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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926472/differential-sensitivity-of-presynaptic-and-postsynaptic-gabab-receptors-in-rat-ventrolateral-periaqueductal-gray
#1
Qian Chen, Caifeng Shao, Hui Zhou, Rui Ma, Ping Jiang, Kun Yang
The ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (PAG) in the midbrain plays a key role in the descending pain modulatory system. γ-Aminobutyric acid type B (GABAB) receptors belong to a metabotropic receptor subfamily and mediate both presynaptic and postsynaptic effects in PAG. It has been well documented that activation of GABAB receptors yields analgesia in some PAG subdivisions. In the present study, employing whole-cell patch-clamp recordings on acute rat PAG slices, we simultaneously monitored the responses of presynaptic and postsynaptic GABAB receptors...
September 18, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919148/creation-and-dissemination-of-a-multispecialty-gme-curriculum-in-pediatric-and-adolescent-gynecology-the-naspag-resident-education-committee-experiences
#2
Carol Wheeler, K J Browner-Elhanan, Yolanda Evans, Nathalie Fleming, Patricia S Huguelet, Nicole W Karjane, Meredith Loveless, Hina J Talib, Paritosh Kaul
OBJECTIVE: The goal was to develop a multispecialty committee to address deficiencies in pediatric and adolescent gynecology resident education through curricular development under the auspices of the North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. DESIGN: A multispecialty North American committee was organized to develop both short and long curricula in pediatric and adolescent gynecology (PAG) through a combination of conference calls and face-to-face meetings...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903866/a-bayesian-latent-class-model-to-estimate-the-accuracy-of-pregnancy-diagnosis-by-transrectal-ultrasonography-and-laboratory-detection-of-pregnancy-associated-glycoproteins-in-dairy-cows
#3
G T Fosgate, B Motimele, A Ganswindt, P C Irons
Accurate diagnosis of pregnancy is an essential component of an effective reproductive management plan for dairy cattle. Indirect methods of pregnancy detection can be performed soon after breeding and offer an advantage over traditional direct methods in not requiring an experienced veterinarian and having potential for automation. The objective of this study was to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) detection ELISA and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) in dairy cows of South Africa using a Bayesian latent class approach...
September 15, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901018/reproductive-morphology-and-its-application-in-testing-molecular-systematic-hypotheses-in-the-family-gobiidae-teleostei-gobiiformes
#4
M D Burns, K S Cole
This study uses histological techniques to make a detailed comparison of the reproductive morphologies of four gobiid genera, Amblyeleotris, Ctenogobiops, Fusigobius and Kraemeria. Three distinct reproductive morphological patterns were observed. All species examined in the genus Fusigobius exhibit either an ovariform or testiform gonad and precursive accessory gonadal structures (pAGS) associated with each of the gonadal lobes, regardless of gonadal state. In contrast, among species of Amblyeleotris, Ctenogobiops and Kraemeria examined, pAGS were not found...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888854/quantitation-of-phenylbutyrate-metabolites-by-uplc-ms-ms-demonstrates-inverse-correlation-of-phenylacetate-phenylacetylglutamine-ratio-with-plasma-glutamine-levels
#5
Yi Jiang, Mohammed Almannai, V Reid Sutton, Qin Sun, Sarah H Elsea
Urea cycle disorders (UCDs) are genetic conditions characterized by nitrogen accumulation in the form of ammonia and caused by defects in the enzymes required to convert ammonia to urea for excretion. UCDs include a spectrum of enzyme deficiencies, namely n-acetylglutamate synthase deficiency (NAGS), carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency (CPS1), ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTC), argininosuccinate lyase deficiency (ASL), citrullinemia type I (ASS1), and argininemia (ARG). Currently, sodium phenylbutyrate and glycerol phenylbutyrate are primary medications used to treat patients with UCDs, and long-term monitoring of these compounds is critical for preventing drug toxic levels...
