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Deep fat frying

Laura Román, Joana Pico, Beatriz Antolín, Mario M Martinez, Manuel Gómez
Fried battered foods are widely consumed worldwide. In this study, the influence of the replacement of native wheat flour by extruded flours (7.5 and 15%) subjected to different extrusion severities on chicken nuggets was assessed. Microstructure, pick-up, moisture and fat content, texture, colour, volatile profile, and consumer acceptability were evaluated. Extruded flour replacement resulted in batters with improved pick-up with increasing percentage and severity of extrusion treatment. Extruded flour also contributed to a moisture increase, while oil remained practically unchanged...
September 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Toluwase A Dada, Lucretia I Barber, Lubanza Ngoma, Mulunda Mwanza
The study developed an acceptable formula for the production of cassava strips (a deep fried product) using composite flour of cassava/cowpea at four different levels of cowpea substitutions (100:0, 90:10, 80:20, and 70:30). Sensory properties, proximate composition, and shelf life at ambient temperature were determined. Proximate composition, shelf life, and microbial analysis were further done on the most preferred sample (80:20) and the control (100:0). Results showed a significant difference between the tested sample and the control, except in their moisture (4...
March 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
Patchimaporn Udomkun, Bhundit Innawong, Chatchalai Siasakul, Christopher Okafor
The effects were studied of two different adsorbent combinations (com I; bentonite: activated carbon: celite = 3:4:1 and com II; bentonite: activated clay: celite = 3:4:1 + 1% citric acid) on the physico-chemical changes of oil used continuously for deep-fat frying of chicken drumsticks. The results showed that the % FFA was reduced by 44.3, PV by 50.2, and FOS reading by 40.1% in com I whereas reductions of 41.6, 44.9, and 32.8%, respectively, were found in com II. The oil treated with com II exhibited a lighter color than with com I...
May 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Yasushi Endo
Edible fats and oils are among the basic components of the human diet, along with carbohydrates and proteins, and they are the source of high energy and essential fatty acids such as linoleic and linolenic acids. Edible fats and oils are used in for pan- and deep-frying, and in salad dressing, mayonnaise and processed foods such as chocolates and cream. The physical and chemical properties of edible fats and oils can affect the quality of oil foods and hence must be evaluated in detail. The physical characteristics of edible fats and oils include color, specific gravity, refractive index, melting point, congeal point, smoke point, flash point, fire point, and viscosity, while the chemical characteristics include acid value, saponification value, iodine value, fatty acid composition, trans isomers, triacylglycerol composition, unsaponifiable matters (sterols, tocopherols) and minor components (phospholipids, chlorophyll pigments, glycidyl fatty acid esters)...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Oleo Science
Qing Zhang, Chong Wan, Chenzhi Wang, Hong Chen, Yaowen Liu, Suqing Li, Derong Lin, Dingtao Wu, Wen Qin
To investigate the non-aldehyde volatile profile resulting from deep-fat frying, volatile compounds formed during the processes of heating soybean oil (SO), frying wheat dough (WD), and frying chicken breast meat (CBM) were comparatively studied. By using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and internal standard method, alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, alcohols, ketones, nitrogen-containing volatiles (NCVs), and other volatiles were qualitatively and relatively quantitatively detected. NCVs were detected only in CBM-fried oil samples...
March 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Angelo Maria Giuffrè, Marco Capocasale, Clotilde Zappia, Marco Poiana
Two important problems for the food industry are oil oxidation and oil waste after frying. Sunflower seed oil is one of the vegetable oils most commonly used in the food industry. Two variables were applied to the low oleic sunflower seed oil in this work i.e. heating temperature (180-210-240°C) and time of heating (15-30-60-120 minutes), to study from the edible point of view the variations of its physico-chemical properties. After 120 minutes heating at 240°C the following was found: refractive index (1...
2017: Journal of Oleo Science
M Maneesh Kumar, Sheema Faiza, Sukumar Debnath, Nasirullah
The present study was carried out to study the physico-chemical changes that take place in both product and oil during the deep fat frying of a traditional savoury snack 'kodubale', at 120-160 °C for 120-600 s using coconut oil (CO) and nutra-coconut oil (NCO). Further, kinetic studies on moisture loss, oil uptake, color and degradation of β-carotene, total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity for kodubale was carried out during frying as a function of temperature and time. The study showed that the kinetic coefficients for above parameters increased with temperature and time and the data obtained were well fitted with first order kinetic model...
