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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146468/tdcs-changes-in-motor-excitability-are-specific-to-orientation-of-current-flow
#1
Vishal Rawiji, Matteo Ciocca, André Zacharia, David Soares, Dennis Truong, Marom Bikson, John Rothwell, Sven Bestmann
BACKGROUND: Measurements and models of current flow in the brain during transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) indicate stimulation of regions in-between electrodes. Moreover, the folded cortex results in local fluctuations in current flow intensity and direction, and animal studies suggest current flow direction relative to cortical columns determines response to tDCS. METHODS: Here we test this idea by using Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Motor Evoked Potentials (TMS-MEP) to measure changes in corticospinal excitability following tDCS applied with electrodes aligned orthogonal (across) or parallel to M1 in the central sulcus...
November 7, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145166/revisiting-interhemispheric-imbalance-in-chronic-stroke-a-tdcs-study
#2
Alana B McCambridge, James W Stinear, Winston D Byblow
OBJECTIVE: Chronic stroke patients with moderate-severe motor impairment may have an increased reliance on contralesional vs ipsilesional motor areas to control the paretic arm. We hypothesised that increasing contralesional excitability with anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS) would benefit motor performance in patients with moderate-severe impairment. METHODS: Ten patients with motor impairment at the chronic stage after stroke received a-tDCS, cathodal (c-tDCS) and sham with the target electrode over contralesional motor cortex (M1)...
October 28, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141551/noninvasive-cerebellar-stimulation-as-a-complement-tool-to-pharmacotherapy
#3
Roberta Ferrucci, Tommaso Bocci, Francesca Cortese, Fabiana Ruggiero, Alberto Priori
Cerebellar ataxias represent a wide and heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by balance and coordination disturbance, dysarthria, dyssynergia and adyadococinesia, caused by a dysfunction in the cerebellum. In recent years there has been growing interest in discovering therapeutical strategy for specific forms of cerebellar ataxia. Together with pharmacological studies, there has been growing interest in non-invasive cerebellar stimulation techniques to improve ataxia and limb coordination. Both transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are non-invasive techniques to modulate cerebro and cerebellar cortex excitability using magnetic or electric fields...
November 14, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137960/ampa-receptor-translocation-and-phosphorylation-are-induced-by-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-in-rats
#4
Justin Stafford, Milene L Brownlow, Anthony Qualley, Ryan Jankord
Over the last decade, the interest in transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has continued to increase, along with consideration of how it affects neuroplasticity mechanisms in the brain. Both human and animal studies have demonstrated numerous benefits and, although its application has increased, the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying tDCS' beneficial effects remain largely unknown. Recent studies have shown that long-term potentiation (LTP) increases following tDCS. In this work, we utilized a rodent model of tDCS to directly assess changes in the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor, a critical protein for enhancing synaptic transmission...
November 11, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136550/cerebellar-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-improves-adaptive-postural-control
#5
Peter Poortvliet, Billie Hsieh, Andrew Cresswell, Jacky Au, Marcus Meinzer
OBJECTIVE: Rehabilitation interventions contribute to recovery of impaired postural control, but it remains a priority to optimize their effectiveness. A promising strategy may involve transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of brain areas involved in fine-tuning of motor adaptation. This study explored the effects of cerebellar tDCS (ctDCS) on postural recovery from disturbance by Achilles tendon vibration. METHODS: Twenty-eight healthy volunteers participated in this sham-ctDCS controlled study...
October 20, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127483/high-definition-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-of-the-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-for-tinnitus-modulation-a-preliminary-trial
#6
Giriraj Singh Shekhawat, Sven Vanneste
Tinnitus is the perception of sound in the absence of its external source. Non-invasive neuromodulation techniques have been used in the past decade to investigate the impact of stimulation on tinnitus perception. The objective is to invest the impact of high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS) of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) stimulation on tinnitus loudness and annoyance. Thirteen participants underwent two sessions of HD-tDCS (real and sham) in a double blind, sham controlled, randomized trial...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123493/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-of-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-affects-judgments-of-moral-violations
#7
Hong Yuan, Serik Tabarak, Wenxin Su, Yong Liu, Jing Yu, Xu Lei
Previous studies show that neural activities in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are correlated with moral processing during picture viewing tasks. In this study, we applied transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to determine whether this non-invasive brain stimulation technique could modulate the evaluation of moral violations. Sixty-four subjects were randomly recruited, separated into different groups and tested with 42 pairs of pictures depicting moral violations. Each subject was required to rate the pictures two separate times, i...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122535/limited-output-transcranial-electrical-stimulation-lotes-2017-engineering-principles-regulatory-statutes-and-industry-standards-for-wellness-over-the-counter-or-prescription-devices-with-low-risk
#8
Marom Bikson, Bhaskar Paneri, Andoni Mourdoukoutas, Zeinab Esmaeilpour, Bashar W Badran, Robin Azzam, Devin Adair, Abhishek Datta, Xiao Hui Fang, Brett Wingeier, Daniel Chao, Miguel Alonso-Alonso, Kiwon Lee, Helena Knotkova, Adam J Woods, David Hagedorn, Doug Jeffery, James Giordano, William J Tyler
We present device standards for low-power non-invasive electrical brain stimulation devices classified as limited output transcranial electrical stimulation (tES). Emerging applications of limited output tES to modulate brain function span techniques to stimulate brain or nerve structures, including transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), and transcranial pulsed current stimulation (tPCS), have engendered discussion on how access to technology should be regulated...
