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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094778/adipocyte-fatty-acid-binding-protein-potentiates-toxic-lipids-induced-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-macrophages-via-inhibition-of-janus-kinase-2-dependent-autophagy
#1
Ruby L C Hoo, Lingling Shu, Kenneth K Y Cheng, Xiaoping Wu, Boya Liao, Donghai Wu, Zhiguang Zhou, Aimin Xu
Lipotoxicity is implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity-related inflammatory complications by promoting macrophage infiltration and activation. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) play key roles in obesity and mediate inflammatory activity through similar signaling pathways. However, little is known about their interplay in lipid-induced inflammatory responses. Here, we showed that prolonged treatment of palmitic acid (PA) increased ER stress and expression of A-FABP, which was accompanied by reduced autophagic flux in macrophages...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088841/intracellular-fate-of-ureaplasma-parvum-entrapped-by-host-cellular-autophagy
#2
Fumiko Nishiumi, Michinaga Ogawa, Yukiko Nakura, Yusuke Hamada, Masahiro Nakayama, Jiro Mitobe, Atsushi Hiraide, Norio Sakai, Makoto Takeuchi, Tamotsu Yoshimori, Itaru Yanagihara
Genital mycoplasmas, including Ureaplasma spp., are among the smallest human pathogenic bacteria and are associated with preterm birth. Electron microscopic observation of U. parvum showed that these prokaryotes have a regular, spherical shape with a mean diameter of 146 nm. U. parvum was internalized into HeLa cells by clathrin-mediated endocytosis and survived for at least 14 days around the perinuclear region. Intracellular U. parvum reached endosomes in HeLa cells labeled with EEA1, Rab7, and LAMP-1 within 1 to 3 hr...
January 15, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052003/mir-138-5p-suppresses-autophagy-in-pancreatic-cancer-by-targeting-sirt1
#3
She Tian, Xingjun Guo, Chao Yu, Chengyi Sun, Jianxin Jiang
The role of microRNA in the aberrant autophagy that occurs in pancreatic cancer remains controversial. Because hypoxia is known to induce autophagy, we screened for differentially expressed microRNAs using a miRNA microarray with pancreatic cancer cells cultured under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. We found that miR-138-5p was among the most downregulated miRNA in hypoxia-stimulated cells, and that overexpression of miR-138-5p substantially reduced expression of autophagy markers. In addition, western blot and immunofluorescence analyses and electron microscopy revealed that miR-138-5p inhibited autophagy in pancreatic cancer cells and blocked serum starvation-induced autophagic flux independently of the typical autophagic signaling pathway...
December 29, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046018/co-targeting-igf-1r-and-autophagy-enhances-the-effects-of-cell-growth-suppression-and-apoptosis-induced-by-the-igf-1r-inhibitor-nvp-aew541-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer-cells
#4
Weibin Wu, Jieyi Ma, Nan Shao, Yawei Shi, Ruiming Liu, Wen Li, Yin Lin, Shenming Wang
BACKGROUND: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most intractable type of breast cancer, and there is a lack of effective targeted therapy. Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) is reportedly a potential target for TNBC treatment. However, satisfying treatment outcomes in breast cancer patients have yet to be achieved with IGF-1R-targeted agents. METHODS: To confirm whether inhibiting IGF-1R could induce autophagy, we detected autophagy-related proteins by western blotting and immunofluorescence staining of LC3-II...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041982/4-nonylphenol-induces-autophagy-and-attenuates-mtor-p70s6k-4ebp1-signaling-by-modulating-ampk-activation-in-sertoli-cells
#5
Peng Duan, Chunhui Hu, Chao Quan, Tingting Yu, Wenting Huang, Wei Chen, Sha Tang, Yuqin Shi, Francis L Martin, Kedi Yang
The estrogenic chemical 4-nonylphenol (NP) is known to impair testicular devolopment and spermatogenesis in rodents. The objective of this study was to explore the effects of NP on autophagy induction and AMPK-mTOR signaling pathway in Sertoli cells (SCs), which are the "nursemaid cells" for meiosis of spermatocytes. In this study we exposed 7-week-old male rats to NP by intra-peritoneal injection at 0, 20, 50 or 100mg/kg body weight/2days for 20 consecutive days. Our results showed that exposure to NP dose-dependently induces the formation of autophagosomes in SCs, increases the expression of Beclin-1, the conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II and the mRNA expression of Atg3, Atg5, Atg7 and Atg12 in testis, and these effects are concomitant with the activation of AMPK, and the suppression of TSC2-mTOR-p70S6K/4EBP1 signaling cascade in testis...
