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Deep fat frying

S Gulati, A Misra
Obesity and type 2 diabetes are increasing in rural and urban regions of South Asia including India. Pattern of fat deposition in abdomen, ectopic fat deposition (liver, pancreas) and also low lean mass are contributory to early-onset insulin resistance, dysmetabolic state and diabetes in Asian Indians. These metabolic perturbations are further exacerbated by changing lifestyle, diet urbanization, and mechanization. Important dietary imbalances include increasing use of oils containing high amount of trans fatty acids and saturated fats (partially hydrogenated vegetable oil, palmolein oil) use of deep frying method and reheating of oils for cooking, high intake of saturated fats, sugar and refined carbohydrates, low intake of protein, fiber and increasing intake of processed foods...
June 14, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Renata Jędrkiewicz, Agnieszka Głowacz-Różyńska, Justyna Gromadzka, Piotr Konieczka, Jacek Namieśnik
A novel method for indirect determination of MCPD esters levels in lipid samples has been developed. The method is based on combination of extraction and derivatization in the same sample preparation step. It is achieved by the application of diethyl ether as extraction solvent for isolation of analytes released from esterified forms from the water phase and as dilution solvent for solid PBA - the derivatization agent. It is a noteworthy improvement of recommended indirect approaches available in the literature because such steps as sample clean-up, multiple liquid-liquid extractions, and preconcentration are excluded in the proposed solution...
May 8, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Xiaodan Li, Xiaoyan Yu, Dewei Sun, Jinwei Li, Yong Wang, Peirang Cao, Yuanfa Liu
In the present study, effects of deep-fried palm oil, specifically polar compounds generated during the frying process, on animal health including lipid and glucose metabolism and liver functions were investigated. Kunming mice were fed a high-fat diet containing deep-fried palm oil or purified polar compounds for 12 weeks. Their effects on animal health including hepatic lipid profile, antioxidant enzyme activity, serum biochemistry, and glucose tolerance were analyzed. Our results revealed that the consumption of polar compounds was related to the change of lipid deposition in liver and adipose tissue, as well as glucose tolerance alteration in Kunming mice...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Kazi Enamul Hoque, Megat Ahmad Kamaluddin, Ahmad Zabidi Abdul Razak, Afiq Athari Abdul Wahid
BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity have increased rapidly in incidence to become a global issue today. Overweight and obesity problems are significantly linked to unhealthy dietary patterns, physical inactivity and misperception of body image. This study aimed to determine whether Malaysian children build healthy eating habits from childhood. METHODS: A survey on eating habits was conducted among primary school students in standards 4 to 6 in the state of Selangor, Malaysia...
2016: PeerJ
Alice Thürer, Michael Granvogl
Deep-frying leads to the generation of various degradation products providing desired properties, like aroma, taste, or color, but some can have adverse effects on human health. The study investigated the influence of frying oils differing in their fatty acid compositions on the generation of desirable and undesirable compounds during deep-frying of potato chips. Selected key odorants and toxicologically relevant compounds (acrolein, acrylamide, furan, and glycidamide) were quantitated by stable isotope dilution assays...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Yu Hua Wong, Halimah Muhamad, Faridah Abas, Oi Ming Lai, Kar Lin Nyam, Chin Ping Tan
The effects of frying duration, frying temperature and concentration of sodium chloride on the formation of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) esters and glycidyl esters (GEs) of refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm olein during deep-fat frying (at 160°C and 180°C) of potato chips (0%, 1%, 3% and 5% NaCl) for 100min/d for five consecutive days in eight systems were compared in this study. All oil samples collected after each frying cycle were analyzed for 3-MCPD esters, GEs, free fatty acid (FFA) contents, specific extinction at 232 and 268 nm (K232 and K268), p-anisidine value (pAV), and fatty acid composition...
March 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Irene Roncero-Ramos, Mónica Mendiola-Lanao, Margarita Pérez-Clavijo, Cristina Delgado-Andrade
Influence of culinary treatments (boiling, microwaving, grilling, and deep frying) on proximate composition and antioxidant capacity of cultivated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus, Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Pleurotus eryngii) was studied. Proximate composition was affected by the cooking method and the mushrooms species. Frying induced more severe losses in protein, ash, and carbohydrates content but increased the fat and energy. Boiling improved the total glucans content by enhancing the β-glucans fraction...
