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Obesogenic environment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687331/a-global-evolutionary-and-metabolic-analysis-of-human-obesity-gene-risk-variants
#1
Joseph J Castillo, Zachary S Hazlett, Robert A Orlando, William S Garver
It is generally accepted that the selection of gene variants during human evolution optimized energy metabolism that now interacts with our obesogenic environment to increase the prevalence of obesity. The purpose of this study was to perform a global evolutionary and metabolic analysis of human obesity gene risk variants (110 human obesity genes with 127 nearest gene risk variants) identified using genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to enhance our knowledge of early and late genotypes. As a result of determining the mean frequency of these obesity gene risk variants in 13 available populations from around the world our results provide evidence for the early selection of ancestral risk variants (defined as selection before migration from Africa) and late selection of derived risk variants (defined as selection after migration from Africa)...
July 4, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662399/obesogens-in-the-aquatic-environment-an-evolutionary-and-toxicological-perspective
#2
REVIEW
Ana Capitão, Angeliki Lyssimachou, Luís Filipe Costa Castro, Miguel M Santos
The rise of obesity in humans is a major health concern of our times, affecting an increasing proportion of the population worldwide. It is now evident that this phenomenon is not only associated with the lack of exercise and a balanced diet, but also due to environmental factors, such as exposure to environmental chemicals that interfere with lipid homeostasis. These chemicals, also known as obesogens, are present in a wide range of products of our daily life, such as cosmetics, paints, plastics, food cans and pesticide-treated food, among others...
June 26, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627418/alterations-in-neuronal-control-of-body-weight-and-anxiety-behavior-by-glutathione-peroxidase-4-deficiency
#3
Sonja C Schriever, Annemarie Zimprich, Katrin Pfuhlmann, Peter Baumann, Florian Giesert, Valentina Klaus, Dhiraj G Kabra, Ulrich Hafen, Artem Romanov, Matthias H Tschöp, Wolfgang Wurst, Marcus Conrad, Sabine M Hölter, Daniela Vogt Weisenhorn, Paul T Pfluger
Elevated levels of oxidative stress and neuronal inflammation in the hypothalamus or ventral midbrain, respectively, represent common denominators for obesity and Parkinson's Disease (PD). However, little is known about defense mechanisms that protect neurons in these regions from oxidative damage. Here, we aimed to assess whether murine Gpx4, a crucial antioxidant enzyme that protects neurons from membrane damage and ferroptosis, is critical for the protection from neuronal inflammation in two distinct pathophysiologic diseases, namely metabolic dysfunction in diet-induced obesity or PD...
June 13, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622415/is-bisphenol-a-an-environmental-obesogen
#4
REVIEW
Samuel Legeay, Sébastien Faure
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor with an oestrogenic activity that is widely produced for the manufacture of polycarbonate plastic, epoxy resin, and thermal paper. Its ubiquitous presence in the environment contributes to broad and continuous human exposure, which has been associated with deleterious health effects. Despite numerous controversial discussions and a lack of consensus about BPA's safety, growing evidence indicates that BPA exposure positively correlates with an increased risk of developing obesity...
June 16, 2017: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614474/-food-labeling-in-ecuador-implementation-results-and-pending-actions
#5
Adrián Alberto Díaz, Paula Mariana Veliz, Gabriela Rivas-Mariño, Carina Vance Mafla, Luz María Martínez Altamirano, Cecilia Vaca Jones
Noncommunicable diseases are the world's leading cause of death, responsible for 38 million deaths in 2012. This epidemic is primarily associated with smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, sedentary lifestyle, and changes in dietary patterns, characterized by diets high in sugar and saturated fat, typical of processed foods and sugar-sweetened beverages, plus low intake of fruits and vegetables. Ecuador is no exception to this epidemiological profile or to changes in eating patterns. Thus, Ecuador's government designed and implemented an action plan aimed at changing the obesogenic environment, which includes six strategic lines...
June 8, 2017: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608495/controlling-food-seeking-in-the-presence-of-food-cues-commentary-on-van-steenbergen-et-al-2017
#6
Stephanie Baines
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 13, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594107/mirnas-in-nutrition-obesity-and-cancer-the-biology-of-mirnas-in-metabolic-disorders-and-its-relationship-with-cancer-development
#7
Verónica Del Carmen Martínez-Jiménez, Alejandro Méndez-Mancilla, Diana Patricia Portales-Pérez
SCOPE: The scope of this review is to explain how metabolic disorders originated by a deficient nutrition can develop into a neoplasic process by the alteration of epigenetic mechanisms like miRNAs. Obesity is a proinflammatory state with a wide impact on health around the world that is associated with neoplastic diseases. Epigenetic mechanisms have a central role in the obesogenic environment, which participates on the development of comorbidities such as cancer. METHODS AND RESULTS: We made an exhaustive review of the most recent reports about metabolic disorders with nutrition and their relationship with miRNAs, and their risk of developing into oncogenic processes...