December 29, 2016: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031534/autophagy-inhibition-enhances-photocytotoxicity-of-photosan-ii-in-human-colorectal-cancer-cells
#6
Li Xiong, Zhipeng Liu, Guoqing Ouyang, Liangwu Lin, He Huang, Hongxiang Kang, Wei Chen, Xiongying Miao, Yu Wen
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has emerged as an attractive therapeutic treatment for colorectal cancer because of its accessibility through endoscopy and its ability to selectively target tumors without destroying the anatomical integrity of the colon. We therefore investigated the therapeutic relevance of the interplay between autophagy and apoptosis in Photosan-II (PS-II)-mediated photodynamic therapy (PS-PDT) in in vitro and in vivo models for human colorectal cancer. We observed that PS-PDT-induced dose-dependently triggered apoptosis and autophagy in both SW620 and HCT116 cells...
December 23, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031105/-xinfeng-capsule-improves-pulmonary-function-of-rats-with-adjuvant-induced-arthritis-via-regulating-the-expressions-of-autophagy-related-proteins
#7
Lei Wan, Jian Liu, Chuanbing Huang, Xiaojun Zhang, Yali Wang, Yue Sun, Lei Liu
Objective To observe the effect of Xinfeng Capsule (XFC) on autophagy related gene (ATG), microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3II (LC3-II), beclin 1 in the rat model of adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA). Methods Rats were divided for four groups: normal control (NC) group, model control (MC) group, leflunomide (LEF) group, and XFC group, with 10 rats in each group. Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA, 0.1 mL) was injected into the right foot plantar skin of all rats except for the NC group. To enhance the immune response, 0...
January 2017: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012437/autophagy-deficient-keratinocytes-display-increased-dna-damage-senescence-and-aberrant-lipid-composition-after-oxidative-stress-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#8
Xiuzu Song, Marie Sophie Narzt, Ionela Mariana Nagelreiter, Philipp Hohensinner, Lucia Terlecki-Zaniewicz, Erwin Tschachler, Johannes Grillari, Florian Gruber
Autophagy allows cells fundamental adaptations to metabolic needs and to stress. Using autophagic bulk degradation cells can clear crosslinked macromolecules and damaged organelles that arise under redox stress. Accumulation of such debris results in cellular dysfunction and is observed in aged tissue and senescent cells. Conversely, promising anti-aging strategies aim at inhibiting the mTOR pathway and thereby activating autophagy, to counteract aging associated damage. We have inactivated autophagy related 7 (Atg7), an essential autophagy gene, in murine keratinocytes (KC) and have found in an earlier study that this resulted in increased baseline oxidative stress and reduced capacity to degrade crosslinked proteins after oxidative ultraviolet stress...
December 18, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003215/sirt1-regulates-acrosome-biogenesis-by-modulating-autophagic-flux-during-spermiogenesis-in-mice
#9
Chao Liu, Zhenhua Song, Lina Wang, Haiyan Yu, Weixiao Liu, Yongliang Shang, Zhiliang Xu, Haichao Zhao, Fengyi Gao, Jiamin Wen, Linan Zhao, Yaoting Gui, Jianwei Jiao, Fei Gao, Wei Li
Sirt1 is a member of the sirtuin family of proteins and has important roles in numerous biological processes. Sirt1(-/-) mice display an increased frequency of abnormal spermatozoa, but the mechanism of Sirt1 in spermiogenesis remains largely unknown. Here, we report that Sirt1 might be directly involved in spermiogenesis in germ cells but not in steroidogenic cells. Germ cell-specific Sirt1 knockout mice were almost completely infertile; the early mitotic and meiotic progression of germ cells in spermatogenesis were not obviously affected after Sirt1 depletion, but subsequent spermiogenesis was disrupted due to a defect in acrosome biogenesis, which resulted in a phenotype similar to that observed in human globozoospermia...
December 21, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996033/the-xbp1-arm-of-the-unfolded-protein-response-induces-fibrogenic-activity-in-hepatic-stellate-cells-through-autophagy
#10
Rosa S Kim, Daisuke Hasegawa, Nicolas Goossens, Takuma Tsuchida, Varinder Athwal, Xiaochen Sun, Christopher L Robinson, Dipankar Bhattacharya, Hsin-I Chou, David Y Zhang, Bryan C Fuchs, Youngmin Lee, Yujin Hoshida, Scott L Friedman
Autophagy and the unfolded protein response (UPR) both promote activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC), however the link between the two stimuli remains unclear. Here we have explored the role of X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), one of three UPR effector pathways and sought to establish the interdependence between autophagy and the UPR during HSC activation. XBP1 induction accompanied both culture-based HSC activation and ER stress induced by tunicamycin. Ectopic overexpression of XBP1 induced collagen 1-alpha expression in HSCs, which was inhibited by knockdown of ATG7, a critical autophagy mediator...
