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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092934/visceral-leishmaniasis-treatment-outcome-and-its-determinants-in-northwest-ethiopia
#1
Berihun Assefa Dachew, Getachew Mebrahtu Welay, Kefyalew Addis Alene
Background: Poor treatment outcomes of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) are responsible for a high mortality rate in resource limited setting like Ethiopia. This study aimed at evaluating the magnitude and identifying determinants of poor VL treatment outcome in Kahsay Abera Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods: A hospital based retrospective follow up study was conducted among 595 VL patients who were admitted to Kahsay Abera Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia from October 2010 to April 2013...
December 28, 2016: Epidemiology and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092933/estimation-of-the-size-of-the-iatrogenic-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease-outbreak-associated-with-cadaveric-dura-mater-grafts-in-korea
#2
Byoug-Hak Jeon, Jinseob Kim, GangHyun Kim Kim, Soo Chul Park, SangYun Kim, Hae-Kwan Cheong
Purpose: This study estimated the overall magnitude of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (iCJD) based on dura graft cases in Korea using a mathematical model. Methods: We estimated the number of annual cases of dura grafts performed between 1980 and 1995 by applying the proportion of dura grafts recorded by the Health Insurance Review Agency claim dataset in Korea to the number of nationwide neurosurgery cases. The distribution of the incubation period was assumed to fall under a Weibull distribution with density function or a log-logistic distribution with density function...
December 19, 2016: Epidemiology and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092919/compensatory-water-effects-link-yearly-global-land-co2-sink-changes-to-temperature
#3
Martin Jung, Markus Reichstein, Christopher R Schwalm, Chris Huntingford, Stephen Sitch, Anders Ahlström, Almut Arneth, Gustau Camps-Valls, Philippe Ciais, Pierre Friedlingstein, Fabian Gans, Kazuhito Ichii, Atul K Jain, Etsushi Kato, Dario Papale, Ben Poulter, Botond Raduly, Christian Rödenbeck, Gianluca Tramontana, Nicolas Viovy, Ying-Ping Wang, Ulrich Weber, Sönke Zaehle, Ning Zeng
Large interannual variations in the measured growth rate of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) originate primarily from fluctuations in carbon uptake by land ecosystems. It remains uncertain, however, to what extent temperature and water availability control the carbon balance of land ecosystems across spatial and temporal scales. Here we use empirical models based on eddy covariance data and process-based models to investigate the effect of changes in temperature and water availability on gross primary productivity (GPP), terrestrial ecosystem respiration (TER) and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) at local and global scales...
January 16, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092917/is-fat-mass-accretion-of-late-preterm-infants-associated-with-insulin-resistance
#4
Nadia Liotto, Maria Lorella Giannì, Francesca Taroni, Paola Roggero, Chiara Cristiana Condello, Anna Orsi, Camilla Menis, Riccardo Bonfanti, Fabio Mosca
BACKGROUND: Late preterm infants show a major fat mass accretion from birth to term. The contribution of preterm birth to the development of the metabolic syndrome is still under investigation. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate body composition changes in late preterm infants during the first 3 months and to investigate their insulin sensitivity and resistance. METHODS: We conducted an observational, longitudinal study. A total of 216 late preterm infants underwent body composition assessment using an air displacement plethysmograph at term and at 3 months of corrected age...
January 17, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092911/behaviour-of-cd11b-positive-cells-in-an-animal-model-of-laser-induced-choroidal-neovascularisation
#5
Lu Li, Peter Heiduschka, Anne F Alex, Daniel Niekämper, Nicole Eter
BACKGROUND/AIM: Immune cells, e.g. microglial cells of the retina, appear to be involved in pathological processes in neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to immunohistochemically check the expression of various factors and cytokines by CD11b-positive (CD11b+) immune cells in an animal model of choroidal neovascularisation (CNV). METHODS: We used the animal model of laser-induced CNV in mice. Eyes were isolated at 1, 4, 7, and 14 days after laser treatment...
