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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954467/afferent-pathway-mediated-effect-of-%C3%AE-1-adrenergic-antagonist-tamsulosin-on-the-neurogenic-bladder-after-spinal-cord-injury
#1
Jin-Hee Han, Sung-Eun Kim, Il-Gyu Ko, Jayoung Kim, Khae Hawn Kim
PURPOSE: The functions of the lower urinary tract (LUT), such as voiding and storing urine, are dependent on complex central neural networks located in the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral ganglia. Thus, the functions of the LUT are susceptible to various neurologic disorders including spinal cord injury (SCI). SCI at the cervical or thoracic levels disrupts voluntary control of voiding and the normal reflex pathways coordinating bladder and sphincter functions. In this context, it is noteworthy that α1-adrenoceptor blockers have been reported to relieve voiding symptoms and storage symptoms in elderly men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)...
September 2017: International Neurourology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853438/periaqueductal-gray-glutamatergic-transmission-governs-chronic-stress-induced-depression
#2
Yu-Cheng Ho, Tzer-Bin Lin, Ming-Chun Hsieh, Cheng-Yuan Lai, Dylan Chou, Yat-Pang Chau, Gin-Den Chen, Hsien-Yu Peng
The mechanisms underlying chronic stress-induced dysfunction of glutamatergic transmission that contribute to helplessness-associated depressive disorder are unknown. We investigated the relationship of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors and stress, and the neuroplastic changes of stress-induced depression-like behavior in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG). We conducted whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiological recordings in the vlPAG neurons. Depression-like behavior was assayed using tail suspension test and sucrose preference test...
August 30, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851568/angiotensin-at1-receptors-modulate-the-anxiogenic-effects-of-angiotensin-5-8-injected-into-the-rat-ventrolateral-periaqueductal-gray
#3
Karina Genaro, Débora Fabris, Helene A Fachim, Wiliam A Prado
Losartan and PD 123,319 are non-peptide angiotensin (Ang) receptor antagonists for the AT1 and AT2 subtypes of Ang II receptors, respectively. The tetrapeptide Ang (5-8) is the smallest Ang-peptide that elicits anxiogenic effects on unconditioned and conditioned experimental models upon injection into the ventrolateral column of the periaqueductal gray (vlPAG), and Ang (5-8) can be synthesized (from Ang II or Ang III) and inactivated in this mesencephalic structure. The vlPAG is also known to play a central role in mechanisms of fear and anxiety...
August 26, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817416/nicotinic-modulation-of-descending-pain-control-circuitry
#4
Iboro C Umana, Claire A Daniele, Brooke A Miller, Keith Gallagher, Meghan A Brown, Chandrika Abburi, Peggy Mason, Daniel S McGehee
Along with the well-known rewarding effects, activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) can also relieve pain, and some nicotinic agonists have analgesic efficacy similar to opioids. A major target of analgesic drugs is the descending pain modulatory pathway, including the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) and the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM). Although activating nAChRs within this circuitry can be analgesic, little is known about the subunit composition and cellular effects of these receptors, particularly within the vlPAG...
July 3, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716712/effects-of-chemogenetic-excitation-or-inhibition-of-the-ventrolateral-periaqueductal-gray-on-the-acquisition-and-extinction-of-pavlovian-fear-conditioning
#5
Carolyn Arico, Elena E Bagley, Pascal Carrive, Neda Assareh, Gavan P McNally
The midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) has been implicated in the generation and transmission of a prediction error signal that instructs amygdala-based fear and extinction learning. However, the PAG also plays a key role in the expression of conditioned fear responses. The evidence for a role of the PAG in fear learning and extinction learning has been obtained almost exclusively using PAG-dependent fear responses. It is less clear whether the PAG regulates fear learning when other measures of learned fear are used...
