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Obesogenic environment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819323/excessive-body-fat-linked-to-blunted-somatosensory-cortex-response-to-general-reward-in-adolescents
#1
J F Navas, A Barros-Loscertales, V Costumero-Ramos, J Verdejo-Román, R Vilar-López, A Verdejo-García
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The brain reward system is key to understanding adolescent obesity in the current obesogenic environment, rich in highly appetising stimuli, to which adolescents are particularly sensitive. We aimed to examine the association between body fat levels and brain reward system responsivity to general (monetary) rewards in male and female adolescents. METHOD: Sixty-eight adolescents (34 females; mean age [standard deviation]=16.56 [1.35]) were measured for body fat levels with bioelectric impedance, and underwent a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan during the Monetary Incentive Delay (MID) task...
August 18, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768569/tissue-cell-stress-response-to-obesity-and-its-interaction-with-late-gestation-diet
#2
Vivek Saroha, Neele S Dellschaft, Duane H Keisler, David S Gardner, Helen Budge, Sylvain P Sebert, Michael E Symonds
Intrauterine growth restriction in late pregnancy can contribute to adverse long-term metabolic health in the offspring. In the present study we used an animal (sheep) model of maternal dietary manipulation in late pregnancy, combined with exposure of the offspring to a low-activity, obesogenic environment after weaning, to characterise the effects on glucose homeostasis. Dizygotic twin-pregnant sheep were either fed to 60% of requirements (nutrient restriction (R)) or fed ad libitum (~140% of requirements (A)) from 110 days gestation until term (~147 days)...
August 3, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751679/conjugated-linoleic-acid-supplementation-improves-maternal-high-fat-diet-induced-programming-of-metabolic-dysfunction-in-adult-male-rat-offspring
#3
Stephanie A Segovia, Mark H Vickers, Clint Gray, Xiaoyuan D Zhang, Clare M Reynolds
The developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis proposes that an adverse early life environment, including in utero exposure to a maternal obesogenic environment, can lead to an increased long-term risk of obesity and related metabolic complications in offspring. We assessed whether maternal supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) could prevent some of these adverse effects in offspring exposed to a maternal high fat diet. Sprague-Dawley dams consumed either a: control (CD), control with CLA (CLA), high fat (HF) or high fat with CLA (HFCLA) diet 10 days prior to mating and throughout pregnancy/lactation...
July 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747194/obesity-in-scotland-a-persistent-inequality
#4
Elaine Tod, Catherine Bromley, Andrew D Millard, Allan Boyd, Phil Mackie, Gerry McCartney
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a health problem in its own right and a risk factor for other conditions such as cardiovascular disease. The prevalence of overweight and obesity increased in Scotland between 1995 and 2008 with socio-economic inequalities persisting in adults over time and increasing in children. This paper explores changes in the underlying distribution of body mass index (BMI) which is less well understood. METHODS: Using data from the Scottish Health Survey (SHeS) between 1995 and 2014 for adults aged 18-64 years, we calculated population distributions for BMI for the population overall, and for age, sex and deprivation strata...
July 27, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747186/understanding-differences-between-summer-vs-school-obesogenic-behaviors-of-children-the-structured-days-hypothesis
#5
Keith Brazendale, Michael W Beets, R Glenn Weaver, Russell R Pate, Gabrielle M Turner-McGrievy, Andrew T Kaczynski, Jessica L Chandler, Amy Bohnert, Paul T von Hippel
BACKGROUND: Although the scientific community has acknowledged modest improvements can be made to weight status and obesogenic behaviors (i.e., physical activity, sedentary/screen time, diet, and sleep) during the school year, studies suggests improvements are erased as elementary-age children are released to summer vacation. Emerging evidence shows children return to school after summer vacation displaying accelerated weight gain compared to the weight gained occurring during the school year...
July 26, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746163/the-potential-contribution-of-dietary-factors-to-breast-cancer-prevention
#6
Niva Shapira
Breast cancer (BC), the leading cancer in women, is increasing in prevalence worldwide, concurrent with western metabolic epidemics, that is, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes, and shares major risk factors with these diseases. The corresponding potential for nutritional contributions toward BC prevention is reviewed and related to critical stages in the life cycle and their implications for carcinogenic and pathometabolic trajectories. BC initiation potentially involves diet-related pro-oxidative, inflammatory, and procarcinogenic processes, that interact through combined lipid/fatty acid peroxidation, estrogen metabolism, and related DNA-adduct/depurination/mutation formation...