August 31, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888122/interferon-%C3%AF-induced-gene-expression-in-bovine-hepatocytes-during-early-pregnancy
#6
B Ruhmann, K Giller, A K Hankele, S E Ulbrich, M Schmicke
Interferon-tau (IFNτ) is the conceptus derived specific early pregnancy signal in bovidae. Locally, IFNτ induces an IFNτ specific gene expression (ISG) in endometrial cells and by this it averts luteolysis of the corpus luteum (CL) by suppressing prostaglandin production. Moreover, it was shown that IFNτ also induces ISG in the liver in pregnant sheep and in liver biopsies from Holstein Friesian heifers on Day 18 of pregnancy. The objective of the present study was to confirm increased hepatic ISG in vivo on Day 18 of pregnancy and to prove if hepatocytes and not non-parenchymal cells react to IFNτ by using immunohistochemistry and primary bovine hepatocytes stimulated in vitro with recombinant bovine IFNτ...
July 31, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882474/postpartum-inhibition-of-ovarian-steroid-action-increases-aspects-of-maternal-caregiving-and-reduces-medial-preoptic-area-progesterone-receptor-expression-in-female-rats
#7
Z A Grieb, S M Tierney, J S Lonstein
The rapid peripartum onset of maternal caregiving involves progesterone synergizing with estradiol, but prolonging progesterone exposure past this time can prevent the emergence of mothering. Interestingly, there is a 7-10day-long rise in progesterone during mid-lactation, but its effects on mothering are unknown. Given progesterone's potential to inhibit mothering onset, this mid-lactational rise may contribute to the normal attenuation of caregiving behaviors across lactation. To evaluate this, recently-parturient rats were ovariectomized and caregiving observed from postpartum days (PPD) 7-18...
September 16, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876067/kinetic-analysis-of-the-multivalent-ligand-binding-interaction-between-protein-a-g-and-igg-a-standard-system-setting
#8
Peter P Reader, Andrew M Shaw
Recombinant protein A/G (PAG) has a sequence coding for eight IgG binding sites and has enhanced interspecies affinity. High-frequency sampling of a PAG titration with IgG produces concentration profiles that are sensitive to the kinetic availability of the binding sites. The full kinetic model developed here for IgG binding sequentially to PAG shows only two distinct kinetic processes, describing an initial rapid association of two antibodies to PAG with a rate constant k-fast = (1.86 ± 0.08) × 10(6) M(-1) s(-1) and a slower antibody binding process to all remaining sites, k-slow = (1...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875540/the-physiological-motor-patterns-produced-by-neurons-in-the-nucleus-retroambiguus-in-the-rat-and-their-modulation-by-vagal-peripheral-chemosensory-and-nociceptive-stimulation
#9
Hari H Subramanian, Zheng-Gui Huang, Peter A Silburn, Ron J Balnave, Gert Holstege
The nucleus retroambiguus (NRA) is a neuronal cell group in the medullary ventrolateral tegmentum, rostrocaudally between the obex and the first cervical spinal segment. NRA neurons are premotor interneurons with direct projections to the motoneurons of soft palate, pharynx and larynx in the nucleus ambiguus in the lateral medulla as well as to the motoneurons in the spinal cord innervating diaphragm, abdominal, and pelvic floor muscles and the lumbosacral motoneurons generating sexual posture. These NRA premotor interneurons receive very strong projections from the periaqueductal gray (PAG) in the context of basic survival mechanisms as fight, flight, freezing, sound production and sexual behavior...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864014/glycosylation-and-immunocytochemistry-of-binucleate-cells-in-pronghorn-antilocapra-americana-antilocapridae-show-features-of-both-giraffidae-and-bovidae
#10
Carolyn J P Jones, W J Silvia, C H Hamilton, T W Geary, A L Zezeski, F B P Wooding
Although the pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) resembles an antelope, its nearest relatives are the giraffe and okapi. In this study we have examined the placentae of 6 pronghorns using lectin- and immunocytochemistry to identify giraffid and bovid features. Binucleate cells (BNC) of the placenta exhibited features intermediate between those of the giraffe and bovine; Dolichos biflorus agglutinin binding - strong in the bovine BNC and absent in the giraffe - was evident in only a subpopulation of BNC while binding to blood vessels, as in the giraffe...