May 2017: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
K N van Koerten, M A I Schutyser, D Somsen, R M Boom
Conventional industrial frying systems are not optimised towards homogeneous product quality, which is partly related to poor oil distribution across the packed bed of fries. In this study we investigate an alternative frying system with an oil cross-flow from bottom to top through a packed bed of fries. Fluidization of rectangular fries during frying was characterised with a modified Ergun equation. Mixing was visualized by using two coloured layers of fries and quantified in terms of mixing entropy. Smaller fries mixed quickly during frying, while longer fries exhibited much less mixing, which was attributed to the higher minimum fluidization velocity and slower dehydration for longer fries...
April 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Tânia Gonçalves Albuquerque, M Beatriz P P Oliveira, Ana Sanches-Silva, Ana Cristina Bento, Helena S Costa
The impact of cooking methods (industrial pre-frying, deep-fat frying and baking) on the nutritional quality and safety of chicken breaded nugget samples from supermarket and commercial brands was evaluated. The changes in the quality characteristics (nutritional composition, fatty acids profile, cholesterol and salt) of the fried food and frying oil, after ten consecutive frying operations, were evaluated. The total fat content of nuggets varied between 10.9 and 22.7 g per 100 g of edible portion and the salt content ranged from 0...
June 15, 2016: Food & Function
Erkan Karacabey, Merve S Turan, Şehriban G Özçelik, Cem Baltacıoğlu, Erdoğan Küçüköner
BACKGROUND: The main objective of the current study was to reduce the fat content of fried carrot slices with a hot air pre-drying step before frying. In this regard the effects of hot air drying and deep-fat-frying conditions on moisture and oil contents, breaking force and colour parameters of pre-dried and fried carrot slices were investigated. RESULTS: Statistical analysis with response surface methodology showed that there was a significant correlation between investigated responses and process variables (P ≤ 0...
October 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Naimeh Khazaei, Mohsen Esmaiili, Zahra Emam-Djomeh
The effect of active coating treatments on oil uptake, moisture loss, lipid oxidation, texture, color, and sensory evaluation of shrimp after deep-fat frying process was investigated. Compared with the uncoated samples, coating treatments decreased the oil uptake and moisture loss of fried shrimp by 34.50 and 13.9%, respectively. Fried shrimp samples were analyzed for peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA). The most reduction in lipid oxidation (46.4% for PV and 40.8% for TBA) was observed when shrimp samples were coated with CS4 (containing 10% thyme), while the control samples had the highest values of PV and TBA after deep-fat frying process...
February 10, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
Qing Zhang, Wen Qin, Derong Lin, Qun Shen, Ahmed S M Saleh
Volatile aldehydes (VAs) formed during soybean oil (SBO) heating, wheat dough (WD) frying, and chicken breast meat (CBM) frying processes were comparatively investigated by solid-phase micro-extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS). The results showed that relative amounts (RAs) of the most detected VAs were firstly increased to maximum values in oil samples collected at the second hour of the seventh day and the values were then decreased with the increase in the time of oil heating process (control)...
December 2015: Journal of Food Science and Technology
S Izadi, S M Ojagh, K Rahmanifarah, B Shabanpour, B K Sakhale
Production of low-fat fried foods by using hydrocolloid coatings is a common method to avoid excessive oil absorption during deep-fat frying. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of hydrocolloid coatings (carboxymethyl cellulose, guar, tragacanth and zedo gum) on the oil content and quality parameters of shrimp after deep-fat frying. The hydrocolloid solutions (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 % w/v) were used for coating. Coated and uncoated (control) samples were packaged and stored at -20 and after a week were fried at 170 °C for 90 s in sunflower oil...