July 14, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374016/divergent-modulation-of-nociception-by-glutamatergic-and-gabaergic-neuronal-subpopulations-in-the-periaqueductal-gray
#6
Vijay K Samineni, Jose G Grajales-Reyes, Bryan A Copits, Daniel E O'Brien, Sarah L Trigg, Adrian M Gomez, Michael R Bruchas, Robert W Gereau
The ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) constitutes a major descending pain modulatory system and is a crucial site for opioid-induced analgesia. A number of previous studies have demonstrated that glutamate and GABA play critical opposing roles in nociceptive processing in the vlPAG. It has been suggested that glutamatergic neurotransmission exerts antinociceptive effects, whereas GABAergic neurotransmission exert pronociceptive effects on pain transmission, through descending pathways. The inability to exclusively manipulate subpopulations of neurons in the PAG has prevented direct testing of this hypothesis...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367595/ionic-currents-influencing-spontaneous-firing-and-pacemaker-frequency-in-dopamine-neurons-of-the-ventrolateral-periaqueductal-gray-and-dorsal-raphe-nucleus-vlpag-drn-a-voltage-clamp-and-computational-modelling-study
#7
Antonios G Dougalis, Gillian A C Matthews, Birgit Liss, Mark A Ungless
Dopamine (DA) neurons of the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) and dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) fire spontaneous action potentials (APs) at slow, regular patterns in vitro but a detailed account of their intrinsic membrane properties responsible for spontaneous firing is currently lacking. To resolve this, we performed a voltage-clamp electrophysiological study in brain slices to describe their major ionic currents and then constructed a computer model and used simulations to understand the mechanisms behind autorhythmicity in silico...
June 2017: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328571/neuropathic-pain-induced-enhancement-of-spontaneous-and-pain-evoked-neuronal-activity-in-the-periaqueductal-gray-that-is-attenuated-by-gabapentin
#8
Vijay K Samineni, Louis S Premkumar, Carl L Faingold
Neuropathic pain is a debilitating pathological condition that is poorly understood. Recent evidence suggests that abnormal central processing occurs during the development of neuropathic pain induced by the cancer chemotherapeutic agent, paclitaxel. Yet, it is unclear what role neurons in supraspinal pain network sites, such as the periaqueductal gray, play in altered behavioral sensitivity seen during chronic pain conditions. To elucidate these mechanisms, we studied the spontaneous and thermally evoked firing patterns of ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) neurons in awake-behaving rats treated with paclitaxel to induce neuropathic pain...
July 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321594/disrupted-functional-connectivity-of-periaqueductal-gray-subregions-in-episodic-migraine
#9
Zhiye Chen, Xiaoyan Chen, Mengqi Liu, Shuangfeng Liu, Lin Ma, Shengyuan Yu
BACKGROUND: The periaqueductal gray (PAG) dysfunction was recognized in migraine, and the altered dysfunction of PAG subregions were not totally detected up to now. The aim of this study is to investigate the altered functional connectivity of PAG subregions in EM patients. METHODS: The brain structural images and resting state functional MR imaging (rs-fMRI) data were obtained from 18 normal controls (NC) and 18 EM patients on 3.0 T MR system. Seven subregions of PAG were classified as bilateral ventrolateral PAG (vlPAG), lateral PAG (lPAG), dorsolateral PAG (dlPAG) and dorsomedial PAG (dmPAG)...
December 2017: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306133/injection-of-toll-like-receptor-4-sirna-into-the-ventrolateral-periaqueductal-gray-attenuates-withdrawal-syndrome-in-morphine-dependent-rats
#10
Q F Liu, L Li, Y Q Guo, X Li, Z D Mou, X Wang, G Z Du
We assessed the role of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) gene in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) region of morphine-dependent rats on attenuating withdrawal syndrome, and regulating glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67), glutamic acid (Glu), and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). After siRNA-mediated downregulation of TLR4, changes were observed in withdrawal behavior and downstream signaling molecules. Rats were injected into the vlPAG with TLR4 siRNA, followed by intraperitoneal injection of morphine for 5 consecutive days, and then naloxone, and the behavioral indices of morphine withdrawal were observed...
