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Kangaroo position

Nicolas Deguines, Justin S Brashares, Laura R Prugh
1.Climate change is transforming precipitation regimes worldwide. Changes in precipitation regimes are known to have powerful effects on plant productivity, but the consequences of these shifts for the dynamics of ecological communities are poorly understood. This knowledge gap hinders our ability to anticipate and mitigate the impacts of climate change on biodiversity. 2.Precipitation may affect fauna through direct effects on physiology, behavior or demography, through plant-mediated indirect effects, or by modifying interactions among species...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
Nathalie Charpak, Juan Gabriel Ruiz
Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) is a human-based care intervention devised to complement neonatal care for low birth weight and premature infants. Kangaroo position (skin-to-skin contact on the mother's chest) offers thermal regulation, physiological stability, appropriate stimulation and enhances bonding and breastfeeding. Kangaroo nutrition is based on breastfeeding and kangaroo discharge policy relies on family empowerment and early discharge in kangaroo position with close ambulatory follow-up. We describe how the evidence has been developed, and how it has been put into practice by means of direct preterm infants care and dissemination of the method, including training of KMC excellence centers in many countries not only in Latin America but worldwide...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
R Pineda, R Guth, A Herring, L Reynolds, S Oberle, J Smith
OBJECTIVE: Very preterm infants hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) experience alterations in sensory experiences. Defining types, timing and frequency of sensory-based interventions that optimize outcomes can inform environmental modifications. The objective of this study was to conduct an integrative review on sensory-based interventions used with very preterm infants in the NICU to improve infant and parent outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: The data sources include MEDLINE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Francisco Ceacero, Andrés J García, Tomás Landete-Castillejos, Martina Komárková, Francisco Hidalgo, Martina P Serrano, Laureano Gallego
In undomesticated animals information about the production and composition of milk over time is still scarce. In general, for most mammals it is known that milk composition changes across lactation, is different for male and female offspring, and even that marsupials, such as kangaroos, can simultaneously produce milk of different compositions for young of different ages. Such parallel milk production of differing compositions has not yet been studied in single-offspring placental mammals, but may help to explain behavioural processes like allosuckling (feeding the young of other adults) and lateralized suckling preferences...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
Maria Lorella Giannì, Patrizio Sannino, Elena Bezze, Carmela Comito, Laura Plevani, Paola Roggero, Massimo Agosti, Fabio Mosca
BACKGROUND: Feeding difficulties frequently occur in preterm infants, thus contributing to delayed growth and hospital discharge. AIMS: To evaluate the effect of Kangaroo mother care implementation and parental involvement in infants' feeding on the timing of achievement of full oral feeding in preterm infants. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, observational, single-centre study. SUBJECTS: A total of 81 infants born at a gestational age ≤32weeks, consecutively admitted to a tertiary neonatal unit between June 2014 and May 2015...
August 31, 2016: Early Human Development
Carin Maree, Fiona Downes
Family-centered care in neonatal intensive care changed over the last decades. Initially, parents and infants were separated and parents were even being blamed for cau-sing infections in their infants. The importance, though, of the parents being the constant in the infant's life emerged and with that the importance of early bonding and attachment for the parents to take on their role and responsibi-lities as primary caregivers. Facilitation of family-centered care includes involving the parents in daily care activities, kangaroo care, developmental care, interaction and communication with the infant, as well as involving grandparents and siblings...
July 2016: Journal of Perinatal & Neonatal Nursing
A Buil, I Carchon, G Apter, F X Laborne, M Granier, E Devouche
OBJECTIVE: Skin-to-skin contact shows benefits in the relationship developed between a mother and her premature infant. In the skin-to-skin session, face-to-face exchanges are impossible in vertical infant positioning. We therefore undertook an observational, prospective, single-center study using kangaroo "supported diagonal flexion" (SDF) positioning. The first aim was to evaluate the safety of kangaroo SDF positioning compared to the usual vertical positioning. The second aim was to evaluate SDF positioning on early communication between the mother and her infant and to improve their well-being...
