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Obesogenic environment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236733/influences-on-the-food-choices-and-physical-activity-behaviours-of-overweight-and-obese-pregnant-women-a-qualitative-study
#1
Orna A O'Brien, Karen L Lindsay, Mary McCarthy, Aileen F McGloin, Maria Kennelly, Helena A Scully, Fionnuala M McAuliffe
OBJECTIVE: to qualitatively explore influences identified by overweight/obese pregnant women on food choices and physical activity (PA) behaviours; to determine the impact of pregnancy on these factors; and to inform development of future lifestyle interventions during pregnancy. DESIGN: cross-sectional interview study. SETTING: maternity hospital, Ireland. PARTICIPANTS: pregnant women (n=22), early pregnancy Body Mass Index > 25kg/m(2) MEASURES: barriers to and facilitators of healthy eating and PA in overweight/obese pregnancy...
February 7, 2017: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236287/behavioural-susceptibility-theory-professor-jane-wardle-and-the-role-of-appetite-in-genetic-risk-of-obesity
#2
REVIEW
Clare H Llewellyn, Alison Fildes
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is considerable variability in human body weight, despite the ubiquity of the 'obesogenic' environment. Human body weight has a strong genetic basis and it has been hypothesised that genetic susceptibility to the environment explains variation in human body weight, with differences in appetite being implicated as the mediating mechanism; so-called 'behavioural susceptibility theory' (BST), first described by Professor Jane Wardle. This review summarises the evidence for the role of appetite as a mediator of genetic risk of obesity...
February 24, 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235645/modification-of-the-fatty-acid-composition-of-an-obesogenic-diet-improves-the-maternal-and-placental-metabolic-environment-in-obese-pregnant-mice
#3
Martina Gimpfl, Jan Rozman, Maik Dahlhoff, Raphaela Kübeck, Andreas Blutke, Birgit Rathkolb, Martin Klingenspor, Martin Hrabě de Angelis, Soner Öner-Sieben, Annette Seibt, Adelbert A Roscher, Eckhard Wolf, Regina Ensenauer
Peri-conceptional exposure to maternal obesogenic nutrition is associated with in utero programming of later-life overweight and metabolic disease in the offspring. We aimed to investigate whether dietary intervention with a modified fatty acid quality in an obesogenic high-calorie (HC) diet during the preconception and gestational phases can improve unfavourable effects of an adipogenic maternal environment. In NMRI mice, peri-conceptional and gestational obesity was induced by feeding a HC diet (controls), and they were compared with dams on a fat-modified (Fat-mod) HC diet of the same energy content but enriched with medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) and adjusted to a decreased ratio of n-6 to n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs)...
February 21, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214525/-is-there-an-optimal-diet-for-weight-management-and-metabolic-health
#4
George Thom, Mike Lean
Individuals can lose body weight and improve health status on a wide range of energy (calorie) restricted dietary interventions. In this paper, we have reviewed the effectiveness of the most commonly utilized diets, including low-fat, low-carbohydrate and Mediterranean approaches in addition to commercial slimming programmes, meal replacements and newly-popularized intermittent fasting diets. We also consider the role of artificial sweeteners in weight management. Low-fat diets tend to improve LDL-cholesterol most, whilst lower-carbohydrate diets may preferentially improve triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol, however differences between diets are marginal...
February 15, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186100/school-food-environments-associated-with-adiposity-in-children-attending-canadian-urban-schools
#5
C Fitzpatrick, G D Datta, M Henderson, K Gray-Donald, Y Kestens, T A Barnett
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Targeting obesogenic features of children's environment that are amenable to change represents a promising strategy for health promotion. The school food environment, defined as the services and policies regarding nutrition and the availability of food in the school and surrounding neighborhood, is particularly important given that students travel through the school neighborhood almost daily and that they consume a substantial proportion of their calories at school...
February 10, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165656/applications-of-geographic-information-systems-gis-data-and-methods-in-obesity-related-research
#6
REVIEW
P Jia, X Cheng, H Xue, Y Wang
Geographic information systems (GIS) data/methods offer good promise for public health programs including obesity-related research. This study systematically examined their applications and identified gaps and limitations in current obesity-related research. A systematic search of PubMed for studies published before 20 May 2016, utilizing synonyms for GIS in combination with synonyms for obesity as search terms, identified 121 studies that met our inclusion criteria. We found primary applications of GIS data/methods in obesity-related research included (i) visualization of spatial distribution of obesity and obesity-related phenomena, and basic obesogenic environmental features, and (ii) construction of advanced obesogenic environmental indicators...
