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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088038/evidence-of-functional-duplicity-of-nestin-expression-in-the-adult-mouse-midbrain
#1
Parisa Farzanehfar, Shi Sheng Lu, Anupa Dey, Dharshani Musiienko, Hamzah Baagil, Malcolm K Horne, Tim D Aumann
Whether or not neurogenesis occurs in the adult substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) is an important question relevant for developing better treatments for the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). Although controversial, it is generally believed that dividing cells here remain undifferentiated or differentiate into glia, not neurons. However, there is a suggestion that Nestin-expressing neural precursor cells (NPCs) in the adult SNc have a propensity to differentiate into neurons, which we sought to confirm in the present study...
January 5, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057931/the-oprm1-a118g-polymorphism-modulates-the-descending-pain-modulatory-system-for-individual-pain-experience-in-young-women-with-primary-dysmenorrhea
#2
Shyh-Yuh Wei, Li-Fen Chen, Ming-Wei Lin, Wei-Chi Li, Intan Low, Ching-Ju Yang, Hsiang-Tai Chao, Jen-Chuen Hsieh
The mu-opioid receptor (OPRM1) A118G polymorphism underpins different pain sensitivity and opioid-analgesic outcome with unclear effect on the descending pain modulatory system (DPMS). Primary dysmenorrhea (PDM), the most prevalent gynecological problem with clear painful and pain free conditions, serves as a good clinical model of spontaneous pain. The objective of this imaging genetics study was therefore to explore if differences in functional connectivity (FC) of the DPMS between the OPRM1 A118G polymorphisms could provide a possible explanation for the differences in pain experience...
January 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043363/time-dependent-changes-in-pregnancy-associated-glycoproteins-and-progesterone-in-commercial-crossbred-sheep
#3
J N Roberts, K J May, A Veiga-Lopez
The ruminant placenta functions as an endocrine and paracrine organ secreting proteins, growth factors, and steroid hormones, including pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG), proteins with elusive function, which are readily detectable in maternal serum after placental attachment. In sheep, circulating progesterone beyond gestational Day 50 is predominantly of placental origin. The relationship among placental secreted factors, including progesterone, remains uncertain in sheep. The first aim of the study was to determine the relationship between gestational PAG profiles-using two commercial ELISA assays-progesterone, and fetal growth during pregnancy...
February 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043340/using-real-time-pcr-to-identify-pregnancy-associated-glycoprotein-2-pag-2-in-water-buffalo-bubalus-bubalis-blood-in-early-pregnancy
#4
O Barbato, G Guelfi, V L Barile, L Menchetti, C Tortiello, C Canali, G Brecchia, G Traina, J F Beckers, N Melo de Sousa
This study investigates for the first time mRNA pregnancy-associated glycoprotein 2 (PAG-2) expression in blood cells during early pregnancy in water buffalo. The PAGs constitute a large family of glycoproteins expressed in the outer epithelial layer of the placenta in eutherian species. All PAGs are not concomitantly expressed throughout pregnancy; some of them are expressed in the earlier phases, whereas others appear later and are expressed over a shorter period. Twenty-one lactating buffaloes were analyzed-17 females were synchronized with PRID and artificially inseminated (AI), whereas four females were synchronized but not inseminated (control group)...
February 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032002/fmri-functional-connectivity-of-the-periaqueductal-gray-in-ptsd-and-its-dissociative-subtype
#5
Sherain Harricharan, Daniela Rabellino, Paul A Frewen, Maria Densmore, Jean Théberge, Margaret C McKinnon, Allan N Schore, Ruth A Lanius
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with hyperarousal and active fight or flight defensive responses. By contrast, the dissociative subtype of PTSD, characterized by depersonalization and derealization symptoms, is frequently accompanied by additional passive or submissive defensive responses associated with autonomic blunting. Here, the periaqueductal gray (PAG) plays a central role in defensive responses, where the dorsolateral (DL-PAG) and ventrolateral PAG (VL-PAG) are thought to mediate active and passive defensive responses, respectively...