September 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Sean M Mooney-Leber, Susanne Brummelte
Advances in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) have drastically increased the survival chances of preterm infants. However, preterm infants are still exposed to a wide range of stressors during their stay in the NICU, which include painful procedures and reduced maternal contact. The activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, in response to these stressors during this critical period of brain development, has been associated with many acute and long-term adverse biobehavioral outcomes. Recent research has shown that Kangaroo care, a non-pharmacological analgesic based on increased skin-to-skin contact between the neonate and the mother, negates the adverse outcomes associated with neonatal pain and reduced maternal care, however the biological mechanism remains widely unknown...
May 7, 2016: Neuroscience
Peter D Winch, Anna M Staudt, Roby Sebastian, Marco Corridore, Dmitry Tumin, Janet Simsic, Mark Galantowicz, Aymen Naguib, Joseph D Tobias
OBJECTIVES: The many advantages of early tracheal extubation following congenital cardiac surgery in young infants and children are now widely recognized. Benefits include avoiding the morbidity associated with prolonged intubation and the consequences of sedation and positive pressure ventilation in the setting of altered cardiopulmonary physiology. Our practice of tracheal extubation of young infants in the operating room following cardiac surgery has evolved and new challenges in the arena of postoperative sedation and pain management have appeared...
July 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Britney Benoit, Marsha Campbell-Yeo, Celeste Johnston, Margot Latimer, Kim Caddell, Talia Orr
BACKGROUND: Skin-to-skin contact between mother and infant, commonly referred to as Kangaroo Care (KC), has demonstrated efficacy as a pain-relieving strategy for infants, yet, it remains underutilized in clinical practice. PURPOSE: To evaluate changes in neonatal intensive care unit staff nurse beliefs, utilization, and challenges related to practice change in implementing KC as an intervention for management of procedural pain in preterm infants between 2 time points...
June 2016: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
Stephen R Graves, Aminul Islam
Q fever is endemic in Australia, and during the period 2005-2013 our laboratory diagnosed 379 cases in New South Wales. To evaluate clinical symptoms, epidemiology, mode of diagnosis, antibody profiles, and treatment, a subset of 160 (42%) Q fever cases were analyzed in detail following the return of a questionnaire by the patient's doctor and from their laboratory reports. Overall, 82% patients were male and predominantly middle aged. The majority of patients (89%) had animal contact among which 63% were with cattle, 11% with sheep, and 7% with kangaroos...
July 6, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Eun-Sook Cho, Shin-Jeong Kim, Myung Soon Kwon, Haeryun Cho, Eun Hye Kim, Eun Mi Jun, Sunhee Lee
UNLABELLED: This study was conducted to identify the effects of kangaroo care on the physiological functions of preterm infants, maternal-infant attachment, and maternal stress. DESIGN AND METHODS: For this study, a quasi-experiment design was used with a nonequivalent control group, and a pre- and post-test. Data were collected from preterm infants with corrected gestational ages of ≥33weeks who were hospitalized between May and October 2011. Twenty infants were assigned to the experimental group and 20 to the control group...
July 2016: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
Naomi E Davis, Clare E Death, Graeme Coulson, Lora Newby, Jasmin Hufschmid
Atmospheric fluorides (gaseous and particulate) are deposited on, and absorbed by, vegetation. Ingested fluoride accumulates in calcified tissues of vertebrates, and if it is excessive, it may lead to dental and skeletal fluorosis. The prevalence, form and severity of the effects vary greatly between species. Foraging strategy can be an important determinant of fluoride exposure in herbivores, because foliar fluoride concentrations vary between plant species, for example, according to vertical and lateral position in the vegetation...
May 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Uriel Gélin, Michelle E Wilson, Jemma Cripps, Graeme Coulson, Marco Festa-Bianchet
Reproduction can lead to a trade-off with growth, particularly when individuals reproduce before completing body growth. Kangaroos have indeterminate growth and may always face this trade-off. We combined an experimental manipulation of reproductive effort and multi-year monitoring of a large sample size of marked individuals in two populations of eastern grey kangaroos to test the predictions (1) that reproduction decreases skeletal growth and mass gain and (2) that mass loss leads to reproductive failure...
