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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770919/dl-propargylglycine-protects-against-myocardial-injury-induced-by-chronic-intermittent-hypoxia-through-inhibition-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#1
Xiufang Zhou, Si Tang, Ke Hu, Zhan Zhang, Pei Liu, Yuchuan Luo, Jing Kang, Lifang Xu
BACKGROUND: Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), an important basis of the pathogenesis of organ damage induced by obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), is associated with myocardial injury, such as left ventricular dysfunction, apoptosis, and oxidative stress. Endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) plays an important role in maintaining cardiovascular functions. Many studies have demonstrated that exogenous H2 S has protective effects against myocardial injury induced by various cardiovascular diseases, and inhibiting the generation of endogenous H2 S has opposite effects...
May 16, 2018: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765307/a-novel-integrative-mechanism-in-anxiolytic-behavior-induced-by-galanin-2-neuropeptide-y-y1-receptor-interactions-on-medial-paracapsular-intercalated-amygdala-in-rats
#2
Manuel Narváez, Dasiel O Borroto-Escuela, Luis Santín, Carmelo Millón, Belén Gago, Antonio Flores-Burgess, Miguel A Barbancho, Miguel Pérez de la Mora, José Narváez, Zaida Díaz-Cabiale, Kjell Fuxe
Anxiety is evoked by a threatening situation and display adaptive or defensive behaviors, found similarly in animals and humans. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) Y1 receptor (NPYY1R) and Galanin (GAL) receptor 2 (GALR2) interact in several regions of the limbic system, including the amygdala. In a previous study, GALR2 enhanced NPYY1R mediated anxiolytic actions on spatiotemporal parameters in the open field and elevated plus maze, involving the formation of GALR2/NPYY1R heteroreceptor complexes in the amygdala. Moreover, the inclusion of complementary ethological parameters provides a more comprehensive profile on the anxiolytic effects of a treatment...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751998/does-somatostatin-have-a-role-to-play-in-migraine-headache
#3
REVIEW
Geoffrey A Lambert, Alessandro S Zagami
Migraine is a condition without apparent pathology. Its cardinal symptom is the prolonged excruciating headache. Theories about this pain have posited pathologies which run the gamut from neural to vascular to neurovascular, but no observations have detected a plausible pathology. We believe that no pathology can be found for migraine headache because none exists. Migraine is not driven by pathology - it is driven by neural events produced by triggers - or simply by neural noise- noise that has crossed a critical threshold...
April 17, 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750883/involvement-of-the-periaqueductal-gray-in-the-descending-antinociceptive-effect-induced-by-the-central-nucleus-of-amygdala
#4
N Bourbia, A Pertovaara
Here we studied whether descending control of mechanical nociception by glutamate in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) of healthy control animals is induced by amygdaloid NMDA receptors and relayed through the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG). Mechanical nociception in the hind paws was assessed in rats with chronic guide cannulae for glutamate administration in the right CeA and for inducing local anesthesia in the PAG. In a separate electrophysiological study, ON-like PAG neurons giving an excitatory response to noxious pinch of the tail were recorded in anesthetized rats following glutamate administration into the CeA...
May 10, 2018: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733874/diffuse-noxious-inhibitory-controls-and-brain-networks-are-modulated-in-a-testosterone-dependent-manner-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#5
Joyce T Da Silva, Youping Zhang, Jamila Asgar, Jin Y Ro, David A Seminowicz
Diffuse noxious inhibitory control (DNIC), which involves endogenous pain modulation, has been investigated as a potential mechanism for the differences in pain modulation observed between men and women, though the literature shows contradictory findings. We used a capsaicin-induced DNIC behavioral assay and resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) to assess the effect of testosterone on pain modulation and related brain circuitry in rats. We hypothesized that testosterone is required for DNIC that leads to efficient pain inhibition by increasing descending pain modulation...
