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Obesogenic environment

M L D Araújo, P C Cabral, I K G de Arruda, L de Souza Holanda, A S Diniz, R Maio, P B P Coelho
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the occurrence of excessive gain in body mass index-for-age Z-score (BMI/AZ) and its associated factors in adolescent girls. METHODOLOGY: This is a cohort study conducted between 2007 and 2012 with 382 girls between 10 and 18 years of age attending public schools in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. Excessive gain in BMI/AZ (EGBMI/AZ) at follow-up was considered if the adolescent had a BMI/AZ >0.63 between follow-up and baseline. RESULTS: In 2007, 33...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Iris Pigeot, Stefaan De Henauw, Wolfgang Ahrens
BACKGROUND: Worldwide the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity is strikingly high. Prevention programs are therefore of high priority at a national and international level. In the framework of the IDEFICS study a primary prevention program was developed, implemented and evaluated. OBJECTIVE: This paper investigates to what degree the IDEFICS intervention may serve as good practice example. For this purpose, the single modules are described and the achieved effects are discussed...
October 11, 2016: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
Carmela Nardelli, Ilaria Granata, Laura Iaffaldano, Valeria D'Argenio, Valentina Del Monaco, Giuseppe Maria Maruotti, Luigi Del Vecchio, Pasquale Martinelli, Francesco Salvatore, Mario Rosario Guarracino, Lucia Sacchetti, Lucio Pastore
Experimental evidence indicates differences between women and men in several medical areas, including susceptibility to metabolic diseases. Sexual dimorphism could be influenced by microRNA (miRNA)-mediated regulation of gene expression, and miRNAs have also been implicated in fetal programming of obesity. Our previous finding of altered proteome in human amniotic stem cells (hA-MSCs) during obesity (Ob-) prompted us to look for gender-related differences in the miRNA regulation of gene expression in Ob-hA-MSCs that might be involved in metabolic changes...
October 5, 2016: Stem Cells and Development
C R Villa, J Chen, B Wen, S M Sacco, A Taibi, W E Ward, E M Comelli
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Vitamin D is an anti-inflammatory nutrient and a determinant of bone health. Some prospective studies suggest that maternal vitamin D status is positively associated with offspring bone mass. We found that serum concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an inflammatory molecule related to adiposity, insulin resistance and bone resorption, is lower in healthy mouse offspring exposed to high dietary vitamin D during pregnancy and lactation. LPS reaches the circulation via the gut...
October 4, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Antonio Suglia, Rosanna Chianese, Marina Migliaccio, Concetta Ambrosino, Silvia Fasano, Riccardo Pierantoni, Gilda Cobellis, Teresa Chioccarelli
Bisphenol A is an environment-polluting industrial chemical able to interfere with the endocrine system. An obesogenic effect in perinatally exposed rodents has been described as estrogenic activity. We exposed male mice to Bisphenol A during fetal-perinatal period (from 10 days post coitum to 31 days post partum) and investigated the effects of this early-life exposure at 78 days of age. Body weight, food intake, fat mass, and hypothalamic signals related to anorexigenic control of food intake were analyzed...
September 15, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Lori Pbert, Susan Druker, Bruce Barton, Kristin L Schneider, Barbara Olendzki, Mary A Gapinski, Stephen Kurtz, Stavroula Osganian
BACKGROUND: Given the dramatic increase in adolescent overweight and obesity, models are needed for implementing weight management treatment through readily accessible venues. We evaluated the acceptability and efficacy of a school-based intervention consisting of school nurse-delivered counseling and an afterschool exercise program in improving diet, activity, and body mass index (BMI) among overweight and obese adolescents. METHODS: A pair-matched cluster-randomized controlled school-based trial was conducted in which 8 public high schools were randomized to either a 12-session school nurse-delivered cognitive-behavioral counseling intervention plus school-based after school exercise program, or 12-session nurse contact with weight management information (control)...
October 2016: Journal of School Health
Sachini K Jayaratne, Paul J Donaldson, Mark H Vickers, Julie C Lim
PURPOSE: A poor early life nutrition environment is well established to result in a range of cardiometabolic disorders in offspring in later life. These effects can be exacerbated via exposure to an obesogenic dietary environment. To date, the effect of maternal diet and/or a post-natal obesogenic nutritional environment on key characteristics related to lens growth and oxidative stress has not been undertaken. The present study, therefore, examined the characteristics and oxidative status of the lens...