February 6, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161671/generating-political-priority-for-regulatory-interventions-targeting-obesity-prevention-an-australian-case-study
#7
Phillip Baker, Timothy Gill, Sharon Friel, Gemma Carey, Adrian Kay
Effective obesity prevention requires a synergistic mix of population-level interventions including a strong role for government and the regulation of the marketing, labelling, content and pricing of energy-dense foods and beverages. In this paper we adopt the agenda of the Australian Federal Government (AFG) as a case study to understand the factors generating or hindering political priority for such 'regulatory interventions' between 1990 and 2011. Using a theoretically-guided process tracing method we undertook documentary analysis and conducted 27 interviews with a diversity of actors involved in obesity politics...
January 24, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143808/contextual-impact-of-neighborhood-obesogenic-factors-on-postmenopausal-breast-cancer-the-multiethnic-cohort
#8
Shannon M Conroy, Christina Clarke, Juan Yang, Salma Shariff-Marco, Yurii B Shvetsov, Song-Yi Park, Cheryl L Albright, Andrew Hertz, Kristine R Monroe, Laurence N Kolonel, Loic Le Marchand, Lynne R Wilkens, Scarlett Lin Gomez, Iona Cheng
BACKGROUND: While obesity is well-understood to increase breast cancer risk, the role of the neighborhood obesogenic environment, encompassing social and built environment attributes that influence body size, is poorly understood. METHODS: Using principal components factor analysis, five composite factors (neighborhood socioeconomic status (nSES), urban, mixed-land development, unhealthy food environment, parks), based on geospatial data were developed to characterize the obesogenic environment for 48,247 postmenopausal women in the Multiethnic Cohort, residing predominately in Los Angeles County...
January 31, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134006/effect-of-an-obesogenic-environment-and-health-behaviour-related-social-support-on-body-mass-index-and-body-image-of-adolescents
#9
Emriye H Yayan, Ayda Çelebioğlu
AIM: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of an obesogenic environment and social support for health behaviours on body mass index and body image in adolescents. METHODS: This methodological and descriptive study was conducted in a city centre in Turkey. Interviews were made with the Provincial Directorate for National Education, and the schools in the city centre were divided into three regions according to socioeconomic levels; three schools were then determined among the regions by drawing lots...
January 1, 2017: Global Health Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090739/obesity-related-genetic-polymorphisms-and-adiposity-indices-in-a-young-italian-population
#10
Laura Bordoni, Francesca Marchegiani, Marco Piangerelli, Valerio Napolioni, Rosita Gabbianelli
Pediatric obesity develops when a complex biological predisposition collides with an obesogenic environment. To further elucidate the role of genetics in obesity onset, we performed a candidate-gene association study in a young and sportive Italian population by testing the association of functional polymorphisms in ACE (rs4646994), FTO (rs9939609), MC4R (rs17782313) and PPARG (rs1801282) genes with body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). We also tested the combinations of identified risk genotypes and epistatic interactions among them to determine the existence of cumulative effects in predicting the predisposition to gain weight...
February 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088658/exposure-to-chronic-early-life-stress-lastingly-alters-the-adipose-tissue-the-leptin-system-and-changes-the-vulnerability-to-western-style-diet-later-in-life-in-mice
#11
K Y Yam, E F G Naninck, M R Abbink, S E la Fleur, L Schipper, J C van den Beukel, A Grefhorst, A Oosting, E M van der Beek, P J Lucassen, A Korosi
Early-life stress (ES) increases the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies and cognitive decline in adulthood. Interestingly, this is often comorbid with metabolic disorders, such as obesity. However, it is unclear whether ES leads to lasting metabolic changes and to what extent this is associated with the ES-induced cognitive impairments. Here, we used an established chronic ES mouse model (from postnatal day (P) 2 to P9) to investigate the short- and long-term effects of ES exposure on parameters of the adipose tissue and the leptin system (i...
December 23, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076762/a-leptin-analog-locally-produced-in-the-brain-acts-via-a-conserved-neural-circuit-to-modulate-obesity-linked-behaviors-in-drosophila
#12
Jennifer Beshel, Josh Dubnau, Yi Zhong
Leptin, a typically adipose-derived "satiety hormone," has a well-established role in weight regulation. Here we describe a functionally conserved model of genetically induced obesity in Drosophila by manipulating the fly leptin analog unpaired 1 (upd1). Unexpectedly, cell-type-specific knockdown reveals upd1 in the brain, not the adipose tissue, mediates obesity-related traits. Disrupting brain-derived upd1 in flies leads to all the hallmarks of mammalian obesity: increased attraction to food cues, increased food intake, and increased weight...
