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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326231/linked-networks-for-learning-and-expressing-location-specific-threat
#1
Benjamin Suarez-Jimenez, James A Bisby, Aidan J Horner, John A King, Daniel S Pine, Neil Burgess
Learning locations of danger within our environment is a vital adaptive ability whose neural bases are only partially understood. We examined fMRI brain activity while participants navigated a virtual environment in which flowers appeared and were "picked." Picking flowers in the danger zone (one-half of the environment) predicted an electric shock to the wrist (or "bee sting"); flowers in the safe zone never predicted shock; and household objects served as controls for neutral spatial memory. Participants demonstrated learning with shock expectancy ratings and skin conductance increases for flowers in the danger zone...
January 11, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318857/-effect-of-electroacupuncture-on-expression-of-5-ht7-receptor-in-periaqueductal-gray-and-plasma-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-in-migraine-rats
#2
Pei Pei, Huai-Zhen Chen, Yan-Xin Wang, Wen-Ming Yang, Lu Liu, Lin-Peng Wang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the analgesic effect of electroacupuncture(EA)by modulating 5-hydroxytryptamine 7 (5-HT7) receptor in periaqueductal gray (PAG) and plasma calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). METHODS: Forty-two male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into control,model and EA groups, 14 rat in each one. The neurogenic migraine model was established by repeated electrical stimulation on sagittal sinus duramater. Intracranial electrodes were used in the control group without stimuli...
December 25, 2017: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305892/the-involvement-of-the-pathway-connecting-the-substantia-nigra-the-periaqueductal-gray-matter-and-the-retrotrapezoid-nucleus-in-breathing-control-in-a-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Juliana C Lima, Luiz M Oliveira, Marina T Botelho, Thiago S Moreira, Ana C Takakura
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by a reduction in the number of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra (SNpc), accompanied by motor and non-motor deficiencies such as respiratory failure. Here, our aim was to investigate possible neuronal communications between the SNpc and chemoreceptor neurons within the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN), in order to explain neurodegeneration and the loss of breathing function in the 6-OHDA PD animal model. Male Wistar rats received tracer injections in the SNpc, RTN and periaqueductal gray (PAG) regions to investigate the projections between those regions...
January 4, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304042/periaqueductal-efferents-to-dopamine-and-gaba-neurons-of-the-vta
#4
Niels R Ntamati, Meaghan Creed, Ridouane Achargui, Christian Lüscher
Neurons in the periaqueductal gray (PAG) modulate threat responses and nociception. Activity in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) on the other hand can cause reinforcement and aversion. While in many situations these behaviors are related, the anatomical substrate of a crosstalk between the PAG and VTA remains poorly understood. Here we describe the anatomical and electrophysiological organization of the VTA-projecting PAG neurons. Using rabies-based, cell type-specific retrograde tracing, we observed that PAG to VTA projection neurons are evenly distributed along the rostro-caudal axis of the PAG, but concentrated in its posterior and ventrolateral segments...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288085/redox-responsive-polymeric-micelles-formed-by-conjugating-gambogic-acid-with-bioreducible-poly-amido-amine-s-for-the-co-delivery-of-docetaxel-and-mmp-9-shrna
#5
Yanan Kang, Lu Lu, Jinshuai Lan, Yue Ding, Jing Yang, Yong Zhang, Yuan Zhao, Tong Zhang, Rodney J Y Ho
A novel redox-sensitive system for co-delivering hydrophobic drugs and hydrophilic siRNA or shRNA was developed by conjugating gambogic acid (GA) with poly(amido amine)s (PAAs) through amide bonds, which is called GA-conjugated PAAs (PAG). PAG can self-assemble into micelles as amphiphilic block copolymers, which exhibits an excellent loading ability for the co-delivery of docetaxel (DTX) and MMP-9 shRNA with adjustable dosing ratios. In addition, confocal microscopy, flow cytometry and in vitro transfection analyses demonstrated more efficient cellular internalization of DTX and MMP-9 shRNA after incubation with PAG/DTX- MMP-9 shRNA micelles (PAG/DTX-shRNA) than with free drugs...