September 9, 2016: Current Eye Research
Reginald L Washington
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
Stephanie Schrempft, Cornelia H M van Jaarsveld, Abigail Fisher, Alison Fildes, Jane Wardle
The home environment is likely to influence children's diet and activity patterns and ultimately, their weight trajectories. Identifying family characteristics associated with a more 'obesogenic' home can provide insight into the determinants, and has implications for targeting and tailoring strategies to promote healthier lifestyles. The present study examined maternal characteristics associated with a more obesogenic home environment in 1113 families with preschool children. Primary caregivers (99% mothers) from the Gemini cohort completed the Home Environment Interview (HEI) when their children were 4 years old...
August 20, 2016: Appetite
Lawrence A Nnyanzi, Carolyn D Summerbell, Louisa Ells, Janet Shucksmith
BACKGROUND: Rising rates of childhood obesity have become a pressing issue in public health, threatening both the mental and physical well-being of children. Attempts to address this problem are multifaceted, and in England include the National Child Measurement Programme (NCMP) which assesses weight status in English primary school children in reception class (aged 4-5) and in year 6 (aged 10-11), with results being sent out to parents. However the effectiveness and impact of this routine parental feedback has yet to be fully understood...
2016: BMC Public Health
Ana C Lindsay, Mary L Greaney, Sherrie F Wallington, Faith D Sands, Julie A Wright, Judith Salkeld
OBJECTIVE: Research indicates that healthful eating and physical activity (PA) practices implemented in child-care settings can have a positive effect on children's healthful behaviours in this setting, and this effect on healthful behaviours may possibly transfer to the home environment. While more research is needed to examine whether behaviours learned in family child-care homes (FCCH) transfer, the potential for transferability is especially important given that Latino children's home environment has been characterized by obesogenic parenting practices...
August 19, 2016: Public Health Nutrition
K A Loth, S Friend, M L Horning, D Neumark-Sztainer, J A Fulkerson
: This study examines associations between an expanded conceptualization of food-related parenting practices, specifically, directive and non-directive control, and child weight (BMI z-score) and dietary outcomes [Healthy Eating Index (HEI) 2010, daily servings fruits/vegetables] within a sample of parent-child dyads (8-12 years old; n = 160). Baseline data from the Healthy Home Offerings via the Mealtime Environment (HOME Plus) randomized controlled trial was used to test associations between directive and non-directive control and child dietary outcomes and weight using multiple regression analyses adjusted for parental education...
July 31, 2016: Appetite
Nathalie Kliemann, Rebecca J Beeken, Jane Wardle, Fiona Johnson
BACKGROUND: Eating self-regulatory capacity can help individuals to cope with the obesogenic environment and achieve, as well as maintain, a healthy weight and diet. At present, there is no comprehensive, reliable and valid questionnaire for assessing this capacity and measuring change in response to self-regulation interventions in adults. This paper reports the development of the Self-regulation of Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (SREBQ) for use in UK adults, and presents evidence for its reliability and construct validity...
2016: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
Thaís de Fante, Laís Angélica Simino, Andressa Reginato, Tanyara Baliani Payolla, Débora Cristina Gustavo Vitoréli, Monique de Souza, Márcio Alberto Torsoni, Marciane Milanski, Adriana Souza Torsoni
Modern lifestyle has resulted in an increase in the prevalence of obesity and its comorbidities in pregnant women and the young population. It has been well established that the consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) has many direct effects on glucose metabolism. However, it is important to assess whether maternal consumption of a HFD during critical periods of development can lead to metabolic changes in the offspring metabolism. This study evaluated the potential effects of metabolic programming on the impairment of insulin signalling in recently weaned offspring from obese dams...
2016: PloS One
Elizabeth Holdsworth, Nicki Thorogood, Annik Sorhaindo, Kiran Nanchahal
Background Overweight and obesity are major public health problems and an increasing global challenge. In lieu of wider policy changes to tackle the obesogenic environment in which we presently reside, improving the design of individual-level weight loss interventions is important. Aim To identify which aspects of the Camden Weight Loss randomized controlled trial weight loss intervention participants engaged with, with the aim of improving the design of future studies and maximizing retention. Method A qualitative study comprising semistructured interviews (n = 18) and a focus group (n = 5) with intervention participants...
July 26, 2016: Health Promotion Practice
Emma C Preston, Proochista Ariana, Mary E Penny, Melanie Frost, Emma Plugge
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of and factors associated with childhood overweight and obesity among a cohort of children 7-8 years of age in Peru. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional secondary analysis of data from the Young Lives longitudinal study of childhood poverty. The sample was a cohort of 1 737 children 7-8 years of age in 2009. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was assessed using body mass index-forage Z-scores. Logistic regression was used to determine associations with a number of individual, household, and community factors...