July 25, 2017: European Journal of Cancer Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736411/community-engaged-attribute-mapping-exploring-resources-and-readiness-to-change-the-rural-context-for-obesity-prevention
#7
Deborah John, Tammy Winfield, Lena Etuk, Perry Hystad, Gail Langellotto, Melinda Manore, Kathy Gunter
BACKGROUND: Individual risk factors for obesity are well-known, but environmental characteristics that influence individual risk, especially in rural communities, are not confirmed. Rural communities face unique challenges to implementing environmental strategies, such as walkability, aimed at supporting weight healthy lifestyles. Cooperative Extension, a community-embedded weight health partner, convened and engaged community members in self-exploration of local resources and readiness to change environmental characteristics perceived to promote unhealthy eating and inactivity...
2017: Progress in Community Health Partnerships: Research, Education, and Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732475/associations-between-childhood-overweight-obesity-abdominal-obesity-and-obesogenic-behaviors-and-practices-in-australian-homes
#8
Seema Mihrshahi, Bradley A Drayton, Adrian E Bauman, Louise L Hardy
BACKGROUND: Despite emerging research about the role of the family and home environment on early childhood obesity, little is known on how weight-related behaviors, parent practices and the home environment influence overweight/obesity in older children and adolescents. METHODS: This analysis used data from a cross-sectional, representative population survey of Australian children age 5-16 years conducted in 2015. Data included measured anthropometry to calculate body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR; waist circumference/height)...
July 21, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687331/a-global-evolutionary-and-metabolic-analysis-of-human-obesity-gene-risk-variants
#9
Joseph J Castillo, Zachary S Hazlett, Robert A Orlando, William S Garver
It is generally accepted that the selection of gene variants during human evolution optimized energy metabolism that now interacts with our obesogenic environment to increase the prevalence of obesity. The purpose of this study was to perform a global evolutionary and metabolic analysis of human obesity gene risk variants (110 human obesity genes with 127 nearest gene risk variants) identified using genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to enhance our knowledge of early and late genotypes. As a result of determining the mean frequency of these obesity gene risk variants in 13 available populations from around the world our results provide evidence for the early selection of ancestral risk variants (defined as selection before migration from Africa) and late selection of derived risk variants (defined as selection after migration from Africa)...
September 5, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662399/obesogens-in-the-aquatic-environment-an-evolutionary-and-toxicological-perspective
#10
REVIEW
Ana Capitão, Angeliki Lyssimachou, Luís Filipe Costa Castro, Miguel M Santos
The rise of obesity in humans is a major health concern of our times, affecting an increasing proportion of the population worldwide. It is now evident that this phenomenon is not only associated with the lack of exercise and a balanced diet, but also due to environmental factors, such as exposure to environmental chemicals that interfere with lipid homeostasis. These chemicals, also known as obesogens, are present in a wide range of products of our daily life, such as cosmetics, paints, plastics, food cans and pesticide-treated food, among others...
June 26, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627418/alterations-in-neuronal-control-of-body-weight-and-anxiety-behavior-by-glutathione-peroxidase-4-deficiency
#11
Sonja C Schriever, Annemarie Zimprich, Katrin Pfuhlmann, Peter Baumann, Florian Giesert, Valentina Klaus, Dhiraj G Kabra, Ulrich Hafen, Artem Romanov, Matthias H Tschöp, Wolfgang Wurst, Marcus Conrad, Sabine M Hölter, Daniela Vogt Weisenhorn, Paul T Pfluger
Elevated levels of oxidative stress and neuronal inflammation in the hypothalamus or ventral midbrain, respectively, represent common denominators for obesity and Parkinson's Disease (PD). However, little is known about defense mechanisms that protect neurons in these regions from oxidative damage. Here, we aimed to assess whether murine Gpx4, a crucial antioxidant enzyme that protects neurons from membrane damage and ferroptosis, is critical for the protection from neuronal inflammation in two distinct pathophysiologic diseases, namely metabolic dysfunction in diet-induced obesity or PD...
June 13, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622415/is-bisphenol-a-an-environmental-obesogen
#12
REVIEW
Samuel Legeay, Sébastien Faure
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor with an oestrogenic activity that is widely produced for the manufacture of polycarbonate plastic, epoxy resin, and thermal paper. Its ubiquitous presence in the environment contributes to broad and continuous human exposure, which has been associated with deleterious health effects. Despite numerous controversial discussions and a lack of consensus about BPA's safety, growing evidence indicates that BPA exposure positively correlates with an increased risk of developing obesity...
