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Davi C Lagatta, Nilson C Ferreira-Junior, Milena Deolindo, Fernando M A Corrêa, Leonardo B M Resstel
Baroreflex activity is a neural mechanism responsible for short-term adjustments in blood pressure (BP). Several supramedullary areas, which send projections to the medulla, are able to control this reflex. In this context, the ventrolateral part of the periaqueductal grey matter (vlPAG), which is a mesencephalic structure, has been suggested to regulate the cardiovascular system. However, its involvement in baroreflex control has never been addressed. Therefore, our hypothesis is that the vlPAG neurotransmission is involved in baroreflex cardiac activity...
September 20, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
R A R Drake, J L Leith, F Almahasneh, J Martindale, A W Wilson, B Lumb, L F Donaldson
UNLABELLED: Descending controls on spinal nociceptive processing play a pivotal role in shaping the pain experience after tissue injury. Secondary hypersensitivity develops within undamaged tissue adjacent and distant to damaged sites. Spinal neuronal pools innervating regions of secondary hypersensitivity are dominated by descending facilitation that amplifies spinal inputs from unsensitized peripheral nociceptors. Cyclooxygenase-prostaglandin (PG) E2 signaling within the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) is pronociceptive in naive and acutely inflamed animals, but its contributions in more prolonged inflammation and, importantly, secondary hypersensitivity remain unknown...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Manish K Madasu, Bright N Okine, Weredeselam M Olango, Kieran Rea, Róisín Lenihan, Michelle Roche, David P Finn
Negative affective state has a significant impact on pain, and genetic background is an important moderating influence on this interaction. The Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) inbred rat strain exhibits a stress-hyperresponsive, anxiety/depressive-like phenotype and also displays a hyperalgesic response to noxious stimuli. Transient receptor potential subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) within the midbrain periaqueductal grey (PAG) plays a key role in regulating both aversive and nociceptive behaviour. In the present study, we investigated the role of TRPV1 in the sub-columns of the PAG in formalin-evoked nociceptive behaviour in WKY versus Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats...
August 9, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Renato Leonardo de Freitas, Priscila Medeiros, Asmat Ullah Khan, Norberto Cysne Coimbra
Generalised tonic and tonic-clonic seizures are followed by significant increase in nociceptive thresholds in both laboratory animals and humans. The endogenous opioid peptides play a role in antinociceptive signalling, and the periaqueductal grey matter (PAG) is recruited to induce analgesia. Thus, the aim of this investigation was to evaluate the role of µ1 -opioid receptors in the dorsomedial (dm) and ventrolateral (vl) columns of PAG in post-ictal antinociception. Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ; 64 mg/kg), which is an ionotropic GABA-mediated Cl(-) influx antagonist, was intraperitoneally (IP) administered to induce tonic-clonic seizures in Wistar rats...
December 2016: Synapse
Man-Li Hu, Zheng-Ying Qiu, Kuang Hu, Ming-Xing Ding
To investigate analgesic neural circuits activated by electroacupuncture (EA) at different sets of acupoints in the brain, goats were stimulated by EA at set of Baihui-Santai acupoints or set of Housanli acupoints for 30 min. The pain threshold was measured using the potassium iontophoresis method. The levels of c-Fos were determined with Streptavidin-Biotin Complex immunohistochemistry. The results showed pain threshold induced by EA at set of Baihui-Santai acupoints was 44.74% ± 4.56% higher than that by EA at set of Housanli acupoints (32...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Satoshi Koba, Ryo Inoue, Tatsuo Watanabe
Freezing, a characteristic pattern of defensive behavior elicited by fear, is associated with a decrease in the heart rate. Central mechanisms underlying fear bradycardia are poorly understood. The periaqueductal gray (PAG) in the midbrain is known to contribute to autonomic cardiovascular adjustments associated with various emotional behaviors observed during active or passive defense reactions. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the role played by PAG neurons in eliciting fear bradycardia. White noise sound (WNS) exposure at 90 dB induced freezing behavior and elicited bradycardia in conscious rats...
June 2016: Physiological Reports
M H Esmaeili, Z Reisi, S Ezzatpanah, A Haghparast
BACKGROUND: Chemical stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus (LH) with carbachol induces antinociception which is antagonized by blockade of orexin receptors in some pain modulatory sites in the tail-flick test. In this study, we evaluated the role of orexin-1 and CB1 receptors in the periaqueductal gray matter (PAG), a critical pain modulatory site, in mediation of antinociceptive responses induced by LH stimulation in rats. METHODS: One hundred thirty-two adult male albino Wistar rats weighing 180-250 g were unilaterally implanted with two separate cannulae into the LH and ventrolateral PAG (vlPAG)...
