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Sellappan Selvaraju, Sivashanmugam Parthipan, Lakshminarayana Somashekar, B Krishnan Binsila, Atul P Kolte, Arunachalam Arangasamy, Janivara Parameshwaraiah Ravindra, Stephen A Krawetz
With artificial insemination (AI) and other precision dependent assisted reproductive technologies (ART) being followed in large scale in human and animal reproduction, assessing semen quality and fertilizability is under continuous scrutiny. Various tests have been developed to predict semen quality, but so far no single, highly reliable test is available. In this regard, transcriptomic profiling of spermatozoa assumes significance as it carries the information about spermatogenesis, sperm function, and paternal roles in post-fertilization events...
March 14, 2018: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
Alina Suzann Fichtner, Mohindar Murugesh Karunakaran, Lisa Starick, Richard W Truman, Thomas Herrmann
1-5% of human blood T cells are Vγ9Vδ2 T cells whose T cell receptor (TCR) contain a TRGV9/TRGJP rearrangement and a TRDV2 comprising Vδ2-chain. They respond to phosphoantigens (PAgs) like isopentenyl pyrophosphate or (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl-pyrophosphate (HMBPP) in a butyrophilin 3 (BTN3)-dependent manner and may contribute to the control of mycobacterial infections. These cells were thought to be restricted to primates, but we demonstrated by analysis of genomic databases that TRGV9, TRDV2 , and BTN3 genes coevolved and emerged together with placental mammals...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Zineb Moussafir, Larbi Allai, Kawtar El Khalil, Abdelkhaled Essamadi, Bouchra El Amiri
The aim of the present study was to compare a Bovine Pregnancy Rapid Test (Ubio quickVET; BPRT) with a commercial ELISA-PAG test (Bovine Pregnancy Test DG29®) for early pregnancy diagnosis based on the presence of the PAG (pregnancy-associated glycoprotein) in dairy cattle between 30 and 40 days after artificial insemination (AI). Blood samples were collected from 212 cows between 30 and 40 days after artificial insemination (AI) to quantify the concentrations of PAG in each sample. Transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) diagnosis of pregnancy was conducted at day 45 ± 3 after AI as the reference standard for the two PAG tests...
March 2, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Kristl Tomlin, Lucia Mirea, Amy Williamson
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The American Academy of Pediatrics and American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists have identified the menstrual cycle as essential in assessing overall health of adolescent girls. Menses should be considered a "vital sign" and documentation of last menstrual period (LMP) is recommended at every patient encounter. The aim of this study is to estimate and compare LMP documentation among adolescent and pediatric healthcare providers. STUDY DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A retrospective cohort study identified a random sample of 50 female patients seen in the general pediatrics (PEDS), adolescent medicine (AM), and pediatric and adolescent gynecology (PAG) ambulatory clinics at Phoenix Children's Hospital between January 1, 2016 and March 31, 2016...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
Gessica Araujo Franco, Rogerio Fonseca Guimaraes Peres, Cicero Fleury Guedes Martins, Sydney Taylor Reese, Jose Luiz Moraes Vasconcelos, Ky Garrett Pohler
Pregnancy loss is a major contributing factor to reproductive inefficiency in both the beef and dairy industries. Sires can have a significant influence on the amount of pregnancy loss; however, this relationship is still poorly investigated. The primary objective of this study was to identify sires associated with high or low incidence of pregnancy loss (between d 30 and 100 of gestation) and investigate their effect on concentration of circulating pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs). Postpartum multiparous Nelore cows were inseminated artificially at a fixed time (FTAI, d 0) after synchronization of ovulation...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Boris Sowa, Martin Bochenek, Steffen Braun, Felix Zeifang, Jan Philippe Kretzer, Thomas Bruckner, Gilles Walch, Patric Raiss
BACKGROUND: Glenoid replacement in cases of severe glenoid retroversion (RV) or eccentric wear is challenging. The aim of this study was to evaluate different treatment methods under standardized conditions to assist surgeons in the decision-making process. METHODS: Three treatment options for severe glenoid RV (15°) were compared: (1) no RV correction; (2) complete RV correction; (3) no RV correction and implantation of a posterior augmented glenoid (PAG). A highly standardized implantation protocol using artificial glenoid bones (five per group) was chosen, and a physiologic shoulder movement was applied in a biomechanical setting...