December 26, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275034/the-ability-to-predict-pregnancy-loss-in-cattle-with-elisas-that-detect-pregnancy-associated-glycoproteins-is-antibody-dependent
#6
Ahmed O Gatea, Michael F Smith, Ky G Pohler, Tina Egen, Marcos H C Pereira, José L M Vasconselos, John C Lawrence, Jonathan A Green
The concentration of circulating pregnancy associated glycoproteins (PAGs) early in pregnancy may serve as markers to predict late embryonic mortality or fetal mortality in cattle. In this study, pregnancies were established in dairy cows, by either fixed-time AI (FTAI) or fixed-time embryo transfer (FTET) with in vitro produced embryos. Circulating PAGs were measured with different combinations of antibodies in either a laboratory-based ELISA or a commercial ELISA. For the in-house ELISA, three monoclonal 'trapping' antibodies (A6, J2, and L4) and two polyclonal 'detection' antisera (antibodies F2 or 45) were used to quantify PAGs in serum from the same cows...
December 14, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234283/high-fat-diet-decreases-neuronal-activation-in-the-brain-induced-by-resistin-and-leptin
#7
Naif Alsuhaymi, Hamza Habeeballah, Martin J Stebbing, Emilio Badoer
Resistin and leptin are adipokines which act in the brain to regulate metabolic and cardiovascular functions which in some instances are similar, suggesting activation of some common brain pathways. High-fat feeding can reduce the number of activated neurons observed following the central administration of leptin in animals, but the effects on resistin are unknown. The present work compared the distribution of neurons in the brain that are activated by centrally administered resistin, or leptin alone, and, in combination, in rats fed a high fat (HFD) compared to a normal chow diet (ND)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232172/halo-202-randomized-phase-ii-study-of-pegph20-plus-nab-paclitaxel-gemcitabine-versus-nab-paclitaxel-gemcitabine-in-patients-with-untreated-metastatic-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma
#8
Sunil R Hingorani, Lei Zheng, Andrea J Bullock, Tara E Seery, William P Harris, Darren S Sigal, Fadi Braiteh, Paul S Ritch, Mark M Zalupski, Nathan Bahary, Paul E Oberstein, Andrea Wang-Gillam, Wilson Wu, Dimitrios Chondros, Ping Jiang, Sihem Khelifa, Jie Pu, Carrie Aldrich, Andrew E Hendifar
Purpose Metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is characterized by excessive hyaluronan (HA) accumulation in the tumor microenvironment, elevating interstitial pressure and impairing perfusion. Preclinical studies demonstrated pegvorhyaluronidase alfa (PEGPH20) degrades HA, thereby increasing drug delivery. Patients and Methods Patients with previously untreated metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma were randomly assigned to treatment with PEGPH20 plus nab-paclitaxel/gemcitabine (PAG) or nab-paclitaxel/gemcitabine (AG)...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228908/self-reported-dietary-adherence-disease-specific-symptoms-and-quality-of-life-are-associated-with-healthcare-provider-follow-up-in-celiac-disease
#9
Jacob J Hughey, Bonnie K Ray, Anne R Lee, Kristin N Voorhees, Ciaran P Kelly, Detlef Schuppan
BACKGROUND: The only treatment for celiac disease (CeD) is a lifelong gluten-free diet (GFD). The restrictive nature of the GFD makes adherence a challenge. As an integral part of CeD management, multiple professional organizations recommend regular follow-up with a healthcare provider (HCP). Many CeD patients also participate in patient advocacy groups (PAGs) for education and support. Previous work found that follow-up of CeD patients is highly variable. Here we investigated the self-reported factors associated with HCP follow-up among individuals diagnosed with CeD who participate in a PAG...
