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Eileen K Hutton, Mary E Hannah, Andrew R Willan, Susan Ross, Alexander C Allen, B Anthony Armson, Amiram Gafni, K S Joseph, Kathryn Mangoff, Arne Ohlsson, J Johanna Sanchez, Elizabeth V Asztalos, Jon F R Barrett
OBJECTIVE: Does planned caesarean compared with planned vaginal birth lower the risk of problematic urinary stress, fecal or flatal incontinence?. DESIGN: Women between 32 0/7 and 38 6/7 weeks gestation with twin pregnancy were randomised to planned caesarean or planned vaginal birth. SETTING: 106 centers in 25 countries. POPULATION: 2305 /2804 enrolled in the study completed questionnaires at two years (82.2%follow up): 1155 in the planned caesarean group, 1150 in the planned vaginal birth group...
July 14, 2018: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Chao-Yu Liu, Yan Li, Essi Viding, Philip Asherson, Jean-Baptiste Pingault
Symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, in particular inattention symptoms, are associated with academic achievement. However, whether and why the developmental course of inattention symptoms (i.e. systematic decreases or increases of symptoms with age) predicts academic achievement remains unclear. A total of 5634 twin pairs born in the UK were included in the current study. We used latent growth curve modelling to estimate the baseline level and the developmental course of inattention symptoms (assessed at ages 8, 11, 14 and 16 years) and test whether they predicted the General Certificate of Secondary Education scores (GCSE, at age 16 years)...
July 13, 2018: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Katherine E Bathgate, James R Bagley, Edward Jo, Robert J Talmadge, Irene S Tobias, Lee E Brown, Jared W Coburn, Jose A Arevalo, Nancy L Segal, Andrew J Galpin
INTRODUCTION: Physical health and function depend upon both genetic inheritance and environmental factors (e.g., exercise training). PURPOSE: To enhance the understanding of heritability/adaptability, we explored the skeletal muscle health and physiological performance of monozygotic (MZ) twins with > 30 years of chronic endurance training vs. no specific/consistent exercise. METHODS: One pair of male MZ twins (age = 52 years; Trained Twin, TT; Untrained Twin, UT) underwent analyses of: (1) anthropometric characteristics and blood profiles, (2) markers of cardiovascular and pulmonary health, and (3) skeletal muscle size, strength, and power and molecular markers of muscle health...
July 14, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
M Bönisch, Y Wu, H Sehitoglu
A face-centered-cubic (fcc) oriented FeCoCrNiAl0.5 dual-phase high entropy alloy (HEA) was plastically strained in uniaxial compression at 77K and 293K and the underlying deformation mechanisms were studied. The undeformed microstructure consists of a body-centered-cubic (bcc)/B2 interdendritic network and precipitates embedded in 〈001〉-oriented fcc dendrites. In contrast to other dual-phase HEAs, at both deformation temperatures a steep rise in the stress-strain curves occurs above 23% total axial strain...
July 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xingrao Ke, Hollis Johnson, Xigang Jing, Teresa Michalkiewicz, Yi-Wen Huang, Robert H Lane, Girija G Konduri
Decreased expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), a key mediator of perinatal transition, characterizes persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) in neonates and a fetal lamb model; the mechanisms are unclear. We investigated whether increased DNA CpG methylation at the eNOS promoter in estrogen response elements (EREs) and altered histone code together contribute to decreased eNOS expression in PPHN. We isolated pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAEC) from fetal lambs with PPHN induced by prenatal ductus arteriosus constriction from 128-136 days gestation or gestation matched twin controls...
July 13, 2018: Physiological Genomics
Stefan J Turneaure, P Renganathan, J M Winey, Y M Gupta
Determining the temporal evolution of twinning and/or dislocation slip, in real-time (nanoseconds), in single crystals subjected to plane shock wave loading is a long-standing scientific need. Noncubic crystals pose special challenges because they have many competing slip and twinning systems. Here, we report on time-resolved, in situ, synchrotron Laue x-ray diffraction measurements during shock compression and release of magnesium single crystals that are subjected to compression along the c axis. Significant twinning was observed directly during stress release following shock compression; during compression, only dislocation slip was observed...