September 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861807/oral-secretions-affect-hipvs-induced-by-generalist-mythimna-loreyi-and-specialist-parnara-guttata-herbivores-in-rice
#11
Islam S Sobhy, Atsushi Miyake, Tomonori Shinya, Ivan Galis
Plants synthesize variable mixtures of herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) as part of their evolutionary conserved defense. To elucidate the impact of chewing herbivores with different level of adaptation on HIPV profiles in rice, we measured HIPVs released from rice seedlings challenged by either the generalist herbivore Mythimna loreyi (MYL) or the specialist Parnara guttata (PAG). Both herbivores markedly elicited the emission of HIPVs, mainly on the second and third days after attack compared to control plants...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857291/molecular-engineering-of-light-emitting-diode-sensitive-d-%C3%AF-a-type-sulfonium-salt-photoacid-generators-design-synthesis-and-study-of-photochemical-and-photophysical-properties
#12
Xingyu Wu, Ming Jin, Jianchao Xie, Jean-Pierre Malval, Decheng Wan
A series of D-π-A type sulfonium salt photoacid generators (PAGs) were designed and synthesized by systematically changing electron-pushing groups, π-conjugated systems, electron-withdrawing groups, and the number of branches through molecular engineering. These PAGs can effectively decompose under irradiation of UV-visible light-emitting diode (LED) light source because of their matching absorption spectra and emitting spectra of LEDs. Absorption and acid generation properties of these sulfonium salts were elucidated by UV-vis spectra, etc...
August 30, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836726/dynamic-causal-modeling-in-ptsd-and-its-dissociative-subtype-bottom-up-versus-top-down-processing-within-fear-and-emotion-regulation-circuitry
#13
Andrew A Nicholson, Karl J Friston, Peter Zeidman, Sherain Harricharan, Margaret C McKinnon, Maria Densmore, Richard W J Neufeld, Jean Théberge, Frank Corrigan, Rakesh Jetly, David Spiegel, Ruth A Lanius
OBJECTIVE: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with decreased top-down emotion modulation from medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) regions, a pathophysiology accompanied by hyperarousal and hyperactivation of the amygdala. By contrast, PTSD patients with the dissociative subtype (PTSD + DS) often exhibit increased mPFC top-down modulation and decreased amygdala activation associated with emotional detachment and hypoarousal. Crucially, PTSD and PTSD + DS display distinct functional connectivity within the PFC, amygdala complexes, and the periaqueductal gray (PAG), a region related to defensive responses/emotional coping...
August 24, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834071/enhanced-photophosphorylation-of-chloroplast-entrapping-long-lived-photoacid
#14
Youqian Xu, Jinbo Fei, Guangle Li, Tingting Yuan, Yue Li, Chenlei Wang, Xianbao Li, Junbai Li
Enhancing solar energy conversion efficiency is very important for developing renewable energy, protecting the environment and producing agricultural products. We demonstrate here that photophosphorylation is enhanced efficiently by coupling artificial photoacid generators (PAGs) with chloroplasts. The encapsulation of small-molecule long-lived PAGs in the thylakoid lumen is improved greatly by ultrasonication. Under visible light irradiation, a fast intramolecular photoreaction of the PAG occurs and produces many protons, remarkably enhancing the proton gradient in situ...
August 18, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817416/nicotinic-modulation-of-descending-pain-control-circuitry
#15
Iboro C Umana, Claire A Daniele, Brooke A Miller, Keith Gallagher, Meghan A Brown, Chandrika Abburi, Peggy Mason, Daniel S McGehee
Along with the well-known rewarding effects, activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) can also relieve pain, and some nicotinic agonists have analgesic efficacy similar to opioids. A major target of analgesic drugs is the descending pain modulatory pathway, including the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) and the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM). Although activating nAChRs within this circuitry can be analgesic, little is known about the subunit composition and cellular effects of these receptors, particularly within the vlPAG...
