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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646692/specific-subcortical-structures-are-activated-during-seizure-induced-death-in-a-model-of-sudden-unexpected-death-in-epilepsy-sudep-a-manganese-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#1
Srinivasa P Kommajosyula, Marcus E Randall, Thomas J Brozoski, Boris M Odintsov, Carl L Faingold
Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is a major concern for patients with epilepsy. In most witnessed cases of SUDEP generalized seizures and respiratory failure preceded death, and pre-mortem neuroimaging studies in SUDEP patients observed changes in specific subcortical structures. Our study examined the role of subcortical structures in the DBA/1 mouse model of SUDEP using manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI). These mice exhibit acoustically-evoked generalized seizures leading to seizure-induced respiratory arrest (S-IRA) that results in sudden death unless resuscitation is rapidly instituted...
May 25, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645324/bmi-and-recommended-levels-of-physical-activity-in-school-children
#2
Phillipp Schwarzfischer, Martina Weber, Dariusz Gruszfeld, Piotr Socha, Veronica Luque, Joaquin Escribano, Annick Xhonneux, Elvira Verduci, Benedetta Mariani, Berthold Koletzko, Veit Grote
BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) and its health benefits are a continuous point of discussion. Recommendations for children's daily PA vary between guidelines. To better define the amount of PA necessary to prevent overweight and obesity in children, further research is needed. The present study investigates children's compliance to physical activity guidelines (PAGs) and the association between objectively measured PA and body mass index (BMI). METHODS: Participating children were 11 years old (n = 419) and part of the European CHOP trial, which was conducted in Germany, Belgium, Poland, Spain, Italy...
June 24, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642688/lower-functional-connectivity-of-the-periaqueductal-gray-is-related-to-negative-affect-and-clinical-manifestations-of-fibromyalgia
#3
Marie-Andrée Coulombe, Keith St Lawrence, Dwight E Moulin, Patricia Morley-Forster, Mahsa Shokouhi, Warren R Nielson, Karen D Davis
Fibromyalgia (FM) syndrome is characterized by chronic widespread pain, muscle tenderness and emotional distress. Previous studies found reduced endogenous pain modulation in FM. This deficiency of pain modulation may be related to the attributes of chronic pain and other clinical symptoms experienced in patients with FM. Thus, we tested whether there is a link between the clinical symptoms of FM and functional connectivity (FC) of the periaqueductal gray (PAG), a key node of pain modulation. We acquired resting state 3T functional MRI (rsfMRI) data from 23 female patients with FM and 16 age- and sex- matched healthy controls (HC) and assessed FM symptoms with the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638117/disrupted-functional-connectivity-between-the-periaqueductal-gray-and-other-brain-regions-in-a-rat-model-of-recurrent-headache
#4
Zhihua Jia, Wenjing Tang, Dengfa Zhao, Shengyuan Yu
Functional connectivity (FC) has been used to investigate the pathophysiology of migraine. We aimed to identify atypical FC between the periaqueductal gray (PAG) and other brain areas in rats induced by repeated meningeal nociception. The rat model was established by infusing an inflammatory soup (IS) through supradural catheters in conscious rats. Quiescent and face-grooming behaviors were observed to assess nociceptive behavior. FC analysis seeded on the PAG was performed on rats 21 days after IS infusion...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631855/a-photocrosslinkable-biotin-derivative-of-the-phosphoantigen-e-4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl-diphosphate-hmbpp-activates-v%C3%AE-9v%C3%AE-2-t-cells-and-binds-to-the-hmbpp-site-of-btn3a1
#5
Andrea Mattarei, Monika Enzinger, Siyi Gu, Mohindar Murugesh Karunakaran, Brigitte Kimmel, Nicole Berner, Erin J Adams, Thomas Herrmann, Sabine Amslinger
Vγ9Vδ2 T cells play an important role in the cross talk of the innate and adaptive immune system. For their activation by phosphoantigens (PAgs) both cell surface receptors the eponymous Vγ9Vδ2 T cell antigen receptors (Vγ9Vδ2 TCRs) on Vγ9Vδ2 T cells and butyrophilin 3A1 (BTN3A1) on the phosphoantigen-"presenting" cell are mandatory. To find yet undetected further contributing proteins a biotinylated, photocrosslinkable benzophenone probe BioBP-HMBPP (2) was synthesized from a known allyl alcohol in nine steps and overall 16% yield...