March 7, 2018: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
Petr Dubový, Ilona Klusáková, Ivana Hradilová-Svíženská, Marek Joukal, Pere Boadas-Vaello
Peripheral nerve injuries (PNIs) may result in cellular and molecular changes in supraspinal structures possibly involved in neuropathic pain (NPP) maintenance. Activated glial cells in specific supraspinal subregions may affect the facilitatory role of descending pathways. Sterile chronic compression injury (sCCI) and complete sciatic nerve transection (CSNT) in rats were used as NPP models to study the activation of glial cells in the subregions of periaqueductal gray (PAG) and rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM)...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Jasmohan S Bajaj, Genta Kakiyama, I Jane Cox, Hiroshi Nittono, Hajime Takei, Melanie White, Andrew Fagan, Edith A Gavis, Douglas M Heuman, Ho Chong Gilles, Phillip Hylemon, Simon D Taylor-Robinson, Cristina Legido-Quigley, Min Kim, Jin Xu, Roger Williams, Masoumeh Sikaroodi, William M Pandak, Patrick M Gillevet
Liver transplant (LT) improves daily function and ameliorates gut microbial composition. However, the effect of LT on microbial functionality, which can be related to overall patient benefit, is unclear and could affect the post-LT course. AIMS: To determine the effect of LT on gut microbial functionality focusing on endotoxemia, bile acid (BA), ammonia metabolism and lipidomics. METHOD: We enrolled outpatient cirrhotic patients on the LT list and followed them till 6 months post-LT...
March 3, 2018: Liver Transplantation
P S Huguelet, G ChelvaKumar, L Conner, T Dumont, N Fleming, M Abraham, N W Karjane, J Sheeder, H J Talib, K Teelin, C Wheeler, P Kaul
BACKGROUND: Resident education in Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology (PAG) is challenging. It encompasses patients from neonates to young adults with different disorders involving multiple subspecialties. Residents have inadequate exposure to PAG topics and report lack of knowledge in this area. OBJECTIVE: To determine if the North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology (NASPAG) Short Curriculum improves self-reported knowledge in PAG among Obstetrics and Gynecology (ObGyn), Family Medicine and Pediatric residents...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
K Sakai
A total of 668 single units were recorded in the mouse periaqueductal gray (PAG) and adjacent deep mesencephalic nucleus (DpMe) in order to determine their role in the switching of sleep-wake states, i.e. wakefulness (W), slow-wave sleep (SWS), and paradoxical (or rapid eye movement) sleep (PS) in general, and, in particular, to determine whether PS-on and PS-off neurons involved in PS state switching are present in these structures and to identify neuronal substrates for the SWS-PS switching mediated by DpMe neurons...
March 2, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Dajeong Lee, Hyuk Soon Kim, Eunju Shin, Seon-Gil Do, Chong-Kil Lee, Young Mi Kim, Min Bum Lee, Keun Young Min, Jimo Koo, Su Jeong Kim, Seung Taek Nam, Hyun Woo Kim, Young Hwan Park, Wahn Soo Choi
An allergic reaction occurs when the immune system overreacts to harmless substance called allergen that gains access to the body. Food allergy is a hypersensitive immune reaction to food proteins and the number of patients with food allergy has recently increased. Aloe Vera is used for wellness and medicinal purposes. In particular, Aloe vera has been reported to enhance immunity. However, the effect of Aloe vera on food allergy is not yet known. In this study, we investigated the effects of processed Aloe vera gel (PAG) containing low molecular weight Aloe polysaccharide (AP) on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced food allergy in mice...
February 26, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Linda Solstrand Dahlberg, Clas N Linnman, Danielle Lee, Rami Burstein, Lino Becerra, David Borsook
Migraineurs show hypersensitivity to sensory stimuli at various stages throughout the migraine cycle. A number of putative processes have been implicated including a dysfunction in the descending pain modulatory system in which the periaqueductal gray (PAG) is considered to play a crucial role. Recurring migraine attacks could progressively perturb this system, lowering the threshold for future attacks, and contribute to disease chronification. Here, we investigated PAG connectivity with other brain regions during a noxious thermal stimulus to determine changes in migraineurs, and associations with migraine frequency...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Cindy F Yang, Jack L Feldman
The preBötzinger complex (preBötC), a compact medullary region essential for generating normal breathing rhythm and pattern, is the kernel of the breathing central pattern generator (CPG). Excitatory preBötC neurons in rats project to major breathing-related brainstem regions. Here, we provide a brainstem connectivity map in mice for both excitatory and inhibitory preBötC neurons. Using a genetic strategy to label preBötC neurons, we confirmed extensive projections of preBötC excitatory neurons within the brainstem breathing CPG including the contralateral preBötC, Bötzinger Complex (BötC), ventral respiratory group (VRG), nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), parahypoglossal nucleus, parafacial region (RTN/pFRG or alternatively, pFL /pFV ), parabrachial and Kölliker-Füse nuclei, as well as major projections to the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG)...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Siyi Gu, Marta Borowska, Christopher T Boughter, Erin J Adams
Despite playing critical roles in the immune response and having significant potential in immunotherapy, γδ T cells have garnered little of the limelight. One major reason for this paradox is that their antigen recognition mechanisms are largely unknown, limiting our understanding of their biology and our potential to modulate their activity. One of the best-studied γδ subsets is the human Vγ9Vδ2 T cell population, which predominates in peripheral blood and can combat both microbial infections and cancers...