September 2015: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Adriana Pavesi Arisseto, Priscila Francisca Corrêa Marcolino, Eduardo Vicente
Levels of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) fatty acid esters were evaluated in commercial deep-fat fried foods from the Brazilian market using a GC-MS method preceded by acid-catalysed methanolysis. A limit of detection of 0.04 mg kg(-1), a limit of quantitation of 0.08 mg kg(-1), mean recoveries varying from 82% to 92%, and coefficients of variation ranging from 2.5% to 5.0% for repeatability and from 3.6% to 6.5% for within-laboratory reproducibility were obtained during in-house validation. The levels of the compounds in the evaluated samples, expressed as free 3-MCPD equivalent, ranged from not detected to 0...
2015: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Ping Liu, C D'Arcy J Holman, Jie Jin, Min Zhang
PURPOSE: Epidemiologic studies on diet and leukemia risk have shown inconsistent results. This study examined the associations between dietary factors and the risk of adult leukemia in Chinese populations. METHODS: A multicenter case-control study was conducted in southeast and northeast China between 2008 and 2013. It included 442 incident cases with hematologically confirmed leukemia and 442 controls, individually match to cases by gender, birth quinquennium, and study site...
August 2015: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Jessica Del Pilar Ramírez-Anaya, Cristina Samaniego-Sánchez, Ma Claudia Castañeda-Saucedo, Marina Villalón-Mir, Herminia López-García de la Serrana
Potato, tomato, eggplant and pumpkin were deep fried, sautéed and boiled in Mediterranean extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), water, and a water/oil mixture (W/O). We determined the contents of fat, moisture, total phenols (TPC) and eighteen phenolic compounds, as well as antioxidant capacity in the raw vegetables and compared these with contents measured after cooking. Deep frying and sautéing led to increased fat contents and TPC, whereas both types of boiling (in water and W/O) reduced the same. The presence of EVOO in cooking increased the phenolics identified in the raw foods as oleuropein, pinoresinol, hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, and the contents of vegetable phenolics such as chlorogenic acid and rutin...
December 1, 2015: Food Chemistry
Pamela C Flores-Silva, Sandra L Rodriguez-Ambriz, Luis A Bello-Pérez
An increase in celiac consumers has caused an increasing interest to develop good quality gluten-free food products with high nutritional value. Snack foods are consumed worldwide and have become a normal part of the eating habits of the celiac population making them a target to improve their nutritive value. Extrusion and deep-frying of unripe plantain, chickpea, and maize flours blends produced gluten-free snacks with high dietary fiber contents (13.7-18.2 g/100 g) and low predicted glycemic index (28 to 35)...
May 2015: Journal of Food Science
Parviz Kavousi, Hamed Mirhosseini, Hasanah Ghazali, Abdul Azis Ariffin
5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is formed during heat treatment of carbohydrate-containing foods, especially in a deep-fat frying process. This study aimed to investigate the effect of amino acids on the formation and reduction of HMF from glucose, fructose and sucrose at frying temperature in model systems containing binary mixtures of an amino acid and a sugar in equal concentrations (0.3M). The results revealed that the formation of HMF from sugars accelerated in the presence of acidic amino acids (i.e. glutamic and aspartic acids)...
September 1, 2015: Food Chemistry
Yashi Srivastava, Anil Dutt Semwal
The performance or quality of the Virgin coconut oil (VCO) during continuous/prolonged deep fat frying of soaked bengal gram dhal was evaluated at 180 °C ± 5 °C for 8 h with the help of physico-chemical and rheological parameters. Chemical changes indicated that the free fatty acid (FFA) content and TBA increased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) from 0.11 to 0.98 % lauric acid and 0.06 to 0.61 malonaldehyde/kg of oil respectively. Initially, the peroxide value (PV) of VCO sample was 3.25 meqO2/kg which increased to 9...
February 2015: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Mohammad Hossein Somi, Seyed Mohsen Mousavi, Shahnaz Naghashi, Elnaz Faramarzi, Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi, Morteza Ghojazade, Alireza Majdi, Seyed Ahmad Naseri Alavi
PURPOSE: The aims of this case-control study were to assess the correlation between some food habits in the last two decades and gastric cancer in East Azerbaijan of Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this hospital based case control study, 616 patients (212 gastric cancer patients, 404 cancer free patients) were recruited. Food habits of patients over the past two decades were assessed with a structured questionnaire. We used conditional logistic regression analysis for estimating crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) and their respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI)...
2015: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
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