October 17, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118423/tolerogenic-dendritic-cells-are-efficiently-generated-using-minocycline-and-dexamethasone
#9
Jae-Hee Lee, Chan-Su Park, Sundong Jang, Ji-Wan Kim, Sang-Hyeon Kim, Sukgil Song, Kyungjae Kim, Chong-Kil Lee
Tolerogenic dendritic cells (tDCs) represent a promising tool for cellular therapy against autoimmune diseases, allergies, and transplantation rejection. Numerous pharmacological agents are known to induce tDC generation. Minocycline, which has long been used as a broad-spectrum antibiotic, was recently shown to significantly increase the generation of DCs with regulatory properties. Here, we examined the effect of the combination of minocycline with dexamethasone, rapamycin, vitamin D3, and interleukin (IL)-10, which are all known inducers of tDC generation...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116303/non-invasive-brain-stimulation-and-computational-models-in-post-stroke-aphasic-patients-single-session-of-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-and-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#10
Michele Devido Dos Santos, Vitor Breseghello Cavenaghi, Ana Paula Machado Goyano Mac-Kay, Vitor Serafim, Alexandre Venturi, Dennis Quangvinh Truong, Yu Huang, Paulo Sérgio Boggio, Felipe Fregni, Marcel Simis, Marom Bikson, Rubens José Gagliardi
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Patients undergoing the same neuromodulation protocol may present different responses. Computational models may help in understanding such differences. The aims of this study were, firstly, to compare the performance of aphasic patients in naming tasks before and after one session of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and sham, and analyze the results between these neuromodulation techniques; and secondly, through computational model on the cortex and surrounding tissues, to assess current flow distribution and responses among patients who received tDCS and presented different levels of results from naming tasks...
November 6, 2017: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113929/interaction-of-the-left-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-l-dlpfc-and-right-orbitofrontal-cortex-ofc-in-hot-and-cold-executive-functions-evidence-from-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs
#11
Vahid Nejati, Mohammad Ali Salehinejad, Michael A Nitsche
An organizing principle which has recently emerged proposes that executive functions (EF) can be divided into cognitive (cold) and affective or reward-related (hot) processes related to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) respectively. A controversial question is whether cold and hot EF are functionally and structurally independent or not. This study investigated how the left DLPFC (l-DLPFC) and right OFC (r-OFC) interact in hot and cold EF using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)...
November 4, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111357/relevance-of-dorsolateral-and-frontotemporal-cortex-on-the-phonemic-verbal-fluency-a-fnirs-study
#12
Martin J Herrmann, Anna K Horst, Sophia Löble, Mira T Möll, Andrea Katzorke, Thomas Polak
Non-invasive brain stimulation is widely used to investigate and manipulate specific brain functions to broaden knowledge about healthy people, and also to provide for a potential treatment option for people with various psychopathological disorders that do not adequately benefit from traditional treatments. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully investigated yet. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether we could alter the brain activity during a test for executive functioning...
October 27, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111077/international-randomized-controlled-trial-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-in-depression
#13
Colleen K Loo, Mustafa M Husain, William M McDonald, Scott Aaronson, John P O'Reardon, Angelo Alonzo, Cynthia Shannon Weickert, Donel M Martin, Shawn M McClintock, Adith Mohan, Sarah H Lisanby
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) has antidepressant effects in unipolar depression, but there is limited information for patients with bipolar depression. Additionally, prior research suggests that brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met genotype may moderate response to tDCS. OBJECTIVE: To examine tDCS efficacy in unipolar and bipolar depression and assess if BDNF genotype is associated with antidepressant response to tDCS...