December 11, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214563/rare-diseases-joining-mainstream-research-and-treatment-based-on-reliable-epidemiological-data
#10
Stephen C Groft, Manuel Posada de la Paz
Despite growing acceptance of patient registries and natural history studies to provide useful information, the rare disease community suffers from the absence of reliable epidemiological data on the prevalence and incidence of most rare diseases in national and global populations. Likewise, the patients and health care providers lack adequate information on the pathophysiology of rare diseases and expected outcomes of these disorders. The rare diseases community includes all of the stakeholders involved in the research and development and dissemination of products and information for the diagnosis, prevention or treatment of rare diseases or conditions...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209161/electroacupuncture-attenuates-visceral-hypersensitivity-by-inhibiting-jak2-stat3-signaling-pathway-in-the-descending-pain-modulation-system
#11
Juan Wan, Yi Ding, Adnan H Tahir, Manoj K Shah, Habibullah Janyaro, Xiaojing Li, Juming Zhong, Vitaly Vodyanoy, Mingxing Ding
Electroacupuncture (EA) has been used for treating visceral hypersensitivity (VH). However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. This study was aim to testify the effect of EA on ileitis-provoked VH, and to confirm whether EA attenuates VH through Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)/signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway in the periaqueductal gray (PAG)-the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM)-the spinal cord dorsal horn (SCDH) axis. Methods: Goats were anesthetized and laparotomized for injecting 2,4,6-trinitro-benzene-sulfonic acid (TNBS)-ethanol solution (30mg TNBS dissolved in 40% ethanol) into the ileal wall to induce VH...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207994/the-functional-and-molecular-studies-on-involvement-of-hydrogen-sulphide-in-myometrial-activity-of-non-pregnant-buffaloes-bubalus-bubalis
#12
Sooraj V Nair, Vipin Sharma, Abhishek Sharma, Udayraj P Nakade, Pooja Jaitley, Karikalan Mathesh, Soumen Choudhury, Satish Kumar Garg
BACKGROUND: Hydrogen sulphide (H2S), a member of the gasotransmitters family, is known to play patho-physiological role in different body systems including during pregnancy. But its involvement in myometrial spontaneity and associated signalling pathways in uterus in non-pregnant animals is yet to be studied. Present study describes the effect of L-cysteine, an endogenous H2S donor, on isolated myometrial strips of non-pregnant buffaloes and the underlying signaling mechanism(s). RESULTS: L-cysteine (10 nM-30 mM) produced concentration-dependent contractile effect on buffalo myometrium which was extracellular Ca2+ and L-type calcium channels-dependent...
December 6, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203367/cross-talk-between-hydrogen-sulfide-and-carbon-monoxide-in-the-mechanism-of-experimental-gastric-ulcers-healing-regulation-of-gastric-blood-flow-and-accompanying-inflammation
#13
Marcin Magierowski, Katarzyna Magierowska, Magdalena Hubalewska-Mazgaj, Marcin Surmiak, Zbigniew Sliwowski, Mateusz Wierdak, Slawomir Kwiecien, Anna Chmura, Tomasz Brzozowski
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and carbon monoxide (CO) exert gastroprotection against acute gastric lesions. We determined the cross-talk between H2S and CO in gastric ulcer healing process and regulation of gastric blood flow (GBF) at ulcer margin. Male Wistar rats with acetic acid-induced gastric ulcers were treated i.g. throughout 9 days with vehicle (control), NaHS (0.1-10 mg/kg) +/- zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP, 10 mg/kg), d,l-propargylglycine (PAG, 30 mg/kg), CO-releasing CORM-2 (2.5 mg/kg) +/- PAG. GBF was assessed by laser flowmetry, ulcer area was determined by planimetry/histology...
December 1, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199028/sex-dependent-influences-of-morphine-and-its-metabolites-on-pain-sensitivity-in-the-rat
#14
H H Doyle, A Z Murphy
Preclinical studies report that the effective dose for morphine is approximately 2-fold higher in females than males. Following systemic administration, morphine is metabolized via Phase II glucuronidation in the liver and brain into two active metabolites: morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G), each possessing distinct pharmacological profiles. M6G binds to μ opioid receptors and acts as a potent analgesic. In contrast, M3G binds to toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), initiating a neuroinflammatory response that directly opposes the analgesic effects of morphine and M6G...
November 30, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191577/electrical-stimulation-of-the-insular-cortex-as-a-novel-target-for-the-relief-of-refractory-pain-an-experimental-approach-in-rodents
#15
Luiz Fabio Dimov, Elaine Flamia Toniolo, Heloísa Alonso-Matielo, Daniel Ciampi de Andrade, Luis Garcia-Larrea, Gerson Ballester, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, Camila Squarzoni Dale
Cortical electrical stimulation (CES) has shown to be an effective therapeutic alternative for neuropathic pain refractory to pharmacological treatment. The primary motor cortex(M1) was the main cortical target used in the vast majority of both invasive and non-invasive studies. Despite positive results M1-based approaches still fail to relieve pain in a significant proportion of individuals. It has been advocated that the direct stimulation of cortical areas directly implicated in the central integration of pain could increase the efficacy of analgesic brain stimulation...
