keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Obesogenic environment

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454067/considering-our-methods-methodological-issues-with-rodent-models-of-appetite-and-obesity-research
#1
Thomas A Lutz
A large number of animal models are currently used in appetite and obesity research. Because the worldwide incidence of obesity continues to climb, it is imperative that animal models sharing characteristics of human obesity and its co-morbidities be used appropriately in the quest for novel preventions or treatments. There is probably no animal model, at least in rodents, that recapitulates all aspects of "common" human obesity and its comorbidities, but rodent models allow insight into specific mechanisms of disease or its consequences...
February 14, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435959/hyperpalatability-and-the-generation-of-obesity-roles-of-environment-stress-exposure-and-individual-difference
#2
REVIEW
Sarah-Jane Leigh, Frances Lee, Margaret J Morris
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review investigates how exposure to palatable food and its associated cues alters appetite regulation and feeding behaviour to drive overeating and weight gain. RECENT FINDINGS: Both supraphysiological and physiological feeding systems are affected by exposure to palatable foods and its associated cues. Preclinical research, largely using rodents, has demonstrated that palatable food modulates feeding-related neural systems and food-seeking behaviour by recruiting the mesolimbic reward pathway...
February 13, 2018: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433782/keystones-affecting-sub-saharan-africa-s-prospects-for-achieving-food-security-through-balanced-diets
#3
Julian May
Socio-economic dynamics determine the transition from diets characterized by the risk of famine, to those characterized by the risk of diet-related non-communicable disease (DR-NCD). This transition is of particular concern in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) in which key socio-economic interactions that influence diet include economic growth and rapid urbanization; inequality and a growing middle class; and obesogenic food environments and an increasing prevalence of DR-NCD. In each case, countries in SSA are among those experiencing the most rapid change in the world...
February 2018: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430857/phenotype-diffusion-and-one-health-a-proposed-framework-for-investigating-the-plurality-of-obesity-epidemics-across-many-species
#4
REVIEW
J D Voss, M S Goodson, J C Leon
We propose the idea of "phenotype diffusion," which is a rapid convergence of an observed trait in some human and animal populations. The words phenotype and diffusion both imply observations independent of mechanism as phenotypes are observed traits with multiple possible genetic mechanisms and diffusion is an observed state of being widely distributed. Recognizing shared changes in phenotype in multiple species does not by itself reveal a particular mechanism such as a shared exposure, shared adaptive need, particular stochastic process or a transmission pathway...
February 12, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425161/perceived-environmental-factors-associated-with-obesity-in-libyan-men-and-women
#5
Hamdi Lemamsha, Chris Papadopoulos, Gurch Randhawa
Background: There is a lack of research pertaining to the links between built environment attributes and obesity in adults in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. In the Libyan context, no previous studies have been conducted to investigate this relationship. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine associations between perceived neighbourhood built environmental attributes and obesity among Libyan men and women. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was also assessed. Methods: A cross-sectional study design was used for the population-based survey in Benghazi, Libya...
February 9, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361968/an-obesity-associated-gut-microbiome-reprograms-the-intestinal-epigenome-and-leads-to-altered-colonic-gene-expression
#6
Yufeng Qin, John D Roberts, Sara A Grimm, Fred B Lih, Leesa J Deterding, Ruifang Li, Kaliopi Chrysovergis, Paul A Wade
BACKGROUND: The gut microbiome, a key constituent of the colonic environment, has been implicated as an important modulator of human health. The eukaryotic epigenome is postulated to respond to environmental stimuli through alterations in chromatin features and, ultimately, gene expression. How the host mediates epigenomic responses to gut microbiota is an emerging area of interest. Here, we profile the gut microbiome and chromatin characteristics in colon epithelium from mice fed either an obesogenic or control diet, followed by an analysis of the resultant changes in gene expression...
January 23, 2018: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318700/time-course-and-dynamics-of-obesity-related-behavioral-changes-induced-by-energy-dense-foods-in-mice
#7
Jose Espinosa-Carrasco, Aurelijus Burokas, Marta Fructuoso, Ionas Erb, Elena Martín-García, Miriam Gutiérrez-Martos, Cedric Notredame, Rafael Maldonado, Mara Dierssen
Obesity represents an important risk factor contributing to the global burden of disease. The current obesogenic environment with easy access to calorie-dense foods is fueling this obesity epidemic. However, how these foods contribute to the progression of feeding behavior changes that lead to overeating is not well understood and needs systematic assessment. Using novel automated methods for the high-throughput screening of behavior, we here examine mice meal pattern upon long-term exposure to a free-choice chocolate-mixture diet and a high-fat diet with face validity for a rapid development of obesity induced by unhealthy food regularly consumed in our societies...