June 20, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624831/chelerythrine-attenuates-renal-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-myocardial-injury-by-activating-cse-h2s-via-pkc-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-in-diabetic-rats
#6
Bo Hu, Guangtao Xu, Yongxia Zheng, Fei Tong, Ping Qian, Xiaoyan Pan, Xinmei Zhou, Ruilin Shen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Chelerythrine (CHE), a benzophenanthridine alkaloid, is a potent, selective, and cell-permeable protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of CHE on myocardial recovery after renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced myocardial injury (RI/RMI) in a streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rat model. METHODS: Diabetes mellitus (DM) rats preconditioned with CHE and D, L-propargylglycine (PAG) were subjected to renal I/R...
2017: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615711/identification-and-characterization-of-a-rich-population-of-cd34-mesenchymal-stem-stromal-cells-in-human-parotid-sublingual-and-submandibular-glands
#7
Padma Priya Togarrati, Robson T Sasaki, Mohamed Abdel-Mohsen, Nuntana Dinglasan, Xutao Deng, Shivani Desai, Elaine Emmerson, Elizabeth Yee, William R Ryan, Marcelo C P da Silva, Sarah M Knox, Satish K Pillai, Marcus O Muench
Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) play crucial roles in maintaining tissue homeostasis during physiological turnovers and injuries. Very little is known about the phenotype, distribution and molecular nature of MSCs in freshly isolated human salivary glands (SGs) as most reports have focused on the analysis of cultured MSCs. Our results demonstrate that the cell adhesion molecule CD34 was widely expressed by the MSCs of human major SGs, namely parotid (PAG), sublingual (SLG) and submandibular (SMG) glands...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608219/sequential-detection-of-thermophilic-lipase-and-protease-by-zymography
#8
Liliana Kurz, Zully Hernández, Lellys M Contreras, Jeff Wilkesman
Lipase and protease present in cell-free fractions of thermophilic Bacillus sp. cultures were analyzed by polyacrylamide gel (PAG) electrophoresis. After run, the gel is electrotransferred to another PAG copolymerized with glycerol tributyrate, olive oil, and gelatin. This multi-substrate gel was incubated first for lipase detection, until bands appeared, and then stained with Coomassie for protease detection. Advantages of this sequential procedure are the detection of two different enzyme activities on a single PAG, beside time and resource saving...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603695/the-pag-gene-of-pxo1-is-involved-in-capsule-biosynthesis-of-bacillus-anthracis-pasteur-ii-strain
#9
Xudong Liang, Jin Zhu, Zhongzhi Zhao, Feng Zheng, Huijuan Zhang, Jianchun Wei, Yon Ji, Yinduo Ji
The poly-γ-D-glutamic acid capsule and anthrax toxins are major virulence factors of Bacillus anthracis. Genes responsible for capsule biosynthesis are located on pXO2, whereas genes encoding the toxins, which are composed of edema factors, lethal factors, and protective antigens (PA), are located on pXO1. In this study, we found that the pag null mutation not only eliminated the production of the protective antigen, it also eliminated the ability of the B. anthracis Pasteur II strain to form capsules. qPCR analysis revealed that the deletion of pag decreased the transcription levels of the capABCD operon and its regulatory genes acpA and acpB...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597565/btn3a1-antibodies-and-phosphoantigens-tcrv%C3%AE-9v%C3%AE-2-see-the-difference
#10
Don-Marc Franchini, Marie Michelas, Olivia Lanvin, Mary Poupot, Jean Jacques Fournié
Human blood γδ T lymphocytes express TCRVγ9Vδ2 and respond to nonpeptide phosphoantigens (PAgs) by a mysterious mechanism involving the BTN3A1 (CD277) molecule . BTN3A1 is a butyrophilin-like protein related to CD80, PD-L1, and MHC, and is either a presenting or a co-stimulatory molecule for PAgs. Although the precise roles and molecular interactions with the TCRVγ9Vδ2 are currently not determined, it is commonly thought that all TCRVγ9Vδ2 lymphocytes 'see' PAg and BTN3A1 together, presumably in a single molecular recognition event...