January 17, 2017: Ophthalmologica. Journal International D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092863/adipose-derived-stem-cells-ameliorate-renal-interstitial-fibrosis-through-inhibition-of-emt-and-inflammatory-response-via-tgf-%C3%AE-1-signaling-pathway
#6
Yan Song, Changliang Peng, Shasha Lv, Jing Cheng, Shanshan Liu, Qing Wen, Guangju Guan, Gang Liu
Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) have been successfully used to treat acute kidney injury or acute renal failure. However, the effect of ADSCs on treating renal interstitial fibrosis remains unknown. Here, we assessed the therapeutic efficacy of ADSCs on renal interstitial fibrosis induced by unilateral ureter obstruction (UUO) and explored the potential mechanisms. After 7days of UUO, rats were injected with ADSCs (5×10(6)) or vehicle via tail vein. We found that ADSCs administration significantly ameliorated renal interstitial fibrosis, the occurrence of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and inflammatory response...
January 13, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092862/protective-effects-of-total-flavonoids-of-astragalus-against-adjuvant-induced-arthritis-in-rats-by-regulating-opg-rankl-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#7
Xin-Yu Liu, Lu Xu, Ying Wang, Jin-Xia Li, Yu Zhang, Chong Zhang, Sha-Sha Wang, Xue-Mei Zhang
BACKGROUND: Astragalus membranaceus Bunge is one of the oldest and most frequently used crude herbs in traditional Chinese medicine. The total flavonoids of Astragalus (TFA) are the main active components isolated from Astragalus membranaceus Bunge. Our recent study has shown its potential immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects in vivo and in vitro. However, its anti-arthritic effects and mechanisms of action involved have not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effects and possible mechanisms of TFA on Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA)-induced arthritis in rats...
January 13, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092860/design-synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-quinazoline-phosphoramidate-mustard-conjugates-as-anticancer-drugs
#8
Songwen Lin, Yingbo Li, Yufen Zheng, Laichun Luo, Qi Sun, Zemei Ge, Tieming Cheng, Runtao Li
A series of novel compounds with phosphoramide mustard functionality incorporated into the quinazoline scaffold of EGFR/HER2 inhibitors were designed and synthesized as multi-target-directed ligands against tumor cells. In vitro assays showed that tumor cell lines with high HER2 level were more sensitive to the compounds than tumor cells with low HER2 level. Compound 10d (EMB-3) was one of the most potent inhibitors with IC50 of 7.4 nM and 82 nM against EGFR and HER2, respectively. The mechanism studies were also supported by the effect of 10d-induced DNA damage in MDA-MB-468 cells...
January 3, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092856/separation-of-antibody-drug-conjugate-species-by-rplc-a-generic-method-development-approach
#9
Szabolcs Fekete, Imre Molnár, Davy Guillarme
This study reports the use of modelling software for the successful method development of IgG1 cysteine conjugated antibody drug conjugate (ADC) in RPLC. The goal of such a method is to be able to calculate the average drug to antibody ratio (DAR) of and ADC product. A generic method development strategy was proposed including the optimization of mobile phase temperature, gradient profile and mobile phase ternary composition. For the first time, a 3D retention modelling was presented for large therapeutic protein...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092845/cinnamaldehyde-potentially-attenuates-gestational-hyperglycemia-in-rats-through-modulation-of-ppar%C3%AE-proinflammatory-cytokines-and-oxidative-stress
#10
Ahmed A Hosni, A Adel Abdel-Moneim, Eman S Abdel-Reheim, Samah M Mohamed, Hamdi Helmy
Cinnamon has a history of use for medicinal purposes and its major benefits have been linked to cinnamaldehyde. The present study aimed to investigate the hypoglycemic action of cinnamaldehyde against fatty-sucrosed diet/streptozotocin (FSD/STZ)-rat model of gestational diabetes. Female albino rats were divided into three groups. Group I fed with normal diet (ND) while group II and III were fed with FSD for eight weeks (five weeks pre-gestational and three weeks gestational). Rats of group III were administered with a daily oral dose of 20mg/kg cinnamaldehyde one week before mating onward...