June 29, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Elias R Most, Lukas R Weih, Luciano Rezzolla, Jürgen Schaffner-Bielich
We explore in a parameterized manner a very large range of physically plausible equations of state (EOSs) for compact stars for matter that is either purely hadronic or that exhibits a phase transition. In particular, we produce two classes of EOSs with and without phase transitions, each containing one million EOSs. We then impose constraints on the maximum mass (M<2.16  M_{⊙}) and on the dimensionless tidal deformability (Λ[over ˜]<800) deduced from GW170817, together with recent suggestions of lower limits on Λ[over ˜]...
June 29, 2018: Physical Review Letters
M Sliwa, D McGonegle, C Wehrenberg, C A Bolme, P G Heighway, A Higginbotham, A Lazicki, H J Lee, B Nagler, H S Park, R E Rudd, M J Suggit, D Swift, F Tavella, L Zepeda-Ruiz, B A Remington, J S Wark
We have used femtosecond x-ray diffraction to study laser-shocked fiber-textured polycrystalline tantalum targets as the 37-253 GPa shock waves break out from the free surface. We extract the time and depth-dependent strain profiles within the Ta target as the rarefaction wave travels back into the bulk of the sample. In agreement with molecular dynamics simulations, the lattice rotation and the twins that are formed under shock compression are observed to be almost fully eliminated by the rarefaction process...
June 29, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Federico Prefumo, Eric Jauniaux
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Vural Özdemir
Globalization and knowledge mobilization (KM) are twin challenges impacting precision medicine currently. Previous KM models have been largely limited to an implementation framework whereby knowledge is imagined as a billiard ball to be simply rolled over from the laboratory to society and from developed to developing countries. This narrow and sanitized understanding of KM and science as being detached from social forces, human values, politics, and power inequities does not help to achieve robust and responsible emergence of precision medicine, not least because tailored medicines are not simple products ready to use off-the-shelf without customization in each country, local context and society...
July 13, 2018: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
Camelia C Minică, Karin J H Verweij, Peter J van der Most, Hamdi Mbarek, Manon Bernard, Kristel R van Eijk, Penelope A Lind, Meng Zhen Liu, Dominique F Maciejewski, Teemu Palviainen, Cristina Sánchez-Mora, Richard Sherva, Michelle Taylor, Raymond K Walters, Abdel Abdellaoui, Timothy B Bigdeli, Susan J T Branje, Sandra A Brown, Miguel Casas, Robin P Corley, George Davey Smith, Gareth E Davies, Erik A Ehli, Lindsay Farrer, Iryna O Fedko, Iris Garcia-Martínez, Scott D Gordon, Catharina A Hartman, Andrew C Heath, Ian B Hickie, Matthew Hickman, Christian J Hopfer, Jouke Jan Hottenga, René S Kahn, Jaakko Kaprio, Tellervo Korhonen, Henry R Kranzler, Ken Krauter, Pol A C van Lier, Pamela A F Madden, Sarah E Medland, Michael C Neale, Wim H J Meeus, Grant W Montgomery, Ilja M Nolte, Albertine J Oldehinkel, Zdenka Pausova, Josep A Ramos-Quiroga, Vanesa Richarte, Richard J Rose, Jean Shin, Michael C Stallings, Tamara L Wall, Jennifer J Ware, Margaret J Wright, Hongyu Zhao, Hans M Koot, Tomas Paus, John K Hewitt, Marta Ribasés, Anu Loukola, Marco P Boks, Harold Snieder, Marcus R Munafò, Joel Gelernter, Dorret I Boomsma, Nicholas G Martin, Nathan A Gillespie, Jacqueline M Vink, Eske M Derks
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cannabis is one of the most commonly used substances among adolescents and young adults. Earlier age at cannabis initiation is linked to adverse life outcomes including multi-substance use and dependence. This study estimated the heritability of age at first cannabis use and identify associations with genetic variants. METHODS: A twin-based heritability analysis using 8,055 twins from three cohorts was performed. We then carried-out a genome wide survival meta-analysis of age at first cannabis use in a discovery sample of 24,953 individuals from nine European, North American, and Australian cohorts, and a replication sample of 3,735 individuals...