June 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589249/phenylpropanoid-composition-in-fig-ficus-carica-l-leaves
#11
Toru Takahashi, Aya Okiura, Masahiro Kohno
The leaves of fig (Ficus carica L.) have been used for traditional and Chinese medicine. We determined the composition of phenylpropanoids (polyphenols and furanocoumarins) as a functional agent in the leaves of 37 cultivars of fig. The most abundant polyphenol was caffeoylmalic acid (12.0-26.6 mg/g dry weight), followed by rutin (4.7-14.6 mg/g dry weight) and isoschaftoside (2.5-6.4 mg/g dry weight). Psoralen (3.8-23.0 mg/g dry weight) was dominant in the furanocoumarins. In molar amounts, psoralic acid glucoside (PAG), a precursor of psoralen, was equivalent to psoralen...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583612/visual-elisa-for-detection-of-pregnancy-associated-glycoproteins-pags-in-ewe-serum
#12
Camila de Miranda E Silva Chaves, Ricardo Lopes Dias da Costa, Keila Maria Roncato Duarte, Débora Cavallaro Machado, Claudia Cristina Paro de Paz, Renato Travassos Beltrame
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of visual ELISA-PAG for early pregnancy diagnosis based on the presence of PAG (pregnancy-associated glycoprotein) using sheep blood serum. Experiment 1: 140 ewes were divided into three groups with different stages of pregnancy. In the first group, 41 pregnant ewes were sampled at 26, 28, 30, and 32 days of pregnancy; in the second group, 65 ewes (49 pregnant with 30 days and 16 non-pregnant) were sampled; in the third group, 34 non-pregnant ewes were sampled...
July 15, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583611/pregnancy-associated-glycoproteins-pags-concentrations-in-water-buffaloes-bubalus-bubalis-during-gestation-and-the-postpartum-period
#13
O Barbato, L Menchetti, N M Sousa, A Malfatti, G Brecchia, C Canali, J F Beckers, V L Barile
For the first time in literature this study describes the pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) profile of buffalo cows during gestation and the post-partum period using antiserum raised against PAG-molecules purified from buffalo placenta (AS#860). Ninety-eight buffalo cows, belonging to a buffalo herd subjected to a synchronization and artificial insemination (AI) program, were enrolled in this study. Blood samples were taken on days 0 (AI), 23, 25, 28, 30 and then biweekly until the end of pregnancy. Pregnancy was confirmed by ultrasonography on days 28 and 45, and by rectal palpation from day 60 onwards...
July 15, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582305/effects-of-primary-alveolar-grafting-on-alveolar-bone-thickness-in-patients-with-cleft-lip-and-palate
#14
Ahmed Ghoneima, Eman Allam, Katherine Kula
The purpose of this study was to compare alveolar bone thickness around the teeth adjacent to the cleft using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in patients with cleft lip and palate (CLP) who underwent primary alveolar grafting (PAG) as compared with CLP waiting for secondary alveolar grafting (SAG) and to determine the associations with other factors such as the patient's age, sex, and type of cleft. CBCTs of 39 CLP patients were divided into either group 1 (PAG, N = 11) or group 2 (SAG, N = 28)...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578088/immune-response-in-bovine-neosporosis-protection-or-contribution-to-the-pathogenesis-of-abortion
#15
REVIEW
Sonia Almería, Beatriz Serrano-Pérez, Fernando López-Gatius
Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite with a preference for cattle and dogs as hosts. When N. caninum infection occurs in cattle it induces abortion, bovine neosporosis being a main cause of abortion worldwide. In dairy cattle, the economic burden of neosporosis-associated abortion is so great that it might results in closure of a farm. However, not all infected cows abort and it is not yet understood why this occurs. At present there is no effective treatment or vaccine. This review provides insights on how immune response against the parasite determines protection or contribution to abortion...
