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Obesogenic environment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222610/characterizing-the-neighborhood-obesogenic-environment-in-the-multiethnic-cohort-a-multi-level-infrastructure-for-cancer-health-disparities-research
#1
Shannon M Conroy, Salma Shariff-Marco, Juan Yang, Andrew Hertz, Myles Cockburn, Yurii B Shvetsov, Christina A Clarke, Cheryl L Abright, Christopher A Haiman, Loïc Le Marchand, Laurence N Kolonel, Kristine R Monroe, Lynne R Wilkens, Scarlett Lin Gomez, Iona Cheng
PURPOSE: We characterized the neighborhood obesogenic environment in the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC) by examining the associations of obesity with attributes of the social and built environment, establishing a multi-level infrastructure for future cancer research. METHODS: For 102,906 African American, Japanese American, Latino, and white MEC participants residing predominately in Los Angeles County, baseline residential addresses (1993-1996) were linked to census and geospatial data, capturing neighborhood socioeconomic status (nSES), population density, commuting, food outlets, amenities, walkability, and traffic density...
December 8, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221423/assess-identify-make-it-happen-aim-for-preschools-a-tool-to-decrease-early-childhood-obesity
#2
Charlotte V Farewell, Jini E Puma, Jamie Powers, Elaine S Belansky
Early childhood obesity is at epidemic proportions and is a major risk factor for the development of chronic diseases in adulthood. Since the majority of preschoolers are placed in center-based care, best practice policy, system, and environment (PSE) changes in early child care settings plays an important role in defining early development of obesogenic behaviors. However, implementation of best practice PSE changes is often a challenge in low resource settings due to staff turnover, time constraints, cultural beliefs, and lack of health-related knowledge...
December 1, 2017: Health Promotion Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188819/colonic-bacteroides-are-positively-associated-with-trabecular-bone-structure-and-programmed-by-maternal-vitamin-d-in-male-but-not-female-offspring-in-an-obesogenic-environment
#3
C R Villa, A Taibi, J Chen, W E Ward, E M Comelli
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The gut microbiota is determined early in life, possibly including pregnancy. Pioneering data suggests vitamin D, a nutrient important for bone health, affects this microbiota. We found that high maternal vitamin D lowered circulating lipopolysaccharide, improved intestinal barrier and bone health in male but not female offspring in an obesogenic environment. This study determined if high maternal dietary vitamin D programs Bacteroides and Prevotella and whether this associates with bone mineral content, density and structure of male and female adult offspring fed an obesogenic diet...
November 30, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181707/role-of-sex-and-the-environment-in-moderating-weight-gain-due-to-inadequate-sleep
#4
REVIEW
Jamie E Coborn, Monica M Houser, Claudio E Perez-Leighton, Jennifer A Teske
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The growing prevalence of obesity, inadequate sleep and sleep disorders together with the negative impact of lack of sleep on overall health highlights the need for therapies targeted towards weight gain due to sleep loss. RECENT FINDINGS: Sex disparities in obesity and sleep disorders are present; yet, the role of sex is inadequately addressed and thus it is unclear whether sensitivity to sleep disruption differs between men and women. Like sex, environmental factors contribute to the development of obesity and poor sleep...
December 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156933/-prevention-of-obesity-from-perinatal-stage
#5
Rosa Mª Martínez García, Ana Isabel Jiménez Ortega, Heldry González Torres, Rosa María Ortega
Obesity is one of the major health problems and a determining factor in the prevalence of diseases such as metabolic syndrome, asthma, sleep apnea, infertility and various types of cancer. Its origin is multifactorial, involving genetic, socioeconomic and environmental factors. These last ones contribute mostly to explain the current epidemic growth of this disease. The sedentary lifestyle, inadequate diet, lack of sleep, alterations in intestinal microbiota and stress are factors related to its development...
October 15, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108499/what-barriers-and-facilitators-do-school-nurses-experience-when-implementing-an-obesity-intervention
#6
Krista Schroeder, Arlene Smaldone
A recent evaluation of a school nurse-led obesity intervention demonstrated a 5% implementation rate. The purpose of this study was to explore school nurses' perceived barriers to and facilitators of the intervention in order to understand reasons for the low implementation rate. Methods included semi-structured individual interviews with school nurses. Data were analyzed using content analysis and heat mapping. Nineteen nurses participated and eight themes were identified. Parental and administrative gatekeeping, heavy nurse workload, obesogenic environments, and concerns about obesity stigma were barriers to implementation...
