptosis and the regulative mechanism is unclear. We report that steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) promotes switching from autophagy to apoptosis by increasing intracellular calcium levels in the midgut of the lepidopteran insect Helicoverpa armigera. Autophagy and apoptosis sequentially occurred during midgut programmed cell death under 20E regulation, in which lower concentrations of 20E induced microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-phosphatidylethanolamine (LC3-II, also known as autophagy-related gene 8, ATG8) expression and autophagy...
October 21, 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774947/-human-papillomavirus-16-e5-protein-inhibits-keratinocyte-growth-factor-triggered-autophagy
#19
Guanghong Fu, Dan Gong, Jia Wan
Objective To investigate the effect of E5 protein of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16 E5) on keratinocyte growth factor-triggered autophagy. Methods Firstly, pCI-neo-E5 recombinant plasmid was constructed. After that, the recombinant plasmid harboring pCI-neo-E5 was transfected into HaCaT cells using Lipofectamine(TM)2000 reagent, and the mRNA transcriptional level of 16 E5 was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Then, the expression of LC3BIIwas detected by Western blotting and the localization of LC3B was observed by immunofluorescence in pCI-neo-E5-HA-transfected HaCaT cells triggered with keratinocyte growth factor...
November 2016: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763640/methamphetamine-potentiates-hiv-1-gp120-mediated-autophagy-via-beclin-1-and-atg5-7-as-a-pro-survival-response-in-astrocytes
#20
Lu Cao, Mingui Fu, Santosh Kumar, Anil Kumar
Methamphetamine (METH), a commonly used controlled substance, is known to exacerbate neuropathological dysfunction in HIV-infected individuals. The neuropathological manifestation results from cell death or dysfunction in the central nervous system (CNS) wherein autophagy is expected to have an important role. Autophagy is generally considered protective during deprivation/stress. However, excessive autophagy can be destructive, leading to autophagic cell death. This study was designed to investigate if METH and HIV-1 gp120 interact to induce autophagy in SVGA astrocytes, and whether autophagy is epiphenomenal or it has a role in METH- and gp120-induced cytotoxicity...
October 20, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
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