December 1, 2016: Archives Italiennes de Biologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274653/effects-of-chemical-stimulation-of-the-lateral-wings-of-the-dorsal-raphe-nucleus-on-panic-like-defensive-behaviors-and-fos-protein-expression-in-rats
#11
Melina Matthiesen, Ailton Spiacci, Hélio Zangrossi
The lateral wings subnucleus of the dorsal raphe nucleus (lwDR) has been implicated in the modulation of panic-like behaviors, such as escape. Infusion of non- excitotoxic doses of the excitatory amino acid kainic acid into this subnucleus promptly evokes a vigorous escape response. In addition, rats exposed to panic-inducing situations show an increase in Fos protein expression in neurons within the lwDR. In the present study, we first investigated whether key structures associated with the mediation of escape behavior are recruited after chemical stimulation of the lwDR with kainic acid...
March 6, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211789/the-cortical-connectivity-of-the-periaqueductal-gray-and-the-conditioned-response-to-the-threat-of-breathlessness
#12
Olivia K Faull, Kyle Ts Pattinson
Previously we observed differential activation in individual columns of the periaqueductal grey (PAG) during breathlessness and its conditioned anticipation (Faull et al., 2016b). Here, we have extended this work by determining how the individual columns of the PAG interact with higher cortical centres, both at rest and in the context of breathlessness threat. Activation was observed in ventrolateral PAG (vlPAG) and lateral PAG (lPAG), where activity scaled with breathlessness intensity ratings, revealing a potential interface between sensation and cognition during breathlessness...
February 17, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206989/il-4-mediated-by-hsv-vector-suppresses-morphine-withdrawal-response-and-decreases-tnf%C3%AE-nr2b-and-pc-ebp%C3%AE-in-the-periaqueductal-gray-in-rats
#13
H Yi, T Iida, S Liu, D Ikegami, Q Liu, A Iida, D A Lubarsky, S Hao
Chronic opiates induce the development of physical dependence. Opioid physical dependence characterized by withdrawal symptoms, may have very long-lasting effects on the motivation for reward, including the incubation of cue-induced drug-seeking behavior. Elucidation of the mechanisms involved in physical dependence is crucial to developing more effective treatment strategies for opioid dependence. Chronic morphine induces production of proinflammatory cytokines in regional-specific sites of the brain. Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is a prototypical anti-inflammatory cytokine that globally suppresses proinflammatory cytokines...
April 2017: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183259/targeting-melatonin-mt2-receptors-a-novel-pharmacological-avenue-for-inflammatory-and-neuropathic-pain
#14
Luca Posa, Danilo De Gregorio, Gabriella Gobbi, Stefano Comai
Melatonin (MLT) has been implicated in several pathophysiological states, including pain. MLT mostly activates two G-protein coupled receptors, MT1 and MT2. In this review, we present the analgesic properties of MLT in preclinical and clinical studies, giving particular emphasis to the effects mediated by MT2 receptors and to recent investigations demonstrating the analgesic effects of MT2 receptor partial agonists in chronic and acute/inflammatory pain conditions. MT2 receptors are localized in specific brain areas, including the reticular and the ventromedial nuclei of the thalamus (part of the ascending nociceptive pathway) and the ventrolateral periaqueductal grey matter (vlPAG) (part of the descending antinociceptive pathway)...
February 8, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179123/spinal-or-supraspinal-phosphorylation-deficiency-at-the-mor-c-terminus-does-not-affect-morphine-tolerance-in-vivo
#15
Cherkaouia Kibaly, Hong-Yiou Lin, Horace H Loh, Ping-Yee Law
The development of tolerance to morphine, one of the most potent analgesics, in the management of chronic pain is a significant clinical problem and its mechanisms are poorly understood. Morphine exerts its pharmacological effects via the μ-opioid receptor (MOR). Tolerance is highly connected to G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) phosphorylation and desensitization increase. Because morphine desensitization previously has been shown to be MOR phosphorylation- and ß-arrestin2-independent (in contrast to agonists such as fentanyl), we examined the contribution of phosphorylation of the entire C-terminus to the development of antinociceptive tolerance to the partial (morphine) and full (fentanyl) MOR agonists in vivo...