December 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029133/cinnamaldehyde-ameliorates-cadmium-inhibited-root-elongation-in-tobacco-seedlings-via-decreasing-endogenous-hydrogen-sulfide-production
#6
Xie-Feng Ye, Yanfeng Xue, Tianxiao Ling, Yong Wang, Xiao-Na Yu, Changxin Cheng, Guosheng Feng, Liangbin Hu, Zhiqi Shi, Jian Chen
Cinnamaldehyde (CA) is natural plant-derived compound that has been highly appreciated for its medicinal properties. However, little information is known about the regulation of plant intrinsic physiology by CA. To address these gaps, physiological, histochemical, and biochemical approaches were applied to investigate CA-facilitated cadmium (Cd) tolerance in the roots of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) seedlings. Treatment with CdCl₂ at 20 μM for 72 h resulted in the significant decrease in root elongation by 40...
December 24, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019708/revealing-the-inventory-of-type-iii-effectors-in-pantoea-agglomerans-gall-forming-pathovars-by-using-draft-genome-sequences-and-a-machine-learning-approach
#7
Gal Nissan, Michael Gershovits, Michael Morozov, Laura Chalupowicz, Guido Sessa, Shulamit Manulis-Sasson, Isaac Barash, Tal Pupko
Pantoea agglomerans, a widespread epiphytic bacterium, has evolved into a hrp-dependent and host-specific gall-forming pathogen by acquiring a pathogenicity plasmid containing a type III secretion system (T3SS) and its effectors (T3Es). P. agglomerans pv. betae (Pab) elicits galls on beet (Beta vulgaris) and gypsophila (Gypsophila paniculata), whereas P. agglomerans pv. gypsophilae (Pag) incites galls on gypsophila and hypersensitive response (HR) on beet. Draft genome sequences were generated and employed in combination with a machine learning approach and a translocation assay into beet roots to identify the pools of T3Es in the two pathovars...
December 26, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003867/what-makes-a-compliant-phase-iii-and-pre-launch-patient-advocacy-strategy
#8
Nick Hicks, Keith Allan, Christoph Thalheim, Paul Woods
BACKGROUND: A key task for the pharmaceutical industry is to understand the compliance implications of engaging with a patient advocacy group (PAG). This presents challenges for the industry to negotiate the ethical and reputational issues that can arise when working with a PAG. OBJECTIVE: To gain the views of pharmaceutical industry executives on future compliance challenges when working with PAGs. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted two surveys among two sets of industry executives: one group focussed on market access roles and the other focussed on non-market access roles...
2016: Journal of Market Access & Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988316/effect-of-melatonin-injection-into-the-periaqueductal-gray-on-antinociception-and-tonic-immobility-in-male-rats
#9
Abraham Miranda-Páez, Sergio R Zamudio, Priscila Vázquez-León, Vicente Sandoval-Herrera, Ivan Villanueva-Becerril, Giancarlo Carli
Melatonin (MLT) is a neurohormone with significant involvement in several biological functions, of which antinociception and tonic immobility (TI) may be the key neurobehavioral components to survive in adverse conditions such as a predator attack. TI-induced antinociception can be elicited, facilitated, or increased through opioid and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) among other chemical mediators at several levels of the central nervous system, mainly in the periaqueductal gray (PAG). The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the microinjection of MLT into the main PAG regions that are related to different integrated defensive responses, namely dorsal (D) and ventrolateral (VL), on both antinociception through the tail-flick (TF) test and TI duration as single behavioral response and on combined behavioral responses (TF/TI)...