January 10, 2018: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289613/homeostatic-and-non-homeostatic-appetite-control-along-the-spectrum-of-physical-activity-levels-an-updated-perspective
#8
Kristine Beaulieu, Mark Hopkins, John Blundell, Graham Finlayson
The current obesogenic environment promotes physical inactivity and food consumption in excess of energy requirements, two important modifiable risk factors influencing energy balance. Habitual physical activity has been shown to impact not only energy expenditure, but also energy intake through mechanisms of appetite control. This review summarizes recent theory and evidence underpinning the role of physical activity in the homeostatic and non-homeostatic mechanisms controlling appetite. Energy intake along the spectrum of physical activity levels (inactive to highly active) appears to be J-shaped, with low levels of physical activity leading to dysregulated appetite and a mismatch between energy intake and expenditure...
December 28, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280853/longitudinal-associations-of-neighborhood-level-racial-residential-segregation-with-obesity-among-blacks
#9
Lindsay R Pool, Mercedes R Carnethon, David C Goff, Penny Gordon-Larsen, Whitney R Robinson, Kiarri N Kershaw
BACKGROUND: Despite nearly 50 years since the passage of the Fair Housing Act of 1968, the majority of black Americans continue to live in highly segregated communities. Differing exposure to obesogenic environments in segregated neighborhoods may contribute to racial disparities in obesity prevalence. METHODS: We used prospective data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study to examine associations between levels of neighborhood-level racial residential segregation and incident obesity in black men and women...
December 26, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222610/characterizing-the-neighborhood-obesogenic-environment-in-the-multiethnic-cohort-a-multi-level-infrastructure-for-cancer-health-disparities-research
#10
Shannon M Conroy, Salma Shariff-Marco, Juan Yang, Andrew Hertz, Myles Cockburn, Yurii B Shvetsov, Christina A Clarke, Cheryl L Abright, Christopher A Haiman, Loïc Le Marchand, Laurence N Kolonel, Kristine R Monroe, Lynne R Wilkens, Scarlett Lin Gomez, Iona Cheng
PURPOSE: We characterized the neighborhood obesogenic environment in the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC) by examining the associations of obesity with attributes of the social and built environment, establishing a multi-level infrastructure for future cancer research. METHODS: For 102,906 African American, Japanese American, Latino, and white MEC participants residing predominately in Los Angeles County, baseline residential addresses (1993-1996) were linked to census and geospatial data, capturing neighborhood socioeconomic status (nSES), population density, commuting, food outlets, amenities, walkability, and traffic density...
December 8, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221423/assess-identify-make-it-happen-aim-for-preschools-a-tool-to-decrease-early-childhood-obesity
#11
Charlotte V Farewell, Jini E Puma, Jamie Powers, Elaine S Belansky
Early childhood obesity is at epidemic proportions and is a major risk factor for the development of chronic diseases in adulthood. Since the majority of preschoolers are placed in center-based care, best practice policy, system, and environment (PSE) changes in early child care settings plays an important role in defining early development of obesogenic behaviors. However, implementation of best practice PSE changes is often a challenge in low resource settings due to staff turnover, time constraints, cultural beliefs, and lack of health-related knowledge...
December 1, 2017: Health Promotion Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188819/colonic-bacteroides-are-positively-associated-with-trabecular-bone-structure-and-programmed-by-maternal-vitamin-d-in-male-but-not-female-offspring-in-an-obesogenic-environment
#12
C R Villa, A Taibi, J Chen, W E Ward, E M Comelli
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The gut microbiota is determined early in life, possibly including pregnancy. Pioneering data suggests vitamin D, a nutrient important for bone health, affects this microbiota. We found that high maternal vitamin D lowered circulating lipopolysaccharide, improved intestinal barrier and bone health in male but not female offspring in an obesogenic environment. This study determined if high maternal dietary vitamin D programs Bacteroides and Prevotella and whether this associates with bone mineral content, density and structure of male and female adult offspring fed an obesogenic diet...
November 30, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181707/role-of-sex-and-the-environment-in-moderating-weight-gain-due-to-inadequate-sleep
#13
REVIEW
Jamie E Coborn, Monica M Houser, Claudio E Perez-Leighton, Jennifer A Teske
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The growing prevalence of obesity, inadequate sleep and sleep disorders together with the negative impact of lack of sleep on overall health highlights the need for therapies targeted towards weight gain due to sleep loss. RECENT FINDINGS: Sex disparities in obesity and sleep disorders are present; yet, the role of sex is inadequately addressed and thus it is unclear whether sensitivity to sleep disruption differs between men and women. Like sex, environmental factors contribute to the development of obesity and poor sleep...