July 13, 2018: Addiction
Jeremy A Elman, Amy J Jak, Matthew S Panizzon, Xin M Tu, Tian Chen, Chandra A Reynolds, Daniel E Gustavson, Carol E Franz, Sean N Hatton, Kristen C Jacobson, Rosemary Toomey, Ruth McKenzie, Hong Xian, Michael J Lyons, William S Kremen
Introduction: Longitudinal testing is necessary to accurately measure cognitive change. However, repeated testing is susceptible to practice effects, which may obscure true cognitive decline and delay detection of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods: We retested 995 late-middle-aged men in a ∼6-year follow-up of the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging. In addition, 170 age-matched replacements were tested for the first time at study wave 2. Group differences were used to calculate practice effects after controlling for attrition effects...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
Max Lam, Joey W Trampush, Jin Yu, Emma Knowles, Srdjan Djurovic, Ingrid Melle, Kjetil Sundet, Andrea Christoforou, Ivar Reinvang, Pamela DeRosse, Astri J Lundervold, Vidar M Steen, Thomas Espeseth, Katri Räikkönen, Elisabeth Widen, Aarno Palotie, Johan G Eriksson, Ina Giegling, Bettina Konte, Panos Roussos, Stella Giakoumaki, Katherine E Burdick, Antony Payton, William Ollier, Ornit Chiba-Falek, Deborah K Attix, Anna C Need, Elizabeth T Cirulli, Aristotle N Voineskos, Nikos C Stefanis, Dimitrios Avramopoulos, Alex Hatzimanolis, Dan E Arking, Nikolaos Smyrnis, Robert M Bilder, Nelson A Freimer, Tyrone D Cannon, Edythe London, Russell A Poldrack, Fred W Sabb, Eliza Congdon, Emily Drabant Conley, Matthew A Scult, Dwight Dickinson, Richard E Straub, Gary Donohoe, Derek Morris, Aiden Corvin, Michael Gill, Ahmad R Hariri, Daniel R Weinberger, Neil Pendleton, Panos Bitsios, Dan Rujescu, Jari Lahti, Stephanie Le Hellard, Matthew C Keller, Ole A Andreassen, David C Glahn, Anil K Malhotra, Todd Lencz
Hill (Twin Research and Human Genetics, Vol. 21, 2018, 84-88) presented a critique of our recently published paper in Cell Reports entitled 'Large-Scale Cognitive GWAS Meta-Analysis Reveals Tissue-Specific Neural Expression and Potential Nootropic Drug Targets' (Lam et al., Cell Reports, Vol. 21, 2017, 2597-2613). Specifically, Hill offered several interrelated comments suggesting potential problems with our use of a new analytic method called Multi-Trait Analysis of GWAS (MTAG) (Turley et al., Nature Genetics, Vol...
July 13, 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
Maarit Piirtola, Aline Jelenkovic, Antti Latvala, Reijo Sund, Chika Honda, Fujio Inui, Mikio Watanabe, Rie Tomizawa, Yoshinori Iwatani, Juan R Ordoñana, Juan F Sánchez-Romera, Lucia Colodro-Conde, Adam D Tarnoki, David L Tarnoki, Nicholas G Martin, Grant W Montgomery, Sarah E Medland, Finn Rasmussen, Per Tynelius, Qihua Tan, Dongfeng Zhang, Zengchang Pang, Esther Rebato, Maria A Stazi, Corrado Fagnani, Sonia Brescianini, Andreas Busjahn, Jennifer R Harris, Ingunn Brandt, Thomas Sevenius Nilsen, Tessa L Cutler, John L Hopper, Robin P Corley, Brooke M Huibregtse, Joohon Sung, Jina Kim, Jooyeon Lee, Sooji Lee, Margaret Gatz, David A Butler, Carol E Franz, William S Kremen, Michael J Lyons, Patrik K E Magnusson, Nancy L Pedersen, Anna K Dahl Aslan, Sevgi Y Öncel, Fazil Aliev, Catherine A Derom, Robert F Vlietinck, Ruth J F Loos, Judy L Silberg, Hermine H Maes, Dorret I Boomsma, Thorkild I A Sørensen, Tellervo Korhonen, Jaakko Kaprio, Karri Silventoinen
BACKGROUND: Smokers tend to weigh less than never smokers, while successful quitting leads to an increase in body weight. Because smokers and non-smokers may differ in genetic and environmental family background, we analysed data from twin pairs in which the co-twins differed by their smoking behaviour to evaluate if the association between smoking and body mass index (BMI) remains after controlling for family background. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The international CODATwins database includes information on smoking and BMI measured between 1960 and 2012 from 156,593 twin individuals 18-69 years of age...