June 16, 2017: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614474/-food-labeling-in-ecuador-implementation-results-and-pending-actions
#13
Adrián Alberto Díaz, Paula Mariana Veliz, Gabriela Rivas-Mariño, Carina Vance Mafla, Luz María Martínez Altamirano, Cecilia Vaca Jones
Noncommunicable diseases are the world's leading cause of death, responsible for 38 million deaths in 2012. This epidemic is primarily associated with smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, sedentary lifestyle, and changes in dietary patterns, characterized by diets high in sugar and saturated fat, typical of processed foods and sugar-sweetened beverages, plus low intake of fruits and vegetables. Ecuador is no exception to this epidemiological profile or to changes in eating patterns. Thus, Ecuador's government designed and implemented an action plan aimed at changing the obesogenic environment, which includes six strategic lines...
June 8, 2017: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608495/controlling-food-seeking-in-the-presence-of-food-cues-commentary-on-van-steenbergen-et-al-2017
#14
Stephanie Baines
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 13, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594107/mirnas-in-nutrition-obesity-and-cancer-the-biology-of-mirnas-in-metabolic-disorders-and-its-relationship-with-cancer-development
#15
Verónica Del Carmen Martínez-Jiménez, Alejandro Méndez-Mancilla, Diana Patricia Portales-Pérez
SCOPE: The scope of this review is to explain how metabolic disorders originated by a deficient nutrition can develop into a neoplasic process by the alteration of epigenetic mechanisms like miRNAs. Obesity is a proinflammatory state with a wide impact on health around the world that is associated with neoplastic diseases. Epigenetic mechanisms have a central role in the obesogenic environment, which participates on the development of comorbidities such as cancer. METHODS AND RESULTS: We made an exhaustive review of the most recent reports about metabolic disorders with nutrition and their relationship with miRNAs, and their risk of developing into oncogenic processes...
June 8, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589267/associations-between-parental-bmi-and-the-family-nutrition-and-physical-activity-environment-in-a-community-sample
#16
Joel E Williams, Brian Helsel, Sarah F Griffin, Jessica Liang
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between parental BMI and the family environment and determine if differences exist in child diet and physical activity related parenting behaviors by parental BMI in a community sample of families recruited through elementary schools in a local school district. We found an association between parental BMI category and family nutrition and physical activity (FNPA) score. Families with an underweight or normal weight parent had a larger proportion (64...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587941/family-food-talk-child-eating-behavior-and-maternal-feeding-practices
#17
Elizabeth Roach, Gail B Viechnicki, Lauren B Retzloff, Pamela Davis-Kean, Julie C Lumeng, Alison L Miller
Families discuss food and eating in many ways that may shape child eating habits. Researchers studying how families talk about food have examined this process during meals. Little work has examined parent-child food-related interactions outside of mealtime. We assessed family food talk at home outside of mealtime and tested whether food talk was associated with obesogenic child eating behaviors, maternal feeding practices, or child weight. Preschool and school-aged mother-child dyads (n = 61) participated in naturalistic voice recording using a LENA (Language ENvironment Analysis) recorder...
October 1, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585209/influence-of-antioxidants-on-leptin-metabolism-and-its-role-in-the-pathogenesis-of-obesity
#18
Harald Mangge, Christian Ciardi, Kathrin Becker, Barbara Strasser, Dietmar Fuchs, Johanna M Gostner
Obesity is associated with low-grade inflammation. Leptin, a hormone made by fat cells regulates appetite and hunger and thus food intake behavior. Interestingly, , food preservatives like sodium sulfite and sodium benzoate and also natural colorant and spice compounds such as curcumin were found to decrease the release of leptin in murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes, after co-incubation with LPS, which was added to mimic the pro-inflammatory status in obesity. Several of these compounds are well known food antioxidants...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560820/children-s-and-parents-opinions-on-the-sport-related-food-environment-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
M Smith, L Signal, R Edwards, J Hoek
Sport is a key setting for interventions to address child obesity given its obesogenic nature. Understanding children's and parents' opinions on the sport-related food environment is critical in developing effective programmes and policies to improve children's health. This systematic review synthesizes quantitative and qualitative research examining children's and parents' opinions on the sport-related food environment. During July 2016, a range of electronic databases of academic and grey literature were searched...
May 31, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554157/does-neighbourhood-deprivation-affect-the-genetic-influence-on-body-mass
#20
Gwilym Owen, Kelvyn Jones, Richard Harris
Most research into the role of gene-environment interactions in the etiology of obesity has taken environment to mean behaviours such as exercise and diet. While interesting, this is somewhat at odds with research into the social determinants of obesity, in which the focus has shifted away from individuals and behaviours to the types of wider obesogenic environments in which individuals live, which influence and produce these behaviours. This study combines these two strands of research by investigating how the genetic influence on body mass index (BMI), used as a proxy for obesity, changes across different neighbourhood environments measured by levels of deprivation...
May 19, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
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