December 15, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974618/neural-correlates-of-fear-in-the-periaqueductal-gray
#10
Thomas C Watson, Nadia L Cerminara, Bridget M Lumb, Richard Apps
: The dorsal and ventral periaqueductal gray (dPAG and vPAG, respectively) are embedded in distinct survival networks that coordinate, respectively, innate and conditioned fear-evoked freezing. However, the information encoded by the PAG during these survival behaviors is poorly understood. Recordings in the dPAG and vPAG in rats revealed differences in neuronal activity associated with the two behaviors. During innate fear, neuronal responses were significantly greater in the dPAG compared with the vPAG...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27969008/impact-of-a-pediatric-and-adolescent-gynecology-curriculum-on-an-obstetrics-and-gynecology-residency
#11
Dawn M Palaszewski, Branko Miladinovic, Petra M Caselnova, Shelly W Holmström
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of a new pediatric and adolescent gynecology (PAG) curriculum for improving obstetrics/gynecology resident physician knowledge and comfort level in patient management and to describe the current deficiencies in resident physician knowledge and comfort level in PAG. DESIGN: A PAG curriculum was implemented for the obstetrics/gynecology resident physicians (n = 20) at the University of South Florida in July 2013. Before and after the curriculum was introduced, resident physicians and recent graduates of the residency program completed a survey to assess their comfort level and a knowledge assessment consisting of 20 case-based questions...
December 2016: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956199/the-path-to-successful-commercialization-of-cell-and-gene-therapies-empowering-patient-advocates
#12
Gerhard Bauer, Mohamed Abou-El-Enein, Alastair Kent, Brian Poole, Miguel Forte
Often, novel gene and cell therapies provide hope for many people living with incurable diseases. To facilitate and accelerate a successful regulatory approval and commercialization path for effective, safe and affordable cell and gene therapies, the involvement of patient advocacy groups (PAGs) should be considered early in the development process. This report provides a thorough overview of the various roles PAGs play in the clinical translation of cell and gene therapies and how they can bring about positive changes in the regulatory process, infrastructure improvements and market stability...
February 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932310/loss-of-dopamine-d1-receptors-and-diminished-d1-5-receptor-mediated-erk-phosphorylation-in-the-periaqueductal-gray-after-spinal-cord-lesion
#13
Pamela J Voulalas, Yadong Ji, Li Jiang, Jamila Asgar, Jin Y Ro, Radi Masri
Neuropathic pain resulting from spinal cord injury is often accompanied by maladaptive plasticity of the central nervous system, including the opioid receptor-rich periaqueductal gray (PAG). Evidence suggests that sensory signaling via the PAG is robustly modulated by dopamine D1- and D2-like receptors, but the effect of damage to the spinal cord on D1 and D2 receptor protein expression and function in the PAG has not been examined. Here we show that 21days after a T10 or C6 spinothalamic tract lesion, both mice and rats display a remarkable decline in the expression of D1 receptors in the PAG, revealed by western blot analysis...
December 5, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926878/the-csk-associated-adaptor-pag-inhibits-effector-t-cell-activation-in-cooperation-with-phosphatase-ptpn22-and-dok-adaptors
#14
Dominique Davidson, Ming-Chao Zhong, Pier Paolo Pandolfi, Silvia Bolland, Ramnik J Xavier, Brian Seed, Xin Li, Hua Gu, André Veillette
The transmembrane adaptor PAG (Cbp) has been proposed to mediate membrane recruitment of Csk, a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinase playing a critical inhibitory role during T cell activation, by inactivating membrane-associated Src kinases. However, this model has not been validated by genetic evidence. Here, we demonstrate that PAG-deficient mice display enhanced T cell activation responses in effector, but not in naive, T cells. PAG-deficient mice also have augmented T cell-dependent autoimmunity and greater resistance to T cell anergy...