February 19, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Olena Bukalo, Andrew Holmes
In this issue of Neuron, Rozeske et al. (2018) use an ingenuous behavioral paradigm to change pertinent sensory stimuli defining a given context to interrogate how the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) and periaqueductal gray (PAG) interact during contextual fear discrimination.
February 21, 2018: Neuron
Adolfo Senatore, Mario Pisaturo, Domenico Guida
The polyalkylene glycol (PAG) lubricants are widely used as gear, bearing and compressor oils in refrigerant systems. They are designed to provide outstanding benefits in terms of efficiency, long oil life, and equipment protection. These fully synthetic lubricants have been developed for use under operating conditions beyond the capabilities of other synthetic lubricants and mineral oils as their characteristic low pour point ensures excellent fluidity at low-temperature. On the other hand, the main drawback of PAG oils is the marked hygroscopicity, i...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Xiao-Fang Hu, Qiang Zhang, Pan-Pan Zhang, Li-Juan Sun, Ji-Chao Liang, Susan L Morris-Natschke, Yong Chen, Kuo-Hsiung Lee
The aims of the present study were to assess the anti-diabetic effects of Physalis alkekengi L. (PA) in 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte cells and HepG2-GFP-CYP2E1 (E47) cells and in a pre-diabetic rat model, as well as to identify the active chemical constituents. The in vitro results showed that PA has a strong anti-diabetic capacity to relieve oxidative stress and inhibit α-glucosidase activity. Mechanistic analysis also showed that ethyl acetate extracts of aerial parts and fruit of PA (PAG-EA and PAF-EA) enhanced glucose transporter 4 expression and function as well as enhanced insulin sensitivity by inhibiting the expression of cytochrome P450-2E1 (CYP2E1) mRNA and protein...
February 12, 2018: Fitoterapia
Sevasti Gaspari, Immanuel Purushothaman, Valeria Cogliani, Farhana Sakloth, Rachael L Neve, David Howland, Robert H Ring, Elliott M Ross, Li Shen, Venetia Zachariou
Regulator of G protein signaling z1 (RGSz1), a member of the RGS family of proteins, is present in several networks expressing mu opioid receptors (MOPRs). By using genetic mouse models for global or brain region-targeted manipulations of RGSz1 expression, we demonstrated that the suppression of RGSz1 function increases the analgesic efficacy of MOPR agonists in male and female mice and delays the development of morphine tolerance while decreasing the sensitivity to rewarding and locomotor activating effects...
February 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Otto Muzik, Kaice T Reilly, Vaibhav A Diwadkar
The defense of body temperature against environmental thermal challenges is a core objective of homeostatic regulation governed by the autonomic nervous system. Autonomous mechanisms of thermoregulation are only weakly affected by top-down modulation, allowing only transient tolerance for extreme cold. There is however, anecdotal evidence of a unique set of individuals known for extreme cold tolerance. Here we present a case study of a 57-year old Dutch national, Wim Hof, the so-called "Iceman", with the ability to withstand frequent prolonged periods of extreme cold exposure based on the practice of a self-developed technique involving a combination of forced breathing, cold exposure and meditation (collectively referred to as the Wim Hof Method, henceforth "WHM")...
February 10, 2018: NeuroImage
Bruna M Santos, Emanuela G Garattini, Luiz G S Branco, Christie R A Leite-Panissi, Glauce C Nascimento
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenous neuromodulator produced mainly by the enzyme cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE) in peripheral tissues. A pronociceptive role of endogenously produced H2S has been previously reported by our group in a model of orofacial inflammatory pain. Using the established persistent orofacial pain rat model induced by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) injection into temporomandibular joint (TMJ), we have now investigated the putative role of endogenous H2S modulating hypernociceptive responses...
February 6, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
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