October 27, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107706/effects-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-over-the-supplementary-motor-area-body-weight-supported-treadmill-gait-training-in-hemiparetic-patients-after-stroke
#14
Atsushi Manji, Kazu Amimoto, Tadamitsu Matsuda, Yoshiaki Wada, Akira Inaba, Sangkyun Ko
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is used in a variety of disorders after stroke including upper limb motor dysfunctions, hemispatial neglect, aphasia, and apraxia, and its effectiveness has been demonstrated. Although gait ability is important for daily living, there were few reports of the use of tDCS to improve balance and gait ability. The supplementary motor area (SMA) was reported to play a potentially important role in balance recovery after stroke. We aimed to investigate the effect of combined therapy body weight-supported treadmill training (BWSTT) and tDCS on gait function recovery of stroke patients...
October 28, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101842/the-effect-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-of-the-prefrontal-cortex-on-implicit-self-esteem-is-mediated-by-rumination-after-criticism
#15
Rudi De Raedt, Jonathan Remue, Tom Loeys, Jill M Hooley, Chris Baeken
It has been proposed that a crucial link between cognitive (i.e., self-schemas) and biological vulnerability is prefrontal control. This is because decreased control leads to impaired ability to inhibit ruminative thinking after the activation of negative self-schemas. However, current evidence is mainly correlational. In the current experimental study we tested whether the effect of neurostimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) on self-esteem is mediated by momentary ruminative self-referential thinking (MRST) after the induction of negative self-schemas by criticism...
October 21, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101820/extending-the-limits-of-force-endurance-stimulation-of-the-motor-or-the-frontal-cortex
#16
Rémi Radel, Gavin Tempest, Gauthier Denis, Pierre Besson, Raphael Zory
Previous findings indicate that facilitation of primary motor cortex (PMC) activity using trans-cranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) could improve resistance to physical fatigue. However, studies have failed to consistently replicate these results. Using non-focal-tDCS during a fatiguing task, recent work showed no enhancement of corticospinal excitability of the PMC despite a longer endurance time and suggested that contamination in other brain regions involved in motor command may have occurred. In accordance with recent evidence supporting the role of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in exercise maintenance, this double-blind sham-controlled crossover study (N = 22) compared the effect of high definition (HD)-tDCS of the PMC or the PFC on endurance time of a sustained contraction task of the elbow flexor...
October 9, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098676/physical-therapy
#17
Li-Jun Xiao, Ran Tao
Physical therapy has the evidence-based science knowledge to address a wide range of physical and psychological problems of addiction. Neuromodulation techniques are becoming more and more important in the treatment of addiction. Here, the efficacy of different neuromodulation techniques in addiction, such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), deep brain stimulation (DBS), is critically evaluated. Other physical therapy methods including Biofeedback, Physical Activity and Acupuncture are also presented...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098314/acute-and-repetitive-fronto-cerebellar-tdcs-stimulation-improves-mood-in-non-depressed-participants
#18
Simon Newstead, Hayley Young, David Benton, Gabriela Jiga-Boy, Maria L Andrade Sienz, R M Clement, Frédéric Boy
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive form of brain stimulation, which allows for selective inhibition or excitation of neural structures. It has demonstrated some efficacy in the treatment of mood disorders. However, these studies have predominately focused on stimulation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The cerebellum has an increasingly recognized role in emotional control, affective state, and some psychopathologies. As such, tDCS research into mood modulation needs to expand beyond conventional PFC-focused paradigms...
November 2, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079458/bilateral-extracephalic-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-improves-endurance-performance-in-healthy-individuals
#19
L Angius, A R Mauger, J Hopker, A Pascual-Leone, E Santarnecchi, S M Marcora
BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been used to enhance endurance performance but its precise mechanisms and effects remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of bilateral tDCS on neuromuscular function and performance during a cycling time to task failure (TTF) test. METHODS: Twelve participants in randomized order received a placebo tDCS (SHAM) or real tDCS with two cathodes (CATHODAL) or two anodes (ANODAL) over bilateral motor cortices and the opposite electrode pair over the ipsilateral shoulders...
October 5, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079367/astrocytes-as-a-target-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs-to-treat-depression
#20
REVIEW
Hiromu Monai, Hajime Hirase
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been reported to be effective in treating mood disorders such as major depressive disorder, however, its detailed mechanism of action is not fully understood. Human and animal experiments have demonstrated that tDCS promotes brain plasticity and have suggested that this consequence may underlie its therapeutic benefits. Nonetheless, the specific neurobiological underpinnings of tDCS-induced brain plasticity have only recently begun to be investigated. While brain plasticity occurs in synapses formed by neurons, astrocytes, a major glial cell type, have recently been shown to support synaptic plasticity via intracellular Ca(2+) signaling...
October 25, 2017: Neuroscience Research
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