May 4, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731756/towards-deciphering-the-hidden-mechanisms-that-contribute-to-the-antigenic-activation-process-of-human-v%C3%AE-9v%C3%AE-2-t-cells
#6
REVIEW
Lola Boutin, Emmanuel Scotet
Vγ9Vδ2 T cells represent a major unconventional γδ T cell subset located in the peripheral blood of adults in humans and several non-human primates. Lymphocytes that constitute this transitional subset can sense subtle level changes of intracellular phosphorylated intermediates of the isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway (phosphoantigens, pAg), such as isopentenyl pyrophosphate, during cell stress events. This unique antigenic activation process operates in a rigorous framework that requires the expression of butyrophilin 3A1 (BTN3A1/CD277) molecules, which are type I glycoproteins that belong to the B7 family...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725363/overexpression-of-csk-binding-protein-phosphoprotein-associated-with-glycosphingolipid-enriched-microdomains-induces-cluster-of-differentiation-59-mediated-apoptosis-in-jurkat-cells
#7
Bei-Bei Cong, Mei-Hua Gao, Bing Li, Bing Wang, Bei Zhang, Li-Na Wang, Shu-Chao Zhang, Hua-Qiao Li, Zhong Wang, Shu-Yi Han
Csk-binding protein/phosphoprotein associated with glycosphingolipid-enriched microdomains (CBP/PAG) is a membrane-bound adaptor protein that downregulates the activation of Src family kinases present in lipid rafts. To elucidate the role of CBP/PAG in human T cell activation, a cell line overexpressing CBP/PAG was constructed and the function of CBP/PAG in Jurkat cells was examined. The present study revealed that increased CBP/PAG expression in T cells significantly enhanced their apoptosis and reduced cellular activation and proliferation...
May 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722912/region-specific-deletions-of-the-glutamate-transporter-glt1-differentially-affect-nerve-injury-induced-neuropathic-pain-in-mice
#8
Zhuoyang Zhao, Yuichi Hiraoka, Hiroshi Ogawa, Kohichi Tanaka
Glutamate is a major excitatory neurotransmitter and plays an important role in neuropathic pain, which is frequently caused by nerve damage. According to recent studies, nerve injury induces changes in glutamatergic transmission in the spinal cord and several supraspinal regions, including the periaqueductal gray (PAG). Among glutamate signaling components, accumulating evidence suggests that the glial glutamate transporter GLT1 plays a critical role in neuropathic pain. Indeed, GLT1 expression is reduced in the spinal cord but increased in the PAG after nerve injury, suggesting that the role of GLT1 in neuropathic pain may vary according to the brain region...
May 3, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721768/altered-resting-state-functional-connectivity-of-the-cognitive-control-network-in-fibromyalgia-and-the-modulation-effect-of-mind-body-intervention
#9
Jian Kong, Emily Wolcott, Zengjian Wang, Kristen Jorgenson, William F Harvey, Jing Tao, Ramel Rones, Chenchen Wang
This study examines altered resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the cognitive control network (CCN) in fibromyalgia patients as compared to healthy controls, as well as how an effective mind-body intervention, Tai Chi, can modulate the altered rsFC of the CCN. Patients with fibromyalgia and matched healthy subjects were recruited in this study. Fibromyalgia patients were scanned 12 weeks before and after intervention. The bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) was used as a seed to explore the rsFC of the CCN...
May 2, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717548/expression-and-activation-of-horseradish-peroxidase-protein-a-g-fusion-protein-in-silkworm-larvae-for-diagnostic-purposes
#10
Patmawati Xxxx, Kosuke Minamihata, Tsuneyuki Tatsuke, Jae Man Lee, Takahiro Kusakabe, Noriho Kamiya
Recombinant protein production can create artificial proteins with desired functions by introducing genetic modifications to the target proteins. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) has been used extensively as a reporter enzyme in biotechnological applications; however, recombinant production of HRP has not been very successful, hampering the utilization of HRP with genetic modifications. A fusion protein comprising an antibody binding protein and HRP will be an ideal bio-probe for high-quality HRP-based diagnostic systems...