January 13, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092835/effects-of-the-central-potassium-ions-on-the-g-quadruplex-and-stabilizer-binding
#11
Zhiguo Wang, Jun-Ping Liu
Human telomeres undertake the structure of intra-molecular parallel G-quadruplex in the presence of K(+) in eukaryotic cell. Stabilization of the telomere G-quadruplex represents a potential strategy to prevent telomere lengthening by telomerase in cancer therapy. Current work demonstrates that the binding of central K(+) with the parallel G-quadruplex is a coordinated water directed step-wise process. The K(+) above the top G-tetrad is prone to leak into environment and the 5'-adenine quickly flips over the top G-tetrad, leading to the bottom gate of G-tetrads as the only viable pathway of K(+) binding...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092833/study-of-molecular-interactions-between-chitosan-and-vi-antigen
#12
Natália de Farias Silva, Raimundo Lopes da Silva, Kalene de Oliveira Almeida, Antônio Edilson Sousa do Nascimento-Júnior, Davi do Socorro Barros Brasil, José Otávio Carréra Silva-Júnior, Francisco Martins Teixeira, Roseane Maria Ribeiro-Costa
Chitosan has attracted much interest due to its special physical and chemical properties related to drug administration. Nanoparticles delivery systems from Vi Antigen are a promising approach in the struggle against typhoid fever. In this paper, we reported the obtainment and the characterization of Vi Antigen by Infrared spectroscopy as well as Molecular Modeling and Computational Chemistry studies of the Chitosan-Vi Antigen interaction through theoretical models. The results of the theoretical and experimental Infrared spectroscopy showed important bands related to N-Acetyl and O-Acetyl groups present in Vi Antigen...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092830/trpv1-antagonism-by-piperazinyl-aryl-compounds-a-topomer-comfa-study-and-its-use-in-virtual-screening-for-identification-of-novel-antagonists
#13
Rajendra Kristam, Shashidhar N Rao, Anne Sudha D'Cruz, Vijayalakshmi Mahadevan, Vellarkad N Viswanadhan
Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid, member 1 (TRPV1), is a non-selective cation channel belonging to the transient receptor potential (TRP) family of ion channels. It occurs in the peripheral and central nervous system, activated by a variety of exogenous and endogenous stimuli, thus playing a key role in transmission of pain. This has been a target for chronic pain since more than a decade and a number of antagonists that progressed into clinical trials have failed due to the unexpected side effect of core body temperature rise, thus halting progress in this field...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092828/a-flexible-microbial-co-culture-platform-for-simultaneous-utilization-of-methane-and-carbon-dioxide-from-gas-feedstocks
#14
Eric A Hill, William B Chrisler, Alex S Beliaev, Hans C Bernstein
A new co-cultivation technology is presented that converts greenhouse gasses, CH4 and CO2, into microbial biomass. The methanotrophic bacterium, Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum 20z, was coupled to a cyanobacterium, Synechococcus PCC 7002 via oxygenic photosynthesis. The system exhibited robust growth on diverse gas mixtures ranging from biogas to those representative of a natural gas feedstock. A continuous processes was developed on a synthetic natural gas feed that achieved steady-state by imposing coupled light and O2 limitations on the cyanobacterium and methanotroph, respectively...
January 3, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092811/towards-the-structure-of-the-tir-domain-signalosome
#15
REVIEW
Surekha Nimma, Thomas Ve, Simon J Williams, Bostjan Kobe
TIR (Toll/interleukin-1 receptor/resistance protein) domains feature in animal, plant and bacterial proteins involved in innate immunity pathways and associated processes. They function through protein:protein interactions, in particular self-association and homotypic association with other TIR domains. Structures of TIR domains from all phyla have been determined, but common association modes have only emerged for plant and bacterial TIR domains, and not for mammalian TIR domains. Numerous attempts involving hybrid approaches, which have combined structural, computational, mutagenesis and biophysical data, have failed to converge onto common models of how these domains associate and function...