July 3, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815604/chronic-morphine-reduces-the-readily-releasable-pool-of-gaba-a-presynaptic-mechanism-of-opioid-tolerance
#16
Adrianne R Wilson-Poe, Hyo-Jin Jeong, Christopher W Vaughan
KEY POINTS: Chronic treatment with opioids, such as morphine, leads to analgesic tolerance. While postsynaptic opioid tolerance is well documented, the involvement of presynaptic mechanisms remains unclear. We show that chronic morphine reduces the ability of periaqueductal grey (PAG) neurons to maintain GABAergic transmission. This depression of GABAergic transmission was due to a reduction in the effective size of the readily releasable pool. This also led to a reduction in opioid presynaptic inhibition; these presynaptic adaptations need to be considered in the development of strategies to reduce opioid tolerance...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811094/-adaptation-and-validation-of-the-smp-t2d-questionnaire-in-spanish-for-evaluating-self-management-of-high-blood-pressure-and-type-2-diabetes-pag-dt2-hta
#17
G M Galván Flores, K Gallegos Carrillo, S Palomo Piñon, S Sánchez García, J Cuadros Moreno, M V Martínez Olivares, J J Cuevas Cancino, I Grijalva, R Sánchez Arenas
BACKGROUND: High blood pressure is one of the most common chronic conditions worldwide. It affects one in every 3 adults over 40, while one in 10 suffers from diabetes. For both diseases, adherence to pharmacological treatment is over 30%, and self-management, which takes into account diet and physical activity, is still unknown, as there is no tool available to measure self-management. Therefore, the object of this study was to adapt and validate the Spanish version of the self-management profile for type 2 diabetes (SMP-T2D) questionnaire in patients with type 2 diabetes and high blood pressure among users of first level care in the social security institution of Mexico...
August 12, 2017: Hipertensión y Riesgo Vascular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808987/volume-expansion-of-periaqueductal-gray-in-episodic-migraine-a-pilot-mri-structural-imaging-study
#18
Zhiye Chen, Xiaoyan Chen, Mengqi Liu, Shuangfeng Liu, Lin Ma, Shengyuan Yu
BACKGROUND: The periaqueductal gray (PAG) dysfunction was recognized in migraine, and the nonspecific PAG lesions were also observed in episodic migraine (EM) recently. However, the PAG volume change was not totally detected in EM up to now. Herein, the aim of this study was to investigate altered PAG volume in EM patients based on high resolution brain structural image. METHODS: The brain structural images were obtained from 18 normal controls (NC), 18 EM patients and 16 chronic migraine (CM) on 3...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807997/phosphoantigen-induced-conformational-change-of-butyrophilin-3a1-btn3a1-and-its-implication-on-v%C3%AE-9v%C3%AE-2-t-cell-activation
#19
Siyi Gu, Joseph R Sachleben, Christopher T Boughter, Wioletta I Nawrocka, Marta T Borowska, Jeffrey T Tarrasch, Georgios Skiniotis, Benoît Roux, Erin J Adams
Human Vγ9Vδ2 T cells respond to microbial infections as well as certain types of tumors. The key initiators of Vγ9Vδ2 activation are small, pyrophosphate-containing molecules called phosphoantigens (pAgs) that are present in infected cells or accumulate intracellularly in certain tumor cells. Recent studies demonstrate that initiation of the Vγ9Vδ2 T cell response begins with sensing of pAg via the intracellular domain of the butyrophilin 3A1 (BTN3A1) molecule. However, it is unknown how downstream events can ultimately lead to T cell activation...
August 29, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805003/protein-astrogliopathies-in-human-neurodegenerative-diseases-and-aging
#20
Gabor G Kovacs, Virginia M Lee, John Q Trojanowski
Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by progressive dysfunction and loss of neurons associated with depositions of pathologically altered proteins showing hierarchical involvement of brain regions. The role of astrocytes in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases is explored as contributors to neuronal degeneration or neuroprotection pathways, and also as potential mediators of the transcellular spreading of disease-associated proteins. Protein astrogliopathy (PAG), including deposition of amyloid-β, prion protein, tau, α-synuclein, and very rarely transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is not unprecedented or unusual in neurodegenerative diseases...
September 2017: Brain Pathology
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