May 31, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574927/altered-functional-connectivity-of-the-periaqueductal-gray-in-chronic-neck-and-shoulder-pain
#16
Cheng-Xin Yu, Bo Li, Ya-Ka Xu, Ting-Ting Ji, Liang Li, Chang-Jiang Zhao, Long Chen, Zhi-Zheng Zhuo
Chronic neck and shoulder pain with cervical spondylotic radiculopathy (CNSP-CSR) is one of the most common clinical chronic pain diseases. This study aimed to investigate the abnormal patterns in functional connectivity (FC) pertaining to the periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) in patients with CNSP-CSR. A seed-based FC analysis was carried out for the right ventrolateral PAG and a correlation analysis was carried out with pain intensity, duration, and the extracted mean z scores. The PAG FC was significantly positively associated with the right orbital inferior frontal gyrus, supramarginal gyrus/postcentral gyrus, putamen, and the left anterior cingulate cortex, and significant negative FC was observed in the right lingual gyrus/occipital cortex in patients with CNSP-CSR...
June 1, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574391/non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-s-antinociception-mediated-by-the-opioid-mechanism-in-the-nucleus-raphe-magnus
#17
T Gorgiladze, I Nozadze, E Abzianidze, M Tsagareli
It has been established that the midbrain periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) and rostral ventro-medial medulla (RVM) are involved in the descending pain control system. The latter involves the midline nucleus raphe magnus (NRM) and adjacent reticular formation. These brain structures are is one of important parts of CNS circuit that controls nociceptive transmission at the level of spinal cord. Here we report that microinjection of commonly used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), diclofenac, ketorolac, metamizol, and xefocam into the NRM produces strong antinociception which is mediated by the opioid mechanism...
April 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571369/network-confinement-and-heterogeneity-slows-nanoparticle-diffusion-in-polymer-gels
#18
Emmabeth Parrish, Matthew A Caporizzo, Russell J Composto
Nanoparticle (NP) diffusion was measured in polyacrylamide gels (PAGs) with a mesh size comparable to the NP size, 21 nm. The confinement ratio (CR), NP diameter/mesh size, increased from 0.4 to 3.8 by increasing crosslinker density and from 0.4 to 2.1 by adding acetone, which collapsed the PAGs. In all gels, NPs either became localized, moving less than 200 nm, diffused microns, or exhibited a combination of these behaviors, as measured by single particle tracking. Mean squared displacements (MSDs) of mobile NPs decreased as CR increased...
May 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541285/endogenous-opioids-regulate-social-threat-learning-in-humans
#19
Jan Haaker, Jonathan Yi, Predrag Petrovic, Andreas Olsson
Many fearful expectations are shaped by observation of aversive outcomes to others. Yet, the neurochemistry regulating social learning is unknown. Previous research has shown that during direct (Pavlovian) threat learning, information about personally experienced outcomes is regulated by the release of endogenous opioids, and activity within the amygdala and periaqueductal gray (PAG). Here we report that blockade of this opioidergic circuit enhances social threat learning through observation in humans involving activity within the amygdala, midline thalamus and the PAG...
May 25, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511110/determination-of-regional-relationships-among-salmonella-spp-isolated-from-retail-pork-circulating-in-the-chiang-mai-municipality-area-using-a-wgs-data-approach
#20
Prapas Patchanee, Thanaporn Eiamsam-Ang, Juntakarn Vanaseang, Phacharaporn Boonkhot, Pakpoom Tadee
Salmonella is recognized as a significant zoonotic foodborne pathogen, and pork products are involved in one-fifth of infections. Whole genome sequencing data of Salmonella isolated from retail's pork circulating in the Chiang Mai Municipality area between April 2013 and September 2014, were used to focus on genetic diversity and proven in pig-human transmission based on Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST). Additionally, WGS data were used to investigate virulence genes, to assess the hazard or pathogenic potential transferred into the food production chain...
May 10, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
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