January 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092808/antinociceptive-effect-of-co-administered-nmda-and-histamine-h4-receptor-antagonists-in-a-rat-model-of-acute-pain
#16
Renata Wolińska, Anna Leśniak, Małgorzata Żochowska, Mariusz Sacharczuk, Katarzyna Kieć-Kononowicz, Magdalena Bujalska-Zadrożny
BACKGROUND: The histamine H4 receptor (H4R) has attracted a lot of attention in terms of its role in antinociception. The N-Methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor is a well-characterized participant in pain pathways. However, it's influence on H4R signaling is poorly understood. Thus, in the present study we investigated the effect of a selective H4R antagonist JNJ7777120 (25mg/kg) and a NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 (0.1-10μg) on nociceptive thresholds in a rat acute pain model. METHODS: The influence of intrathecally (it), intracerebroventricularly (icv) and intraplantarly (ipl) administered MK-801 co-injected with JNJ7777120 administered intraperitoneally (ip) was determined in the modified Randall-Selitto paw pressure, the tail flick and plantar tests...
October 29, 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092800/effect-of-venepuncture-process-design-on-efficiency-and-failure-rates-a-simulation-model-study-for-secondary-care
#17
Sean Reed, Rasa Remenyte-Prescott, Ben Rees
BACKGROUND: Healthcare aims to deliver good patient outcomes. For many clinical procedures there are multiple alternative task sequences that can be performed. These deviations can influence procedure reliability, efficiency of usage of hospital resources and risk to staff and patient safety. Venepuncture is one of the most common invasive procedures in healthcare. Literature of clinical practice shows evidence of wide variability in the procedure order and the duration of each step, which can depend on attributes, such as patient health, sampling method and staff skills...
December 29, 2016: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092799/fibrin-improves-skin-wound-perfusion-in-a-diabetic-rat-model
#18
Tamara Hoppenbrouwers, Bastiaan Tuk, Esther M G Fijneman, Moniek P M de Maat, Johan W van Neck
: The fibrin matrix of the thrombus that is formed directly after wounding, is an important determinant of the success of the early phase of wound healing. This phase is often impaired in patients with diabetes. A promising approach to improve skin wound healing is the application of a pro-angiogenic fibrin matrix onto the wound. We studied this in 59 female WAG/RijCrl diabetic rats, in which we created two dorsal full-thickness wounds of which one was treated with a human physiological fibrin matrix (2mg/ml) and one with PBS as control...
January 10, 2017: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092798/acute-kidney-injury-and-risk-of-deep-vein-thrombosis-and-pulmonary-embolism-in-taiwan-a-nationwide-retrospective-cohort-study
#19
Tsung-Hang Kuo, Hsin-Yang Li, Sheng-Hsiang Lin
INTRODUCTION: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) increases risk for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). However, few studies have investigated the relationship between acute kidney injury (AKI) and risk of DVT and PE. Therefore, we conducted a nationwide longitudinal cohort study to determine whether patients with AKI are associated with increased risk of developing DVT and PE. METHODS: We included >30years-old inpatients (n=4734) receiving the diagnosis of AKI from 2000 to 2006 and their age-and sex-matched non-AKI inpatients using medical service in the same year (n=47...
January 6, 2017: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092792/curiosity-improves-coping-efficacy-and-reduces-suicidal-ideation-severity-among-military-veterans-at-risk-for-suicide
#20
Lauren M Denneson, Derek J Smolenski, Nigel E Bush, Steven K Dobscha
Curiosity, the tendency to engage in novel and challenging opportunities, may be an important source of resilience for those at risk for suicide. We hypothesized that curiosity would have a buffering effect against risk conferred by multiple sources of distress, whereby curiosity would be associated with reduced suicidal ideation and increased coping efficacy. As part of a larger intervention trial designed to improve coping skills and reduce suicidal ideation, 117 military veterans with suicidal ideation completed measures of curiosity and distress (perceived stress, depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbances) at baseline, and completed measures of suicidal ideation and coping efficacy (to stop negative thoughts, to enlist support from friends and family) at baseline and 3-, 6-, and 12-week follow up...
January 9, 2017: Psychiatry Research
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