December 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156933/-prevention-of-obesity-from-perinatal-stage
#14
Rosa Mª Martínez García, Ana Isabel Jiménez Ortega, Heldry González Torres, Rosa María Ortega
Obesity is one of the major health problems and a determining factor in the prevalence of diseases such as metabolic syndrome, asthma, sleep apnea, infertility and various types of cancer. Its origin is multifactorial, involving genetic, socioeconomic and environmental factors. These last ones contribute mostly to explain the current epidemic growth of this disease. The sedentary lifestyle, inadequate diet, lack of sleep, alterations in intestinal microbiota and stress are factors related to its development...
October 15, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108499/what-barriers-and-facilitators-do-school-nurses-experience-when-implementing-an-obesity-intervention
#15
Krista Schroeder, Arlene Smaldone
A recent evaluation of a school nurse-led obesity intervention demonstrated a 5% implementation rate. The purpose of this study was to explore school nurses' perceived barriers to and facilitators of the intervention in order to understand reasons for the low implementation rate. Methods included semi-structured individual interviews with school nurses. Data were analyzed using content analysis and heat mapping. Nineteen nurses participated and eight themes were identified. Parental and administrative gatekeeping, heavy nurse workload, obesogenic environments, and concerns about obesity stigma were barriers to implementation...
December 2017: Journal of School Nursing: the Official Publication of the National Association of School Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098478/persistent-organic-pollutants-as-risk-factors-for-obesity-and-diabetes
#16
REVIEW
Chunxue Yang, Alice Pik Shan Kong, Zongwei Cai, Arthur C K Chung
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The rising prevalence of obesity and diabetes cannot be fully explained by known risk factors, such as unhealthy diet, a sedentary lifestyle, and family history. This review summarizes the available studies linking persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to obesity and diabetes and discusses plausible underlying mechanisms. RECENT FINDINGS: Increasing evidence suggest that POPs may act as obesogens and diabetogens to promote the development of obesity and diabetes and induce metabolic dysfunction...
November 2, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054742/failing-to-pay-heed-to-health-warnings-in-a-food-associated-environment
#17
Aukje A C Verhoeven, Poppy Watson, Sanne de Wit
People often fail to adhere to food-related health information. Increasing evidence suggests that environmental stimuli interfere with good intentions by triggering choices relatively automatically. Using a Pavlovian-instrumental transfer (PIT) task, we examined whether food-associated stimuli reduce health warnings' effectiveness. We expected that people adhere to health warnings in the absence, but not presence, of food-associated stimuli. In addition, we examined timing effects, i.e., whether health warnings are more effective when they are given prior to associative learning rather than afterwards...
January 1, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052153/food-for-thought-reward-mechanisms-and-hedonic-overeating-in-obesity
#18
REVIEW
Phong Ching Lee, John B Dixon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review examines the food addiction model and the role of food hedonic pathways in the pathogenesis and treatment of obesity. RECENT FINDINGS: The hedonic pathway interacts with the obesogenic environment to override homeostatic mechanisms to cause increase in body weight. Weight gain sustained over time leads to "upward setting" of defended level of body-fat mass. There are neurobiological and phenotypic similarities and differences between hedonic pathways triggered by food compared with other addictive substances, and the entity of food addiction remains controversial...
December 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044895/surveying-all-public-drinking-water-fountains-in-a-city-outdoor-field-observations-and-google-street-view
#19
Nick Wilson, Louise Signal, George Thomson
OBJECTIVE: Drinking fountains are a public amenity that may help counter the obesogenic environment (sugary beverages) and reduce the risk of heat stroke during heat waves. As a case study, we aimed to survey all public fountains in a city: Wellington, New Zealand, and to determine the utility of Google Street View in studying drinking fountains. METHODS: Using a sample of all public drinking fountains in a City Council map, a field observer assessed their exact location and tap functionality, and photographed them...
October 18, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040539/explaining-recent-mortality-trends-among-younger-and-middle-aged-white-americans
#20
Ryan K Masters, Andrea M Tilstra, Daniel H Simon
Background: Recent research has suggested that increases in mortality among middle-aged US Whites are being driven by suicides and poisonings from alcohol and drug use. Increases in these 'despair' deaths have been argued to reflect a cohort-based epidemic of pain and distress among middle-aged US Whites. Methods: We examine trends in all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates among younger and middle-aged US White men and women between 1980 and 2014, using official US mortality data...
July 19, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
keyword
keyword
59686
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"