June 8, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589267/associations-between-parental-bmi-and-the-family-nutrition-and-physical-activity-environment-in-a-community-sample
#8
Joel E Williams, Brian Helsel, Sarah F Griffin, Jessica Liang
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between parental BMI and the family environment and determine if differences exist in child diet and physical activity related parenting behaviors by parental BMI in a community sample of families recruited through elementary schools in a local school district. We found an association between parental BMI category and family nutrition and physical activity (FNPA) score. Families with an underweight or normal weight parent had a larger proportion (64...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587941/family-food-talk-child-eating-behavior-and-maternal-feeding-practices
#9
Elizabeth Roach, Gail B Viechnicki, Lauren B Retzloff, Pamela Davis-Kean, Julie C Lumeng, Alison L Miller
Families discuss food and eating in many ways that may shape child eating habits. Researchers studying how families talk about food have examined this process during meals. Little work has examined parent-child food-related interactions outside of mealtime. We assessed family food talk at home outside of mealtime and tested whether food talk was associated with obesogenic child eating behaviors, maternal feeding practices, or child weight. Preschool and school-aged mother-child dyads (n = 61) participated in naturalistic voice recording using a LENA (Language ENvironment Analysis) recorder...
June 3, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585209/influence-of-antioxidants-on-leptin-metabolism-and-its-role-in-the-pathogenesis-of-obesity
#10
Harald Mangge, Christian Ciardi, Kathrin Becker, Barbara Strasser, Dietmar Fuchs, Johanna M Gostner
Obesity is associated with low-grade inflammation. Leptin, a hormone made by fat cells regulates appetite and hunger and thus food intake behavior. Interestingly, , food preservatives like sodium sulfite and sodium benzoate and also natural colorant and spice compounds such as curcumin were found to decrease the release of leptin in murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes, after co-incubation with LPS, which was added to mimic the pro-inflammatory status in obesity. Several of these compounds are well known food antioxidants...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560820/children-s-and-parents-opinions-on-the-sport-related-food-environment-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
M Smith, L Signal, R Edwards, J Hoek
Sport is a key setting for interventions to address child obesity given its obesogenic nature. Understanding children's and parents' opinions on the sport-related food environment is critical in developing effective programmes and policies to improve children's health. This systematic review synthesizes quantitative and qualitative research examining children's and parents' opinions on the sport-related food environment. During July 2016, a range of electronic databases of academic and grey literature were searched...
May 31, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554157/does-neighbourhood-deprivation-affect-the-genetic-influence-on-body-mass
#12
Gwilym Owen, Kelvyn Jones, Richard Harris
Most research into the role of gene-environment interactions in the etiology of obesity has taken environment to mean behaviours such as exercise and diet. While interesting, this is somewhat at odds with research into the social determinants of obesity, in which the focus has shifted away from individuals and behaviours to the types of wider obesogenic environments in which individuals live, which influence and produce these behaviours. This study combines these two strands of research by investigating how the genetic influence on body mass index (BMI), used as a proxy for obesity, changes across different neighbourhood environments measured by levels of deprivation...
May 19, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551493/residential-greenness-and-adiposity-findings-from-the-uk-biobank
#13
Chinmoy Sarkar
BACKGROUND: With the rapid urbanization and prevailing obesity pandemic, the role of residential green exposures in obesity prevention has gained renewed focus. The study investigated the effects of residential green exposures on adiposity using a large and diverse population sample drawn from the UK Biobank. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a population based cross-sectional study of 333,183 participants aged 38-73years with individual-level data on residential greenness and built environment exposures...
May 25, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549063/food-addiction-and-obesity-unnecessary-medicalization-of-hedonic-overeating
#14
REVIEW
Graham Finlayson
The concept of addiction is loaded with connotations and is often used for its political as much as its medical utility. The scientific case for 'food addiction' as a clinical phenotype currently rests on its association with generic diagnostic criteria for substance-related disorders being applied to everyday foods and eating-related problems. This has fused the concept of obesity with addiction regardless of whether it fits the definition. The hedonic, or reward, system can account for the ingestion of foods and drugs, confirming that they share neural substrates that differentiate liking and wanting...