May 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087339/differential-behavioral-sensitivity-to-carbon-dioxide-co2-inhalation-in-rats
#16
Andrew Winter, Rebecca Ahlbrand, Devanshi Naik, Renu Sah
Inhalation of carbon dioxide (CO2) is frequently employed as a biological challenge to evoke intense fear and anxiety. In individuals with panic disorder, CO2 reliably evokes panic attacks. Sensitivity to CO2 is highly heterogeneous among individuals, and although a genetic component is implicated, underlying mechanisms are not clear. Preclinical models that can simulate differential responsivity to CO2 are therefore relevant. In the current study we investigated CO2-evoked behavioral responses in four different rat strains: Sprague-Dawley (SD), Wistar (W), Long Evans (LE) and Wistar-Kyoto, (WK) rats...
March 27, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906750/role-of-orexin-2-and-cb1-receptors-within-the-periaqueductal-gray-matter-in-lateral-hypothalamic-induced-antinociception-in-rats
#17
Mohammad-Hossein Esmaeili, Zahra Reisi, Somayeh Ezzatpanah, Abbas Haghparast
Orexin plays an important role in pain modulation. Orexin-1 and orexin-2 receptors (Ox1r and Ox2r) are found at high density in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray matter (vlPAG). Our previous study showed that chemical stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus with carbachol induces antinociception in the tail-flick test, a model of acute pain, and Ox1r-mediated antinociception in the vlPAG is modulated by the activity of vlPAG CB1 receptors. In the current study, TCS OX2 29, an Ox2r antagonist (5, 15, 50, 150, and 500 nmol/l), was microinjected into the vlPAG 5 min before the administration of carbachol (125 nmol/l)...
November 30, 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845162/neuropeptide-glutamic-acid-isoleucine-nei-induced-paradoxical-sleep-in-rats
#18
Moe Fujimoto, Satoru Fukuda, Hidetoshi Sakamoto, Junko Takata, Shigehito Sawamura
Neuropeptideglutamic acid-isoleucine (NEI) as well as melanin concentrating hormone (MCH) is cleaved from the 165 amino acid protein, prepro-melanin concentrating hormone (prepro-MCH). Among many physiological roles of MCH, we demonstrated that intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of MCH induced increases in REM sleep episodes as well as in non REM sleep episodes. However, there are no studies on the effect of NEI on the sleep-wake cycle. As for the sites of action of MCH for induction of REM sleep, the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) has been reported to be one of its site of action...
January 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646556/ventrolateral-periaqueductal-grey-matter-neurotransmission-modulates-cardiac-baroreflex-activity
#19
Davi C Lagatta, Nilson C Ferreira-Junior, Milena Deolindo, Fernando M A Corrêa, Leonardo B M Resstel
Baroreflex activity is a neural mechanism responsible for short-term adjustments in blood pressure (BP). Several supramedullary areas, which send projections to the medulla, are able to control this reflex. In this context, the ventrolateral part of the periaqueductal grey matter (vlPAG), which is a mesencephalic structure, has been suggested to regulate the cardiovascular system. However, its involvement in baroreflex control has never been addressed. Therefore, our hypothesis is that the vlPAG neurotransmission is involved in baroreflex cardiac activity...
December 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581447/periaqueductal-grey-ep3-receptors-facilitate-spinal-nociception-in-arthritic-secondary-hypersensitivity
#20
R A R Drake, J L Leith, F Almahasneh, J Martindale, A W Wilson, B Lumb, L F Donaldson
UNLABELLED: Descending controls on spinal nociceptive processing play a pivotal role in shaping the pain experience after tissue injury. Secondary hypersensitivity develops within undamaged tissue adjacent and distant to damaged sites. Spinal neuronal pools innervating regions of secondary hypersensitivity are dominated by descending facilitation that amplifies spinal inputs from unsensitized peripheral nociceptors. Cyclooxygenase-prostaglandin (PG) E2 signaling within the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) is pronociceptive in naive and acutely inflamed animals, but its contributions in more prolonged inflammation and, importantly, secondary hypersensitivity remain unknown...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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