October 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Nindy Sabrina, Chyi-Huey Bai, Chun-Chao Chang, Yi-Wen Chien, Jiun-Rong Chen, Jung-Su Chang
Dysregulated iron metabolism is associated with altered body composition and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); however, mechanisms underlying this association remain undefined. We investigated this association in 117 women. Middle-aged women (≥45 years old (y)) were heavier and had lower serum iron, higher serum hepcidin, ferritin, and severe NAFLD incidence than young adult women (<45 y). Age-adjusted linear regression analysis revealed that young adult women with the highest serum iron:ferritin ratio (Tertile 3) had a 5...
August 4, 2017: Nutrients
Franklin B Apea-Bah, June C Serem, Megan J Bester, Kwaku G Duodu
Koose, a West African delicacy, is a side dish prepared by deep frying thick cowpea paste. The current research determined the effect of deep-fat frying of cowpea paste on its total phenolic content (TPC), phenolic composition and antioxidant properties. Four cowpea cultivars comprising two reddish-brown, a brownish-cream and cream phenotypes were used. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to determine phenolic composition of the samples. TPC was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu method while radical scavenging capacities were by Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, oxygen radical absorbance capacity and nitric oxide scavenging assays...
December 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Ruhollah Sayyad
The performance of the sunflower oil in deep-fat frying was assessed by evaluating the efficacy of linoleic acid level and composition of tocopherol isomeric on its frying stability. The oil was used as a frying media to fry potato strips for 6 h daily for 7 days. Standard procedures for the measurement of used frying oil degradation such as fatty acid composition, acid value, anisidine value, conjugated diene value, total polar compounds and tocopherol concentration were used. At analogous composition of tocopherol isomers, the high oleic sunflower oil with smaller value of linoleic acid content indicated higher frying stability than the oil with higher linoleic acid level...
July 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Medeni Maskan, Erhan Horuz
The yield of Za'atar (Thymbra spicata) essential oils were found to be 2.5-3.4% at extraction process temperatures of 100-175 °C. The essential oils contained 79.5-86.2% carvacrol. Effects of BHT and Za'atar essential oil on stability of palm olein during deep-fat frying of potato slices were studied at 180 °C. Changes in peroxide, para-anisidine, iodine values, free fatty acid and color were determined. Za'atar essential oil and BHT reduced free fatty acid content of olein from 0.27 to 0.21% (oleic acid) after 50 frying cycles...
June 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
S Gulati, A Misra
Obesity and type 2 diabetes are increasing in rural and urban regions of South Asia including India. Pattern of fat deposition in abdomen, ectopic fat deposition (liver, pancreas) and also low lean mass are contributory to early-onset insulin resistance, dysmetabolic state and diabetes in Asian Indians. These metabolic perturbations are further exacerbated by changing lifestyle, diet urbanization, and mechanization. Important dietary imbalances include increasing use of oils containing high amount of trans fatty acids and saturated fats (partially hydrogenated vegetable oil, palmolein oil) use of deep frying method and reheating of oils for cooking, high intake of saturated fats, sugar and refined carbohydrates, low intake of protein, fiber and increasing intake of processed foods...
July 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Renata Jędrkiewicz, Agnieszka Głowacz-Różyńska, Justyna Gromadzka, Piotr Konieczka, Jacek Namieśnik
A novel method for indirect determination of MCPD esters levels in lipid samples has been developed. The method is based on combination of extraction and derivatization in the same sample preparation step. It is achieved by the application of diethyl ether as extraction solvent for isolation of analytes released from esterified forms from the water phase and as dilution solvent for solid PBA - the derivatization agent. It is a noteworthy improvement of recommended indirect approaches available in the literature because such steps as sample clean-up, multiple liquid-liquid extractions, and preconcentration are excluded in the proposed solution...