December 6, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920523/pegylated-and-nanoparticle-conjugated-sulfonium-salt-photo-triggers-necrotic-cell-death
#15
Alaa A Fadhel, Xiling Yue, Ebrahim H Ghazvini Zadeh, Mykhailo V Bondar, Kevin D Belfield
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) processes involving the production of singlet oxygen face the issue of oxygen concentration dependency. Despite high oxygen delivery, a variety of properties related to metabolism and vascular morphology in cancer cells result in hypoxic environments, resulting in limited effectiveness of such therapies. An alternative oxygen-independent agent whose cell cytotoxicity can be remotely controlled by light may allow access to treatment of hypoxic tumors. Toward that end, we developed and tested both polyethylene glycol (PEG)-functionalized and hydrophilic silica nanoparticle (SiNP)-enriched photoacid generator (PAG) as a nontraditional PDT agent to effectively induce necrotic cell death in HCT-116 cells...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916440/characterisation-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-signalling-in-the-midbrain-periaqueductal-grey-of-rats-genetically-prone-to-heightened-stress-negative-affect-and-hyperalgesia
#16
Bright N Okine, Jessica C Gaspar, Manish K Madasu, Weredeselam M Olango, Brendan Harhen, Michelle Roche, David P Finn
The stress-hyperresponsive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat strain exhibits a hyperalgesic phenotype and is a useful genetic model for studying stress-pain interactions. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signalling in the midbrain periaqueductal grey (PAG) modulates pain. This study characterised PPAR signalling in the PAG of WKY rats exposed to the formalin test of inflammatory pain, versus Sprague-Dawley (SD) controls. Formalin injection reduced levels of the endogenous PPAR ligands N-palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) and N-oleoylethanolamide (OEA) in the lateral(l) PAG of SD rats, but not WKY rats which exhibited higher levels of these analytes compared with formalin-injected SD counterparts...
December 1, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911793/heterogeneous-yet-stable-v%C3%AE-2-t-cell-profiles-define-distinct-cytotoxic-effector-potentials-in-healthy-human-individuals
#17
Paul L Ryan, Nital Sumaria, Christopher J Holland, Claire M Bradford, Natalia Izotova, Capucine L Grandjean, Ali S Jawad, Lesley A Bergmeier, Daniel J Pennington
Human γδ T cells display potent responses to pathogens and malignancies. Of particular interest are those expressing a γδ T-cell receptor (TCR) incorporating TCRδ-chain variable-region-2 [Vδ2((+))], which are activated by pathogen-derived phosphoantigens (pAgs), or host-derived pAgs that accumulate in transformed cells or in cells exposed to aminobisphosphonates. Once activated, Vδ2((+)) T cells exhibit multiple effector functions that have made them attractive candidates for immunotherapy. Despite this, clinical trials have reported mixed patient responses, highlighting a need for better understanding of Vδ2((+)) T-cell biology...
December 13, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895565/challenges-to-the-pair-bond-neural-and-hormonal-effects-of-separation-and-reunion-in-a-monogamous-primate
#18
Katie Hinde, Chelsea Muth, Nicole Maninger, Benjamin J Ragen, Rebecca H Larke, Michael R Jarcho, Sally P Mendoza, William A Mason, Emilio Ferrer, Simon R Cherry, Marina L Fisher-Phelps, Karen L Bales
Social monogamy at its most basic is a group structure in which two adults form a unit and share a territory. However, many socially monogamous pairs display attachment relationships known as pair bonds, in which there is a mutual preference for the partner and distress upon separation. The neural and hormonal basis of this response to separation from the adult pair mate is under-studied. In this project, we examined this response in male titi monkeys (Callicebus cupreus), a socially monogamous New World primate...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873132/mechanisms-of-excessive-extracellular-glutamate-accumulation-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#19
Jan Albrecht, Magdalena Zielińska
There is compelling evidence that initiation and maintenance of epileptic seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is facilitated by excessive accumulation in the extracellular (perisynaptic) space of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate (Glu). This review discusses the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. Glu released from neurons is taken up by astrocytes and activated there by glutamine synthetase (GS) to form glutamine (Gln) which upon entry to neurons is degraded back to Glu by phosphate-activated glutaminase (PAG): this chain of reactions has been defined as the glutamine/glutamate/cycle (GGC)...
November 21, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872027/how-the-emotional-motor-system-controls-the-pelvic-organs
#20
REVIEW
Gert Holstege
INTRODUCTION: The brain has two goals: survival of the individual and survival of the species. It ensures that the body resides in safe circumstances and can obtain sufficient drink and food. It also has to produce and protect offspring. Its most important tool is its motor system, which consists of the voluntary and emotional motor systems. AIM: To explain how the brain uses its emotional motor system to control the pelvic organs. METHODS: Anatomic and physiologic data in cats and humans are used to find out how this motor system works and what parts of the brain and brainstem are involved...
October 2016: Sexual Medicine Reviews
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