August 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527383/tributyltin-and-triphenyltin-exposure-promotes-in-vitro-adipogenic-differentiation-but-alters-the-adipocyte-phenotype-in-rainbow-trout
#15
Esmail Lutfi, Natàlia Riera-Heredia, Marlon Córdoba, Cinta Porte, Joaquim Gutiérrez, Encarnación Capilla, Isabel Navarro
Numerous environmental pollutants have been identified as potential obesogenic compounds affecting endocrine signaling and lipid homeostasis. Among them, well-known organotins such as tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT), can be found in significant concentrations in aquatic environments. The aim of the present study was to investigate in vitro the effects of TBT and TPT on the development and lipid metabolism of rainbow trout (Onchorynchus mykiss) primary cultured adipocytes. Results showed that TBT and TPT induced lipid accumulation and slightly enhanced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and CCAAT enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) protein expression when compared to a control, both in the presence or absence of lipid mixture...
May 8, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487552/newborn-insula-gray-matter-volume-is-prospectively-associated-with-early-life-adiposity-gain
#16
J M Rasmussen, S Entringer, F Kruggel, D M Cooper, M Styner, J H Gilmore, S G Potkin, P D Wadhwa, C Buss
BACKGROUNDThe importance of energy homeostasis brain circuitry in the context of obesity is well established, however, the developmental ontogeny of this circuitry in humans is currently unknown. Here, we investigate the prospective association between newborn gray matter (GM) volume in the insula, a key brain region underlying energy homeostasis, and change in percent body fat accrual over the first six months of postnatal life, an outcome that represents among the most reliable infant predictors of childhood obesity risk...
May 10, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479408/the-impact-of-front-of-pack-marketing-attributes-versus-nutrition-and-health-information-on-parents-food-choices
#17
Catherine Georgina Russell, Paul F Burke, David S Waller, Edward Wei
Front-of-pack attributes have the potential to affect parents' food choices on behalf of their children and form one avenue through which strategies to address the obesogenic environment can be developed. Previous work has focused on the isolated effects of nutrition and health information (e.g. labeling systems, health claims), and how parents trade off this information against co-occurring marketing features (e.g. product imagery, cartoons) is unclear. A Discrete Choice Experiment was utilized to understand how front-of-pack nutrition, health and marketing attributes, as well as pricing, influenced parents' choices of cereal for their child...
May 4, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468618/obesity-related-health-impacts-of-fuel-excise-taxation-an-evidence-review-and-cost-effectiveness-study
#18
V Brown, M Moodie, L Cobiac, A M Mantilla Herrera, R Carter
BACKGROUND: Reducing automobile dependence and improving rates of active transport may reduce the impact of obesogenic environments, thereby decreasing population prevalence of obesity and other diseases where physical inactivity is a risk factor. Increasing the relative cost of driving by an increase in fuel taxation may therefore be a promising public health intervention for obesity prevention. METHODS: A scoping review of the evidence for obesity or physical activity effect of changes in fuel price or taxation was undertaken...
May 4, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457982/permissive-flexibility-in-successful-lifelong-weight-management-a-qualitative-study-among-finnish-men-and-women
#19
Anu Joki, Johanna Mäkelä, Mikael Fogelholm
Maintaining normal weight in the current obesogenic environment is a challenge. However, some people can do it. More insight is needed to understand how and why some people succeed in long-term weight maintenance. This study uses a rare, qualitative approach by describing the thoughts of successful weight management and self-perceived requirements for success in weight maintenance. We interviewed 39 individuals who have maintained normal weight for their entire lives (men and women). The content analysis revealed a main theme: flexible, permissive and conscious self-regulation, which was divided into two subthemes (eating-related behavior and weight-related behavior)...
April 27, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449616/obesogenic-environments-current-evidence-of-the-built-and-food-environments
#20
Tim Townshend, Amelia Lake
AIMS: Obesity is one of the most significant global health and social problems, with rates rising dramatically over the past few decades. While the basic drivers of obesity are obvious (more energy consumed than expended), the causes are multifactorial and complex. A decade ago, it was suggested that exploring the ways in which the built environment influenced physical activity and dietary behaviours might provide fertile ground for investigation. This article overviews current evidence and, in particular, emergent themes that are of significance for the United Kingdom...
January 2017: Perspectives in Public Health
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