2018: PloS One
Kai Xiang Lim, Chao-Yu Liu, Tabea Schoeler, Charlotte A M Cecil, Edward D Barker, Essi Viding, Corina U Greven, Jean-Baptiste Pingault
BACKGROUND: Available evidence points towards lower birth weight as a risk factor for the development of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. We probed the causal nature of this putative effect of birth weight on ADHD symptoms using the twin differences design, which accounts for genetic and shared environmental confounds. METHOD: In a large population-based twin sample - 3,499 monozygotic (MZ) and 6,698 dizygotic (DZ) pairs - parents, teachers or twins rated the twins' ADHD symptoms at nine assessment waves (2-16 years)...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Chenwei Wu, Li Xu, Leilei Shi, Xihui Gao, Jing Li, Xinyuan Zhu, Chuan Zhang
Multidrug resistance (MDR) is one of the most important reasons for the failure of clinical chemotherapy treatment of cancer patients. Although several strategies have been proposed to overcome MDR, their contributions in improving therapeutic efficacy are not adequate. Herein, we constructed a nano-twindrug using a supramolecular self-assembling strategy, with the aim of efficiently reversing MDR. Due to the supramolecular interactions, doxorubicin (DOX) and vorinostat (SAHA) could self-assemble into stable spherical nanoparticles with a size of ∼160 nm...
July 12, 2018: Biomaterials Science
Hiroaki Soyama, Morikazu Miyamoto, Takahiro Natsuyama, Masashi Takano, Hidenori Sasa, Kenichi Furuya
Refeeding syndrome very rarely develops during pregnancy. A 35-year-old primiparous woman pregnant with twins complained of severe fatigue at 19 weeks' gestation. She was admitted to our hospital in a malnourished condition because of repeated self-induced vomiting due to anorexia nervosa. Just after hospitalization, she voluntarily increased her caloric intake significantly above the recommended prescribed diet, without medical permission. Nine days later, she developed refeeding syndrome. Electrolyte replacement and calorie restriction were started and her condition gradually improved...
June 2018: Obstetric Medicine
Kahraman Coşansu, Mustafa Tarık Ağaç, Harun Kılıç, Ramazan Akdemir, Hüseyin Gündüz
A circumflex artery originating from an ostium apart from the left main artery is one of the most common coronary artery anomalies. However, a dual origin of the circumflex artery is an extremely rare anomaly. We describe a 55-year-old male patient admitted to our clinic with the diagnosis of unstable angina. Angiography revealed twin circumflex arteries: one from the left main artery and the other from the proximal right coronary artery and a stenotic left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). The patient was treated with percutaneous coronary intervention on the LAD lesion...
January 2018: Journal of Tehran Heart Center
Emily J Camm, Kimberley J Botting, Amanda N Sferruzzi-Perri
The development of the fetal heart is exquisitely controlled by a multitude of factors, ranging from humoral to mechanical forces. The gatekeeper regulating many of these factors is the placenta, an external fetal organ. As such, resistance within the placental vascular bed has a direct influence on the fetal circulation and therefore, the developing heart. In addition, the placenta serves as the interface between the mother and fetus, controlling substrate exchange and release of hormones into both circulations...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Phornwalan Nanthananon, Manus Seadan, Sommai Pivsa-Art, Hiroyuki Hamada, Supakij Suttiruengwong
Hybrid composites of fillers and/or fibers reinforced polymer was generally produced by masterbatch dilution technique. In this work, the simplified preparation was introduced for the large volume production of 30 wt % short-fiber and talcum reinforced polymer hybrid composite by direct feeding into twin-screw extruder. Multifunctional epoxide-based terpolymer and/or maleic anhydride were selected as in situ reactive compatibilizers. The influence of fiber and talcum ratios and in situ reactive compatibilizers on mechanical, dynamic mechanical, morphological and thermal properties of hybrid composites were investigated...
July 10, 2018: Materials
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