December 2017: Journal of School Nursing: the Official Publication of the National Association of School Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098478/persistent-organic-pollutants-as-risk-factors-for-obesity-and-diabetes
#7
REVIEW
Chunxue Yang, Alice Pik Shan Kong, Zongwei Cai, Arthur C K Chung
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The rising prevalence of obesity and diabetes cannot be fully explained by known risk factors, such as unhealthy diet, a sedentary lifestyle, and family history. This review summarizes the available studies linking persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to obesity and diabetes and discusses plausible underlying mechanisms. RECENT FINDINGS: Increasing evidence suggest that POPs may act as obesogens and diabetogens to promote the development of obesity and diabetes and induce metabolic dysfunction...
November 2, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054742/failing-to-pay-heed-to-health-warnings-in-a-food-associated-environment
#8
Aukje A C Verhoeven, Poppy Watson, Sanne de Wit
People often fail to adhere to food-related health information. Increasing evidence suggests that environmental stimuli interfere with good intentions by triggering choices relatively automatically. Using a Pavlovian-instrumental transfer (PIT) task, we examined whether food-associated stimuli reduce health warnings' effectiveness. We expected that people adhere to health warnings in the absence, but not presence, of food-associated stimuli. In addition, we examined timing effects, i.e., whether health warnings are more effective when they are given prior to associative learning rather than afterwards...
January 1, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052153/food-for-thought-reward-mechanisms-and-hedonic-overeating-in-obesity
#9
REVIEW
Phong Ching Lee, John B Dixon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review examines the food addiction model and the role of food hedonic pathways in the pathogenesis and treatment of obesity. RECENT FINDINGS: The hedonic pathway interacts with the obesogenic environment to override homeostatic mechanisms to cause increase in body weight. Weight gain sustained over time leads to "upward setting" of defended level of body-fat mass. There are neurobiological and phenotypic similarities and differences between hedonic pathways triggered by food compared with other addictive substances, and the entity of food addiction remains controversial...
December 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044895/surveying-all-public-drinking-water-fountains-in-a-city-outdoor-field-observations-and-google-street-view
#10
Nick Wilson, Louise Signal, George Thomson
OBJECTIVE: Drinking fountains are a public amenity that may help counter the obesogenic environment (sugary beverages) and reduce the risk of heat stroke during heat waves. As a case study, we aimed to survey all public fountains in a city: Wellington, New Zealand, and to determine the utility of Google Street View in studying drinking fountains. METHODS: Using a sample of all public drinking fountains in a City Council map, a field observer assessed their exact location and tap functionality, and photographed them...
October 18, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040539/explaining-recent-mortality-trends-among-younger-and-middle-aged-white-americans
#11
Ryan K Masters, Andrea M Tilstra, Daniel H Simon
Background: Recent research has suggested that increases in mortality among middle-aged US Whites are being driven by suicides and poisonings from alcohol and drug use. Increases in these 'despair' deaths have been argued to reflect a cohort-based epidemic of pain and distress among middle-aged US Whites. Methods: We examine trends in all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates among younger and middle-aged US White men and women between 1980 and 2014, using official US mortality data...
July 19, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025695/exploring-the-potential-of-a-wearable-camera-to-examine-the-early-obesogenic-home-environment-comparison-of-sensecam-images-to-the-home-environment-interview
#12
Stephanie Schrempft, Cornelia Hm van Jaarsveld, Abigail Fisher
BACKGROUND: The obesogenic home environment is usually examined via self-report, and objective measures are required. OBJECTIVE: This study explored whether the wearable camera SenseCam can be used to examine the early obesogenic home environment and whether it is useful for validation of self-report measures. METHODS: A total of 15 primary caregivers of young children (mean age of child 4 years) completed the Home Environment Interview (HEI)...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994359/weight-resilience-and-fruit-and-vegetable-intake-among-african-american-women-in-an-obesogenic-environment
#13
Sara M Parisi, Lisa M Bodnar, Tamara Dubowitz
OBJECTIVE: To investigate relationships between weight resilience (maintaining a normal weight in a food desert environment) and fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake, attitudes and barriers. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, in-person surveys collected May-December 2011, including self-reported data on F&V-related psychosocial factors, attitudes and barriers. Two 24 h dietary recalls were completed; weight and height were measured. Multivariable regression models estimated prevalence ratios (95 % CI)...
October 10, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982656/changing-the-obesogenic-environment-to-improve-cardiometabolic-health-in-residential-patients-with-a-severe-mental-illness-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#14
Anne Looijmans, Annemarie P M Stiekema, Richard Bruggeman, Lisette van der Meer, Ronald P Stolk, Robert A Schoevers, Frederike Jörg, Eva Corpeleijn
BackgroundFor patients with severe mental illness (SMI) in residential facilities, adopting a healthy lifestyle is hampered by the obesity promoting (obesogenic) environment.AimsTo determine the effectiveness of a 12-month lifestyle intervention addressing the obesogenic environment with respect to diet and physical activity to improve waist circumference and cardiometabolic risk factors v. care as usual (Dutch Trial Registry: NTR2720).MethodIn a multisite cluster randomised controlled pragmatic trial, 29 care teams were randomised into 15 intervention (365 patients) and 14 control teams (371 patients)...