November 27, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188533/effects-of-homocysteine-and-its-related-compounds-on-oxygen-consumption-of-the-rat-heart-tissue-homogenate-the-role-of-different-gasotransmitters
#16
Jovana Jakovljević Uzelac, Marina Stanić, Danijela Krstić, Mirjana Čolović, Dragan Djurić
The objective of this study was to investigate in vitro effects of 10 µM DL-homocysteine (DL-Hcy), DL-homocysteine thiolactone-hydrochloride (DL-Hcy TLHC), and L-homocysteine thiolactone-hydrochloride (L-Hcy TLHC) on the oxygen consumption of rat heart tissue homogenate, as well as the involvement of the gasotransmitters NO, H2S and CO in the effects of the most toxic homocysteine compound, DL-Hcy TLHC. The possible contribution of the gasotransmitters in these effects was estimated by using the appropriate inhibitors of their synthesis (N ω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), DL-propargylglycine (DL-PAG), and zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPR IX), respectively)...
November 29, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187695/microrna-21-regulated-activation-of-the-akt-pathway-participates-in-the-protective-effects-of-h2s-against-liver-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#17
Meng Lu, Xian Jiang, Liquan Tong, Feng Zhang, Lin Ma, Xuesong Dong, Xueying Sun
Maintaining a certain level of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) is essential for limiting injury to the liver. Exogenous H2S exerts protective effects against this injury, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Liver injury was induced in Wistar rats undergoing hepatic I/R for 30 min, followed by a 3-h reperfusion. Administration of GYY4137 (a slow-releasing H2S donor) significantly attenuated the severity of liver injury and was reflected by reduced inflammatory cytokine production and cell apoptosis, the levels of which were elevated by I/R, while DL-propargylglycine (PAG, an inhibitor of cystathionine γ-lyase [CSE]) aggravated liver injury...
November 30, 2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163482/current-advances-in-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-based-tumor-immunotherapy
#18
REVIEW
Elena Lo Presti, Gabriele Pizzolato, Eliana Gulotta, Gianfranco Cocorullo, Gaspare Gulotta, Francesco Dieli, Serena Meraviglia
γδ T cells are a minor population (~5%) of CD3 T cells in the peripheral blood, but abound in other anatomic sites such as the intestine or the skin. There are two major subsets of γδ T cells: those that express Vδ1 gene, paired with different Vγ elements, abound in the intestine and the skin, and recognize the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-related molecules such as MHC class I-related molecule A, MHC class I-related molecule B, and UL16-binding protein expressed on many stressed and tumor cells...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160143/some-autonomic-deficits-of-acute-or-chronic-cervical-spinal-contusion-reversed-by-interim-brainstem-stimulation
#19
Alberto A Vitores, Stephanie S Sloley, Catalina Martinez, Melissa M Carballosa-Gautam, Ian D Hentall
Prolonged electrical stimulation of the hindbrain's nucleus raphe magnus (NRM) or its major midbrain input region, the periaqueductal gray (PAG), was previously found in rats to promote recovery from sensory-motor and histological deficits of acute thoracic spinal cord injury (SCI). Here, some visceral deficits of acute and chronic midline cervical (C5) contusion are similarly examined. Cranially implanted wireless stimulators delivered intermittent 8 Hz, 30-70 µA cathodal pulse trains to a brainstem microelectrode...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126216/pager-2-0-an-update-to-the-pathway-annotated-list-and-gene-signature-electronic-repository-for-human-network-biology
#20
Zongliang Yue, Qi Zheng, Michael T Neylon, Minjae Yoo, Jimin Shin, Zhiying Zhao, Aik Choon Tan, Jake Y Chen
Integrative Gene-set, Network and Pathway Analysis (GNPA) is a powerful data analysis approach developed to help interpret high-throughput omics data. In PAGER 1.0, we demonstrated that researchers can gain unbiased and reproducible biological insights with the introduction of PAGs (Pathways, Annotated-lists and Gene-signatures) as the basic data representation elements. In PAGER 2.0, we improve the utility of integrative GNPA by significantly expanding the coverage of PAGs and PAG-to-PAG relationships in the database, defining a new metric to quantify PAG data qualities, and developing new software features to simplify online integrative GNPA...
November 8, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
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