December 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993671/effect-of-acute-and-chronic-autophagy-deficiency-on-skeletal-muscle-apoptotic-signaling-morphology-and-function
#11
M F Paré, B L Baechler, V A Fajardo, E Earl, E Wong, T L Campbell, A R Tupling, J Quadrilatero
Autophagy is a catabolic process that targets and degrades cytoplasmic materials. In skeletal muscle, autophagy is required for the control of mass under catabolic conditions, but is also basally active in the maintenance of myofiber homeostasis. In this study, we found that some specific autophagic markers (LC3-I, LC3-II, SQSTM1) were basally lower in glycolytic muscle compared to oxidative muscle of autophagy competent mice. In contrast, basal autophagic flux was higher in glycolytic muscle. In addition, we used several skeletal muscle-specific Atg7 transgenic mouse models to investigate the effect of acute (iAtg7(-/-)) and chronic (cAtg7(-/-)) autophagy deficiency on skeletal muscle morphology, contractility, and apoptotic signaling...
December 16, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993642/the-effect-of-arsenite-on-spatial-learning-involvement-of-autophagy-and-apoptosis
#12
Behnoosh BonakdarYazdi, Fariba Khodagholi, Fatemeh Shaerzadeh, Azadeh Sharifzadeh, Ramesh Ahmadi, Mehdi Sanati, Hajar Mehdizadeh, Borna Payandehmehr, Leila Vali, Mehrnoush Moghaddasi Jahromi, Ghorban Taghizadeh, Mohammad Sharifzadeh
Spatial learning plays a major role in one's information recording. Arsenic is one of ubiquitous environmental toxins with known neurological effects. However, studies investigating the effects of arsenic on spatial learning and related mechanisms are limited. This study was planned toexaminethe effects of bilateral intra-hippocampal infusion of different concentrations of sodium arsenite (5, 10 and 100nM, 5µl/side) on spatial learning in Wistar rats. Moreover, we evaluated levels of LC3-II, Atg7 and Atg12 as reliable biomarkers of autophagy and caspase-3 and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio as indicators of apoptosis in the hippocampus...
December 18, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984096/protective-effects-of-salicylate-on-pka-inhibitor-h-89-induced-spatial-memory-deficit-via-lessening-autophagy-and-apoptosis-in-rats
#13
Leila Azimi, Maryam Kachooeian, Fariba Khodagholi, Asal Yans, Soomaayeh Heysieattalab, Gelareh Vakilzadeh, Nasim Vosoughi, Mehdi Sanati, Ghorban Taghizadeh, Mohammad Sharifzadeh
In this study, the effects of salicylate on spatial learning and memory, through its effects on autophagy and apoptosis, were evaluated in the presence of the PKA inhibitor H-89. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into experimental groups as follows: salicylate (30, 50, 100μg/0.5μl/side, intra-hippocampal; 400mg/kg, intra-peritoneal), donepezil (1mg/kg as a positive control for behavioral effects of salicylate), H-89 (1μl/side of 5 or 20μM), H-89 plus salicylate and H-89 plus donepezil. The Morris water maze test was used for evaluation of spatial learning and memory...
October 27, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981410/mir-106a-suppresses-tumor-cells-death-in-colorectal-cancer-through-targeting-atg7
#14
Haibin Hao, Guangfeng Xia, Chao Wang, Fuping Zhong, Laipeng Liu, Dong Zhang
Autophagy-related gene 7 (ATG7) and miR-106a play an important role in cancer cell autophagy and apoptosis, but the outcome of ATG7 and miR-106a in colorectal cancer (CRC) still remains not clear. In this study, we found that ATG7 and miR-106a expression were mutually related with cell death and prognosis in CRC patients. In addition, we also showed that ATG7 and miR-106a expression were changeable in colorectal cancer cell lines when compared with normal cell lines, but ATG7 and miR-106a mRNA level was negatively correlated...
December 15, 2016: Medical Molecular Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959392/syringin-prevents-cardiac-hypertrophy-induced-by-pressure-overload-through-the-attenuation-of-autophagy
#15
Fangfang Li, Ning Zhang, Qingqing Wu, Yuan Yuan, Zheng Yang, Mengqiao Zhou, Jinxiu Zhu, Qizhu Tang
Syringin, extracted from Eleutherococcus senticosus, is a major biologically active component of Chinese herbs. Studies have certified the multiple pharmacological properties of syringin. However, the role of syringin in cardiac hypertrophy and the mechanisms involved remain unclear. In this study, aortic banding was performed on mice in order to induce cardiac hypertrophy, and the animals were then treated with syringin for 7 weeks. Echocardiography and catheter-based measurements of hemodynamic parameters were performed to evaluate cardiac function at 8 weeks following aortic banding...