December 2015: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
J K Parkman, X Mao, K Dillon, A Gudivada, N Moustaid-Moussa, A M Saxton, J H Kim
Background: The co-epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Genetic factors are highly involved in the development of these diseases, in the form of interactions of multiple genes within obesogenic and diabetogenic environments, such as a high fat diet. The TALLYHO/Jng (TH) mouse is an inbred polygenic model for human obesity and type 2 diabetes. In order to further develop the TH mouse as a clinically relevant model, we investigated diet dependence of obesity and type 2 diabetes in TH mice vs...
July 20, 2016: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
Sudesna Chatterjee, Kamlesh Khunti, Melanie J Davies
The global epidemic of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) continues largely unabated due to an increasingly sedentary lifestyle and obesogenic environment. A cost-effective patient-centred approach, incorporating glucose-lowering therapy and modification of cardiovascular risk factors, could help prevent the inevitable development and progression of macrovascular and microvascular complications. Glycaemic optimization requires patient structured education, self-management and empowerment, and psychological support along with early and proactive use of glucose lowering therapies, which should be delivered in a system of care as shown by the Chronic Care Model...
June 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
Susan B Sisson, Ji Li, Julie A Stoner, Karina R Lora, Janis E Campbell, Sandra H Arnold, Beth DeGrace, Diane Horm, Lancer Stephens
BACKGROUND: Determine the relationship between obesogenic characteristics of childcare and child adiposity in tribally-affiliated centers in Oklahoma. METHODS: The two-day Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation (EPAO) included a total environment (TE), nutrition (N), and physical activity (PA) score and took place in 11 centers across Oklahoma. Eighty-two preschool children (3-5 years) participated. Child height and weight were measured and overweight status (≥ 85th percentile for age and sex) was determined...
June 2016: Preventive Medicine Reports
Karri Silventoinen, Aline Jelenkovic, Reijo Sund, Yoon-Mi Hur, Yoshie Yokoyama, Chika Honda, Jacob vB Hjelmborg, Sören Möller, Syuichi Ooki, Sari Aaltonen, Fuling Ji, Feng Ning, Zengchang Pang, Esther Rebato, Andreas Busjahn, Christian Kandler, Kimberly J Saudino, Kerry L Jang, Wendy Cozen, Amie E Hwang, Thomas M Mack, Wenjing Gao, Canqing Yu, Liming Li, Robin P Corley, Brooke M Huibregtse, Kaare Christensen, Axel Skytthe, Kirsten O Kyvik, Catherine A Derom, Robert F Vlietinck, Ruth Jf Loos, Kauko Heikkilä, Jane Wardle, Clare H Llewellyn, Abigail Fisher, Tom A McAdams, Thalia C Eley, Alice M Gregory, Mingguang He, Xiaohu Ding, Morten Bjerregaard-Andersen, Henning Beck-Nielsen, Morten Sodemann, Adam D Tarnoki, David L Tarnoki, Maria A Stazi, Corrado Fagnani, Cristina D'Ippolito, Ariel Knafo-Noam, David Mankuta, Lior Abramson, S Alexandra Burt, Kelly L Klump, Judy L Silberg, Lindon J Eaves, Hermine H Maes, Robert F Krueger, Matt McGue, Shandell Pahlen, Margaret Gatz, David A Butler, Meike Bartels, Toos Cem van Beijsterveldt, Jeffrey M Craig, Richard Saffery, Duarte L Freitas, José Antonio Maia, Lise Dubois, Michel Boivin, Mara Brendgen, Ginette Dionne, Frank Vitaro, Nicholas G Martin, Sarah E Medland, Grant W Montgomery, Youngsook Chong, Gary E Swan, Ruth Krasnow, Patrik Ke Magnusson, Nancy L Pedersen, Per Tynelius, Paul Lichtenstein, Claire Ma Haworth, Robert Plomin, Gombojav Bayasgalan, Danshiitsoodol Narandalai, K Paige Harden, Elliot M Tucker-Drob, Sevgi Y Öncel, Fazil Aliev, Timothy Spector, Massimo Mangino, Genevieve Lachance, Laura A Baker, Catherine Tuvblad, Glen E Duncan, Dedra Buchwald, Gonneke Willemsen, Finn Rasmussen, Jack H Goldberg, Thorkild Ia Sørensen, Dorret I Boomsma, Jaakko Kaprio
BACKGROUND: Both genetic and environmental factors are known to affect body mass index (BMI), but detailed understanding of how their effects differ during childhood and adolescence is lacking. OBJECTIVES: We analyzed the genetic and environmental contributions to BMI variation from infancy to early adulthood and the ways they differ by sex and geographic regions representing high (North America and Australia), moderate (Europe), and low levels (East Asia) of obesogenic environments...
August 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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