June 15, 2016: European Journal of Pain: EJP
A B Ribeiro, P C G de Barcellos-Filho, C R Franci, L Menescal-de-Oliveira, R S Saia
AIM: Sepsis has been associated with acute behavioural changes in humans and rodents, which consists of a motivational state and an adaptive response that improve survival. However, the involvement of peripheral cytokines synthesized during systemic inflammation as modulators of the tonic immobility (TI) defensive behaviour remains a literature gap. Our purposes were to characterize the TI defensive behaviour in endotoxemia guinea-pigs at acute phase and after recovery from the initial inflammatory challenge...
October 2016: Acta Physiologica
Neda Assareh, Mahsa Sarrami, Pascal Carrive, Gavan P McNally
Rodents display characteristic defense responses to predators that are influenced by predatory imminence. The midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) serves an important role controlling these responses. The most influential model states that variations in defensive topography are due to distinct PAG regions: ventrolateral PAG (VLPAG) controls postencounter defense, such as freezing and immobility, whereas lateral PAG (LPAG) controls circa-strike defense, such as escape and flight. Here we used channel rhodopsin (ChR2) stimulation to probe the structure of defensive behavior controlled by LPAG and VLPAG...
August 2016: Behavioral Neuroscience
Ning Wang, Ting Zhang, Yuan-Lin Su, Jin-Yan Wang, Fei Luo
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a surgical treatment which has shown remarkable therapeutic benefits for patients with a variety of neurologic conditions. As an important application, DBS has been used to treat intractable pain for over 60 years. Clinical studies have revealed that the selection of the stimulation sites depended on the types of pain. In this study, we selected ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) and ventral posterior lateral nucleus (VPL) as the target brain areas, which were widely used in clinical treatment of refractory pain, to clarify and compare the effects of vlPAG and VPL stimulation on different models of pain...
April 25, 2016: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
William R Millington, M Sertac Yilmaz, Carlos Feleder
This study tested the hypothesis that the initial fall in arterial pressure evoked by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is mediated by the ventrolateral column of the midbrain periaqueductal gray region (vlPAG). To test this hypothesis, the local anaesthetic lidocaine (2%; 0.1 μL, 0.2 μL or 1.0 μL), the delta opioid receptor antagonist naltrindole (2 nmol) or saline was microinjected into the vlPAG of isoflurane-anaesthetized rats bilaterally and LPS (1 mg/kg) or saline was administered intravenously 2 min later...
June 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Olivia K Faull, Mark Jenkinson, Martyn Ezra, Kyle Ts Pattinson
The sensation of breathlessness is the most threatening symptom of respiratory disease. The different subdivisions of the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) are intricately (and differentially) involved in integrating behavioural responses to threat in animals, while the PAG has previously only been considered as a single entity in human research. Here we investigate how these individual PAG columns are differently involved with respiratory threat. Eighteen healthy subjects were conditioned to associate shapes with certain or uncertain impending respiratory load, and scanned the following day during anticipation and application of inspiratory loading using 7 T functional MRI...
2016: ELife
Hsin-Jung Lee, Lu-Yang Chang, Yu-Cheng Ho, Shu-Fang Teng, Ling-Ling Hwang, Ken Mackie, Lih-Chu Chiou
The orexin system consists of orexin A/hypocretin 1 and orexin B/hypocretin 2, and OX1 and OX2 receptors. Our previous electrophysiological study showed that orexin A in the rat ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) induced antinociception via an OX1 receptor-initiated and endocannabinoid-mediated disinhibition mechanism. Here, we further characterized antinociceptive effects of orexins in the mouse vlPAG and investigated whether this mechanism in the vlPAG can contribute to stress-induced analgesia (SIA) in mice...
June 2016: Neuropharmacology
Karen J Tonsfeldt, Katherine L Suchland, Kathleen A Beeson, Janet D Lowe, Ming-Hua Li, Susan L Ingram
UNLABELLED: The ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) is a key structure in the descending pain modulatory circuit. Activation of the circuit occurs via disinhibition of GABAergic inputs onto vlPAG output neurons. In these studies, we tested the hypothesis that GABAergic inhibition is increased during persistent inflammation, dampening activation of the descending circuit from the vlPAG. Our results indicate that persistent inflammation induced by Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) modulates GABA signaling differently in male and female rats...