January 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959374/nanoporous-microstructures-mediate-osteogenesis-by-modulating-the-osteo-immune-response-of-macrophages
#16
Zetao Chen, Siyu Ni, Shengwei Han, Ross Crawford, Shifeier Lu, Fei Wei, Jiang Chang, Chengtie Wu, Yin Xiao
The osteoimmune environment plays indispensable roles in bone regeneration because the early immune environment that exists during the regenerative process promotes the recruitment and differentiation of osteoblastic lineage cells. The response of immune cells growing on nanotopographic surfaces and the microenvironment they generate should be considered when evaluating nanotopography-mediated osteogenesis, which are topics that are generally neglected in the field. In this study, we investigated the modulatory effects of nanoporous anodic alumina with different sized pores on macrophage responses and their subsequent effects on the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs)...
December 13, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938562/-augmenter-of-liver-regeneration-promotes-the-proliferation-of-hl-7702-cells-in-carbon-tetrachloride-induced-acute-liver-injury-via-increasing-autophagy
#17
W J Han, H B Shi, H L Shi, J Y Song, F Ren, Z P Duan, Y Chen
Objective: To investigate the protective effect of augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR) against acute liver injury and related mechanisms. Methods: HL-7702 cells were divided into normal control group, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute liver injury group, ALR+CCl4 intervention group, 3-methyladenine (3-MA)+CCl4 intervention group, and ALR+3-MA+CCl4 intervention group. The ALR+CCl4 and ALR+3-MA+CCl4 intervention groups were transfected with ALR plasmids at 8 hours before CCl4 treatment. All groups except the normal control group were treated with CCl4, and 30 minutes later, the 3-MA+CCl4 and ALR+3-MA+CCl4 intervention groups were treated with 3-MA...
October 20, 2016: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929731/autophagic-homeostasis-is-required-for-the-pluripotency-of-cancer-stem-cells
#18
Tanveer Sharif, Emma Martell, Cathleen Dai, Barry E Kennedy, Patrick Murphy, Derek R Clements, Youra Kim, Patrick W K Lee, Shashi A Gujar
Pluripotency is an important feature of cancer stem cells (CSCs) that contributes to self-renewal and chemoresistance. The maintenance of pluripotency of CSCs under various pathophysiological conditions requires a complex interaction between various cellular pathways including those involved in homeostasis and energy metabolism. However, the exact mechanisms that maintain the CSC pluripotency remain poorly understood. In this report, using both human and murine models of CSCs, we demonstrate that basal levels of autophagy are required to maintain the pluripotency of CSCs, and that this process is differentially regulated by the rate-limiting enzyme in the NAD(+) synthesis pathway NAMPT (nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase) and the transcription factor POU5F1/OCT4 (POU class 5 homeobox 1)...
December 8, 2016: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914529/agglutinin-isolated-from-arisema-heterophyllum-blume-induces-apoptosis-and-autophagy-in-a549-cells-through-inhibiting-pi3k-akt-pathway-and-inducing-er-stress
#19
Li-Xing Feng, Peng Sun, Tian Mi, Miao Liu, Wang Liu, Si Yao, Yi-Min Cao, Xiao-Lu Yu, Wan-Ying Wu, Bao-Hong Jiang, Min Yang, De-An Guo, Xuan Liu
Arisaema heterophyllum Blume is one of the three medicinal plants known as traditional Chinese medicine Rhizoma Arisaematis (RA). RA has been popularly used to treat patients with convulsions, inflammation, and cancer for a long time. However, the underlying mechanisms for RA effects are still unclear. The present study was designed to determine the cytotoxicity of agglutinin isolated from Arisema heterophyllum Blume (AHA) and explore the possible mechanisms in human non-small-cell lung cancer A549 cells. AHA with purity up to 95% was isolated and purified from Arisaema heterophyllum Blume using hydrophobic interaction chromatography...
November 2016: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913197/doxorubicin-induced-mitophagy-contributes-to-drug-resistance-in-cancer-stem-cells-from-hct8-human-colorectal-cancer-cells
#20
Chen Yan, Lan Luo, Chang-Ying Guo, Shinji Goto, Yoshishige Urata, Jiang-Hua Shao, Tao-Sheng Li
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are known to be drug resistant. Mitophagy selectively degrades unnecessary or damaged mitochondria by autophagy during cellular stress. To investigate the potential role of mitophagy in drug resistance in CSCs, we purified CD133(+)/CD44(+) CSCs from HCT8 human colorectal cancer cells and then exposed to doxorubicin (DXR). Compared with parental cells, CSCs were more resistant to DXR treatment. Although DXR treatment enhanced autophagy levels in both cell types, the inhibition of autophagy by ATG7 silencing significantly increased the toxicity of DXR only in parental cells, not in CSCs...
November 30, 2016: Cancer Letters
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