March 25, 2018: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716191/light-switchable-self-assembly-of-non-photoresponsive-gold-nanoparticles
#11
Yuming Cheng, Jinfeng Dong, Xuefeng Li
Herein, an interesting light-induced self-assembly behavior from non-photoresponsive gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) was reported. In specifically, a pH-responsive amphiphile SPB, 4-[1-(lipoic acid ester-polyethylene glycol (11-13)-ester)]-phenylboronic acid, was developed that contained a particular phenylboronic acid moiety and showed excellent surface activity at the neutral and basic conditions, and thereby stabilizing Au NPs well. Accordingly, the SPB-functionalized Au NPs showed strong pH-dependence that there presented the pH-induced reversible self-assembly behavior...
May 2, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705694/the-level-and-pattern-of-physical-activity-among-fifth-grade-students-in-ho-chi-minh-city-vietnam
#12
Q G To, D Gallegos, D V Do, H T M Tran, K G To, L Wharton, S G Trost
OBJECTIVES: Despite the benefits of physical activity (PA), a significant proportion of children do not meet physical activity guidelines (PAGs). However, most studies were among secondary-school-aged youth and relied on PA self-report. In addition, information regarding children's PA behaviors during specific segments of day/week is not usually collected. This study, therefore, investigated the level and pattern of PA among fifth-grade students in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. STUDY DESIGN: A complex cross-sectional survey was conducted on a representative sample of 619 fifth-grade students in eight public schools in urban areas of HCMC in 2016...
April 26, 2018: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695413/altered-excitability-and-local-connectivity-of-mpfc-pag-neurons-in-a-mouse-model-of-neuropathic-pain
#13
John Cheriyan, Patrick L Sheets
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) plays a major role in both sensory and affective aspects of pain. There is extensive evidence that chronic pain produces functional changes within the mPFC. However, our understanding of local circuit changes to defined subpopulations of mPFC neurons in chronic pain models remains unclear. A major subpopulation of mPFC neurons project to the periaqueductal gray (PAG) which is a key midbrain structure involved in endogenous pain suppression and facilitation. Here, we used laser scanning photostimulation of caged glutamate to map cortical circuits of retrogradely-labeled cortico-PAG (CP) neurons in layer 5 (L5) of mPFC in brain slices prepared from male mice having undergone chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670629/regulation-of-human-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-by-btn3a1-protein-stability-and-atp-binding-cassette-transporters
#14
David A Rhodes, Hung-Chang Chen, James C Williamson, Alfred Hill, Jack Yuan, Sam Smith, Harriet Rhodes, John Trowsdale, Paul J Lehner, Thomas Herrmann, Matthias Eberl
Activation of human Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells by "phosphoantigens" (pAg), the microbial metabolite ( E )-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate (HMB-PP) and the endogenous isoprenoid intermediate isopentenyl pyrophosphate, requires expression of butyrophilin BTN3A molecules by presenting cells. However, the precise mechanism of activation of Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells by BTN3A molecules remains elusive. It is not clear what conformation of the three BTN3A isoforms transmits activation signals nor how externally delivered pAg accesses the cytosolic B30...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670018/identification-of-placental-aspartic-proteinase-in-the-eurasian-beaver-castor-fiber-l
#15
Aleksandra Lipka, Grzegorz Panasiewicz, Marta Majewska, Lukasz Paukszto, Martyna Bieniek-Kobuszewska, Bozena Szafranska
Aspartic proteinases (AP) form a multigenic group widely distributed in various organisms and includes pepsins (pep), cathepsins D and E, pregnancy associated glycoproteins (PAGs) as well as plant, fungal, and retroviral proteinases. This study describes the transcript identification and expression localization of the AP within the discoid placenta of the Castor fiber . We identified 1257 bp of the AP cDNA sequence, encoding 391 amino acids (aa) of the polypeptide precursor composed of 16 aa signal peptide, 46 aa pro-piece, and 329 aa of the mature protein...