February 3, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Stella Koutsikou, Thomas C Watson, Jonathan J Crook, J Lianne Leith, Charlotte L Lawrenson, Richard Apps, Bridget M Lumb
UNLABELLED: The periaqueductal gray (PAG) coordinates behaviors essential to survival, including striking changes in movement and posture (e.g., escape behaviors in response to noxious stimuli vs freezing in response to fear-evoking stimuli). However, the neural circuits underlying the expression of these behaviors remain poorly understood. We demonstrate in vivo in rats that activation of the ventrolateral PAG (vlPAG) affects motor systems at multiple levels of the neuraxis through the following: (1) differential control of spinal neurons that forward sensory information to the cerebellum via spino-olivo-cerebellar pathways (nociceptive signals are reduced while proprioceptive signals are enhanced); (2) alterations in cerebellar nuclear output as revealed by changes in expression of Fos-like immunoreactivity; and (3) regulation of spinal reflex circuits, as shown by an increase in α-motoneuron excitability...
October 21, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Luigia Cristino, Livio Luongo, Roberta Imperatore, Serena Boccella, Thorsten Becker, Giovanna Morello, Fabiana Piscitelli, Giuseppe Busetto, Sabatino Maione, Vincenzo Di Marzo
Pain perception can become altered in individuals with eating disorders and obesity for reasons that have not been fully elucidated. We show that leptin deficiency in ob/ob mice, or leptin insensitivity in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus in mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, are accompanied by elevated orexin-A (OX-A) levels and orexin receptor-1 (OX1-R)-dependent elevation of the levels of the endocannabinoid, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG)...
January 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Zhi Xiao, You-Yan Li, Meng-Jie Sun
Opiates such as morphine exhibit analgesic effect in various pain models, but repeated and chronic morphine administration may develop resistance to antinociception. The purinergic signaling system is involved in the mechanisms of pain modulation and morphine tolerance. This study aimed to determine whether the P2X7 receptor in the ventrolateral midbrain periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) is involved in morphine tolerance. Development of tolerance to the antinociceptive effect of morphine was induced in normal adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats through subcutaneous injection of morphine (10mg/kg)...
August 2015: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
A Hernandez-Leon, A Fernández-Guasti, M E González-Trujano
BACKGROUND: Rutin is a bioflavonoid found in fruits, vegetables and plants used in traditional medicine to alleviate pain. However, rutin's scientific evidence for the modulation of pain and its mechanism of action is lacking. It is well known that the periaqueductal grey matter (PAG) contains opioidergic neural circuits involved in the modulation of descending nociception. The aim of this study was to investigate if antinociceptive activity of rutin is modulated by the PAG circuitry involving participation of opioid receptors...
February 2016: European Journal of Pain: EJP
Tao Chen, Jing Li, Ban Feng, Rui Hui, Yu-Lin Dong, Fu-Quan Huo, Ting Zhang, Jun-Bin Yin, Jian-Qing Du, Yun-Qing Li
The ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) is an important brain area, in which 5-HTergic neurons play key roles in descending pain modulation. It has been proposed that opioid peptides within the vlPAG can excite the 5-HTergic neurons by alleviating tonic inhibition from GABAergic neurons, the so-called disinhibitory effect. However, no direct morphological evidence has been observed for the micro-circuitry among the opioid peptide-, GABA-, and 5-HT-immunoreactive (ir) profiles nor for the functional involvement of the opioid peptides in the intrinsic properties of GABAergic and 5-HTergic neurons...
April 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Yu-Cheng Ho, Jen-Kun Cheng, Lih-Chu Chiou
KEY POINTS: Long-lasting neuropathic pain has been attributed to elevated neuronal plasticity changes in spinal, peripheral and cortical levels. Here, we found that reduced neuronal plasticity in the ventrolateral periaqueductal grey (vlPAG), a midbrain region important for initiating descending pain inhibition, may also contribute to neuropathic pain. Forskolin- and isoproterenol (isoprenaline)-elicited EPSC potentiation was impaired in the vlPAG of a rat model of neuropathic pain induced by spinal nerve injury...
July 1, 2015: Journal of Physiology
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