April 2016: Oecologia
Jill Baley
“Kangaroo mother care” was first described as an alternative method of caring for low birth weight infants in resource-limited countries, where neonatal mortality and infection rates are high because of overcrowded nurseries, inadequate staffing, and lack of equipment. Intermittent skin-to-skin care (SSC), a modified version of kangaroo mother care, is now being offered in resource-rich countries to infants needing neonatal intensive care, including those who require ventilator support or are extremely premature...
September 2015: Pediatrics
W Ahmed, C Staley, M J Sadowsky, P Gyawali, J P S Sidhu, A Palmer, D J Beale, S Toze
In this study, host-associated molecular markers and bacterial 16S rRNA gene community analysis using high-throughput sequencing were used to identify the sources of fecal pollution in environmental waters in Brisbane, Australia. A total of 92 fecal and composite wastewater samples were collected from different host groups (cat, cattle, dog, horse, human, and kangaroo), and 18 water samples were collected from six sites (BR1 to BR6) along the Brisbane River in Queensland, Australia. Bacterial communities in the fecal, wastewater, and river water samples were sequenced...
October 2015: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Kathryn Stalder, Paola K Vaz, James R Gilkerson, Rupert Baker, Pam Whiteley, Nino Ficorilli, Liliana Tatarczuch, Timothy Portas, Kim Skogvold, Garry A Anderson, Joanne M Devlin
Herpesviruses have been reported in several marsupial species, but molecular classification has been limited to four herpesviruses in macropodids, a gammaherpesvirus in two antechinus species (Antechinus flavipes and Antechinus agilis), a gammaherpesvirus in a potoroid, the eastern bettong (Bettongia gaimardi) and two gammaherpesviruses in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus). In this study we examined a range of Australian marsupials for the presence of herpesviruses using molecular and serological techniques, and also assessed risk factors associated with herpesvirus infection...
2015: PloS One
Alana C Sharp
Marsupial herbivores exhibit a wide variety of skull shapes and sizes to exploit different ecological niches. Several studies on teeth, dentaries, and jaw adductor muscles indicate that marsupial herbivores exhibit different specializations for grazing and browsing. No studies, however, have examined the skulls of marsupial herbivores to determine the relationship between stress and strain, and the evolution of skull shape. The relationship between skull morphology, biomechanical performance, and diet was tested by applying the finite element method to the skulls of four marsupial herbivores: the common wombat (Vombatus ursinus), koala (Phascolarctos cinereus), swamp wallaby (Wallabia bicolor), and red kangaroo (Macropus rufus)...
October 2015: Journal of Morphology
J Hufschmid, I Beveridge, G Coulson, G Walker, P Shen, E Reynolds, J Charles
Significantly elevated bone fluoride concentrations have been reported in a population of eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) resident near a fluoride-emitting aluminum smelter in southeastern Australia. This paper describes the skeletal and synovial joint lesions observed post mortem in the same sample of kangaroos (n = 76). The prevalence and severity of skeletal lesions, specifically the formation of multiple, large, smooth exostoses over the diaphysis of long bones (especially, but not exclusively, on the tibia, fibula and metatarsi), were positively associated with bone fluoride concentration...
August 2015: Journal of Comparative Pathology
David A Roberts, Andrew J Cole, Nicholas A Paul, Rocky de Nys
In most countries the mining industry is required to rehabilitate disturbed land with native vegetation. A typical approach is to stockpile soils during mining and then use this soil to recreate landforms after mining. Soil that has been stockpiled for an extended period typically contains little or no organic matter and nutrient, making soil rehabilitation a slow and difficult process. Here, we take freshwater macroalgae (Oedogonium) cultivated in waste water at a coal-fired power station and use it as a feedstock for the production of biochar, then use this biochar to enhance the rehabilitation of two types of stockpiled soil - a ferrosol and a sodosol - from the adjacent coal mine...
September 15, 2015: Journal of Environmental Management
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