April 18, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662445/dysregulation-of-pain-and-emotion-related-networks-in-trigeminal-neuralgia
#16
Yanyang Zhang, Zhiqi Mao, Longsheng Pan, Zhipei Ling, Xinyun Liu, Jun Zhang, Xinguang Yu
Classical trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a severe neuropathic facial pain disorder associated with increased risks of anxiety and depression. Converging evidence suggests that chronic pain pathophysiology involves dysfunctional pain-related and emotion-related networks. However, whether these systems are also among the culprit networks for TN remains unclear. Here, we aimed to assess TN-related anatomical and functional brain anomalies in pain-related and emotion-related networks. We investigated differences in gray matter (GM) volume and the related resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) between 29 classical TN patients and 34 matched healthy controls...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623029/hypersensitivity-of-prelimbic-cortex-neurons-contributes-to-aggravated-nociceptive-responses-in-rats-with-experience-of-chronic-inflammatory-pain
#17
Xiao-Cen Fan, Su Fu, Feng-Yu Liu, Shuang Cui, Ming Yi, You Wan
Previous experience of chronic pain causes enhanced responses to upcoming noxious events in both humans and animals, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we found that rats with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced chronic inflammatory pain experience exhibited aggravated pain responses to later formalin test. Enhanced neuronal activation upon formalin assaults and increased phosphorylated cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) were observed in the prelimbic cortex (PL) of rats with chronic inflammatory pain experience, and inhibiting PL neuronal activities reversed the aggravated pain...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615329/individuals-affected-by-eosinophilic-gastrointestinal-disorders-have-complex-unmet-needs-and-frequently-experience-unique-barriers-to-care
#18
Girish Hiremath, Ellyn Kodroff, Mary J Strobel, Melissa Scott, Wendy Book, Cathy Reidy, Shay Kyle, Denise Mack, Kathleen Sable, Pablo Abonia, Jonathan Spergel, Sandeep K Gupta, T Glenn Furuta, Marc E Rothenberg, Evan S Dellon
INTRODUCTION: Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (EGIDs) are a rare but emerging healthcare problem. Patient advocacy groups (PAGs) have an important role in representing the EGID community, and serve as valuable research partners. By leveraging the partnership between medical researchers and PAGs, we examined the unmet needs and barriers to care perceived by individuals affected by EGIDs. Next, we examined if these varied between adult EGID patients and adult caregivers of children with EGID...
March 31, 2018: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605257/antimicrobial-and-anticancer-potential-of-low-molecular-weight-polypeptides-extracted-and-characterized-from-leaves-of-azadirachta-indica
#19
Mohammed Al Saiqali, Anjana Devi Tangutur, Chandrasekhar Banoth, Bhima Bhukya
Low molecular weight antimicrobial polypeptides were extracted and purified from the young fresh leaves of Azadirachta indica (neem). The total protein extracted was precipitated with 15% TCA-Acetone. The total purified proteins yielded from the two extraction methods were 122.33 ± 2.21 and 115.09 ± 1.88 mg/g of the total fresh weight. The SDS-PAGE analysis identified the presence of eight low molecular weight polypeptide bands. The antimicrobial activity of the resolved bands was detected by Polyacrylamide gel-Agar overlay diffusion assay (PAG-ADA)...
March 29, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596901/periaqueductal-gray-glutamatergic-cannabinoid-and-vanilloid-receptor-interplay-in-defensive-behavior-and-aversive-memory-formation
#20
Franklin P Back, Antonio P Carobrez
Stimulation of the midbrain periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) in humans elicits sensations of fear and impending terror, and mediates predator defensive responses in rodents. In rats, pharmacological stimulation of the dorsolateral portion of the PAG (dlPAG) with N-Methyl-d-Aspartate (NMDA) induces aversive conditioning that acts as an unconditioned stimulus (US). In the present work, we investigated the interplay between the vanilloid TRPV1 and cannabinoid CB1 receptors in the NMDA-dlPAG defensive response and in subsequent aversive learning...
March 26, 2018: Neuropharmacology
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