July 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Xiaodan Li, Xiaoyan Yu, Dewei Sun, Jinwei Li, Yong Wang, Peirang Cao, Yuanfa Liu
In the present study, effects of deep-fried palm oil, specifically polar compounds generated during the frying process, on animal health including lipid and glucose metabolism and liver functions were investigated. Kunming mice were fed a high-fat diet containing deep-fried palm oil or purified polar compounds for 12 weeks. Their effects on animal health including hepatic lipid profile, antioxidant enzyme activity, serum biochemistry, and glucose tolerance were analyzed. Our results revealed that the consumption of polar compounds was related to the change of lipid deposition in liver and adipose tissue, as well as glucose tolerance alteration in Kunming mice...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Kazi Enamul Hoque, Megat Ahmad Kamaluddin, Ahmad Zabidi Abdul Razak, Afiq Athari Abdul Wahid
BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity have increased rapidly in incidence to become a global issue today. Overweight and obesity problems are significantly linked to unhealthy dietary patterns, physical inactivity and misperception of body image. This study aimed to determine whether Malaysian children build healthy eating habits from childhood. METHODS: A survey on eating habits was conducted among primary school students in standards 4 to 6 in the state of Selangor, Malaysia...
2016: PeerJ
Alice Thürer, Michael Granvogl
Deep-frying leads to the generation of various degradation products providing desired properties, like aroma, taste, or color, but some can have adverse effects on human health. The study investigated the influence of frying oils differing in their fatty acid compositions on the generation of desirable and undesirable compounds during deep-frying of potato chips. Selected key odorants and toxicologically relevant compounds (acrolein, acrylamide, furan, and glycidamide) were quantitated by stable isotope dilution assays...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Yu Hua Wong, Halimah Muhamad, Faridah Abas, Oi Ming Lai, Kar Lin Nyam, Chin Ping Tan
The effects of frying duration, frying temperature and concentration of sodium chloride on the formation of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) esters and glycidyl esters (GEs) of refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm olein during deep-fat frying (at 160°C and 180°C) of potato chips (0%, 1%, 3% and 5% NaCl) for 100min/d for five consecutive days in eight systems were compared in this study. All oil samples collected after each frying cycle were analyzed for 3-MCPD esters, GEs, free fatty acid (FFA) contents, specific extinction at 232 and 268 nm (K232 and K268), p-anisidine value (pAV), and fatty acid composition...
March 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Irene Roncero-Ramos, Mónica Mendiola-Lanao, Margarita Pérez-Clavijo, Cristina Delgado-Andrade
Influence of culinary treatments (boiling, microwaving, grilling, and deep frying) on proximate composition and antioxidant capacity of cultivated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus, Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Pleurotus eryngii) was studied. Proximate composition was affected by the cooking method and the mushrooms species. Frying induced more severe losses in protein, ash, and carbohydrates content but increased the fat and energy. Boiling improved the total glucans content by enhancing the β-glucans fraction...
May 2017: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
K N van Koerten, M A I Schutyser, D Somsen, R M Boom
Conventional industrial frying systems are not optimised towards homogeneous product quality, which is partly related to poor oil distribution across the packed bed of fries. In this study we investigate an alternative frying system with an oil cross-flow from bottom to top through a packed bed of fries. Fluidization of rectangular fries during frying was characterised with a modified Ergun equation. Mixing was visualized by using two coloured layers of fries and quantified in terms of mixing entropy. Smaller fries mixed quickly during frying, while longer fries exhibited much less mixing, which was attributed to the higher minimum fluidization velocity and slower dehydration for longer fries...
April 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Tânia Gonçalves Albuquerque, M Beatriz P P Oliveira, Ana Sanches-Silva, Ana Cristina Bento, Helena S Costa
The impact of cooking methods (industrial pre-frying, deep-fat frying and baking) on the nutritional quality and safety of chicken breaded nugget samples from supermarket and commercial brands was evaluated. The changes in the quality characteristics (nutritional composition, fatty acids profile, cholesterol and salt) of the fried food and frying oil, after ten consecutive frying operations, were evaluated. The total fat content of nuggets varied between 10.9 and 22.7 g per 100 g of edible portion and the salt content ranged from 0...
June 15, 2016: Food & Function
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