October 5, 2017: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969723/who-is-behind-the-stocking-of-energy-dense-foods-and-beverages-in-small-stores-the-importance-of-food-and-beverage-distributors
#15
Guadalupe X Ayala, Heather D'Angelo, Joel Gittelsohn, Lucy Horton, Kurt Ribisl, Lesley Schmidt Sindberg, Christina Olson, Anna Kharmats, Melissa N Laska
OBJECTIVE: The present study examined food and beverage distributors' sourcing, placement and promotion of obesogenic (energy-dense, nutrient-poor) product categories from the perspective of small food store owners/managers. The obesogenic product categories of interest were savoury snacks, sugary beverages, sweet snacks, confectionery and frozen treats. Specifically, we examined how frequently distributors sourced these products, and the types of agreements and expectations they had for their placement and promotion...
October 3, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944270/the-role-of-leptin-in-health-and-disease
#16
REVIEW
Angela M Ramos-Lobo, Jose Donato
Leptin is a master regulator of energy balance and body adiposity. Additionally, leptin exerts important control on glucose homeostasis, thermogenesis, autonomic nervous system and neuroendocrine axes. In metabolic diseases, such as obesity and diabetes mellitus, leptin signaling may be compromised, indicating the important role of this hormone in the etiology and pathophysiological manifestations of these conditions. In the present manuscript, we reviewed important concepts of leptin signaling, as well as about the effects of leptin on several biologic functions...
2017: Temperature: Multidisciplinary Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940822/double-burden-of-diseases-worldwide-coexistence-of-undernutrition-and-overnutrition-related-non-communicable-chronic-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Jungwon Min, Yaling Zhao, Lauren Slivka, Youfa Wang
OBJECTIVE: This systematic examination and meta-analysis examined the scope and variation of the worldwide double burden of diseases and identified related socio-demographic factors. DESIGN: We searched PubMed for studies published in English from January 1, 2000, through September 28, 2016, that reported on double disease burden. Twenty-nine studies from 18 high-income, middle-income and low-income countries met inclusion criteria and provided 71 obesity-undernutrition ratios, which were included in meta-regression analysis...
September 22, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925409/metabolic-and-genomic-adaptations-to-winter-fattening-in-a-primate-species-the-grey-mouse-lemur-microcebus-murinus
#18
J Terrien, M Gaudubois, D Champeval, V Zaninotto, L Roger, J F Riou, F Aujard
AIM: To understand the mechanisms underlying the development of metabolic changes leading to obesity remains a major world health issue. Among such mechanisms, seasonality is quite underestimated although it corresponds to the manifestation of extreme metabolic flexibility in response to a changing environment. Nevertheless, the changes induced by such flexibility are far to be understood, especially at the level of insulin signaling, genomic stability or inflammation. METHODS: Here, we investigated the metabolic regulations displayed by a seasonal primate species, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) that exhibits pronounced changes in body mass during the 6-month winter season: a fattening period followed by a spontaneous fat loss, without ever reaching pathological stages...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923201/determinants-of-racial-ethnic-disparities-in-disordered-sleep-and-obesity
#19
Chandra L Jackson
Racial/ethnic minorities experience a disproportionate risk of both suboptimal sleep and obesity, and the relationship between sleep and obesity may differ by race/ethnicity for modifiable and non-modifiable reasons. Because many people of color have historically lived and continue to largely live in disadvantaged, obesogenic physical and social environments, these greater adverse exposures likely negatively affect sleep, resulting in physiological dysregulation. Physiological dysregulation may, in turn, lead to increased obesity risk and subsequent health consequences, which are likely more influential than potential genetic differences in race, a social construct...
October 2017: Sleep Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919064/genetics-of-obesity-what-genetic-association-studies-have-taught-us-about-the-biology-of-obesity-and-its-complications
#20
REVIEW
Mark O Goodarzi
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, and other adiposity traits have identified more than 300 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Although there is reason to hope that these discoveries will eventually lead to new preventive and therapeutic agents for obesity, this will take time because such developments require detailed mechanistic understanding of how an SNP influences phenotype (and this information is largely unavailable). Fortunately, absence of functional information has not prevented GWAS findings from providing insights into the biology of obesity...
September 14, 2017: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
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