January 10, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073954/gene-obesogenic-environment-interactions-in-the-uk-biobank-study
#13
Jessica Tyrrell, Andrew R Wood, Ryan M Ames, Hanieh Yaghootkar, Robin N Beaumont, Samuel E Jones, Marcus A Tuke, Katherine S Ruth, Rachel M Freathy, George Davey Smith, Stéphane Joost, Idris Guessous, Anna Murray, David P Strachan, Zoltán Kutalik, Michael N Weedon, Timothy M Frayling
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that modern obesogenic environments accentuate the genetic risk of obesity. However, these studies have proven controversial as to which, if any, measures of the environment accentuate genetic susceptibility to high body mass index (BMI). METHODS: We used up to 120 000 adults from the UK Biobank study to test the hypothesis that high-risk obesogenic environments and behaviours accentuate genetic susceptibility to obesity...
January 10, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999679/early-rapid-weight-gain-and-subsequent-overweight-and-obesity-in-middle-childhood-in-peru
#14
Mary E Penny, M Michelle Jimenez, R Margot Marin
BACKGROUND: Rapid postnatal weight gain is associated with risk of overweight and obesity, but it's unclear whether this holds in populations exposed to concurrent obesogenic risk factors and for children who have been extensively breastfed. This study investigates whether an increase in weight for age from birth to 1 year (infancy) and from 1 to 5 years (early childhood) predicts overweight and obesity, and waist circumference at 8 years, using data from a longitudinal cohort study in Peru...
2016: BMC Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931993/age-period-cohort-analyses-of-obesity-prevalence-in-us-adults
#15
R An, X Xiang
OBJECTIVES: Age-period-cohort analysis is a stream of methodologies that decompose the temporal trends for disease risk into three time scales-age, calendar year (period) and year of birth (cohort). This study conducted age-period-cohort analyses of obesity prevalence in US adults. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective data analysis. METHODS: We constructed regression models based on anthropometric data from the 1999-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to correct for the self-reported height/weight in the 1984-2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)...
December 2016: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927584/tribally-affiliated-child-care-center-environment-and-obesogenic-behaviors-in-young-children
#16
Susan B Sisson, Julie Stoner, Ji Li, Lancer Stephens, Janis E Campbell, Karina R Lora, Sandra H Arnold, Diane Horm, Beth DeGrace
BACKGROUND: Child-care centers are an integral part of life for many families with young children. American Indian children are at elevated health risk because of higher levels of obesity and associated health behaviors. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to assess the child-care environment and children's physical activity (PA) and dietary intake in young children attending tribally affiliated child care. DESIGN: We conducted a cross-sectional study...
March 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915080/a-nudge-in-a-healthier-direction-how-environmental-cues-help-restrained-eaters-pursue-their-weight-control-goal
#17
Aline E Stämpfli, Sabrina Stöckli, Thomas A Brunner
Losing weight is a goal for many people, but it is hard to pursue. However, dieting cues in the environment hold promise for improving individuals' eating behavior. For example, exposure to thin, human-like sculptures by the artist Alberto Giacometti has been found to promote healthy snack choices at a vending machine. Whether health- or weight-related processes drive such effects has not yet been determined. However, a detailed understanding of the content-related drivers of environmental cues' effects provides the first indications regarding a cue's possible use...
March 1, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877118/contexts-paired-with-junk-food-impair-goal-directed-behavior-in-rats-implications-for-decision-making-in-obesogenic-environments
#18
Michael D Kendig, Ambrose M K Cheung, Joel S Raymond, Laura H Corbit
The high prevalence of obesity and related metabolic diseases calls for greater understanding of the factors that drive excess energy intake. Calorie-dense palatable foods are readily available and often are paired with highly salient environmental cues. These cues can trigger food-seeking and consumption in the absence of hunger. Here we examined the effects of palatable food-paired environmental cues on control of instrumental food-seeking behavior. In Experiment 1, adult male rats received exposures to one context containing three "junk" foods (JFs context) and another containing chow (Chow context)...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848725/results-from-south-africa-s-2016-report-card-on-physical-activity-for-children-and-youth
#19
Monika Uys, Susan Bassett, Catherine E Draper, Lisa Micklesfield, Andries Monyeki, Anniza de Villiers, Estelle V Lambert
BACKGROUND: We present results of the 2016 Healthy Active Kids South Africa (HAKSA) Report Card on the current status of physical activity (PA) and nutrition in South African youth. The context in which we interpret the findings is that participation in PA is a fundamental human right, along with the right to "attainment of the highest standard of health." METHODS: The HAKSA 2016 Writing Group was comprised of 33 authorities in physical education, exercise science, nutrition, public health, and journalism...
November 2016: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845255/loss-of-lateral-prefrontal-cortex-control-in-food-directed-attention-and-goal-directed-food-choice-in-obesity
#20
Lieneke K Janssen, Iris Duif, Ilke van Loon, Joost Wegman, Jeanne H M de Vries, Roshan Cools, Esther Aarts
Loss of lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC)-mediated attentional control may explain the automatic tendency to eat in the face of food. Here, we investigate the neurocognitive mechanism underlying attentional bias to food words and its association with obesity using a food Stroop task. We tested 76 healthy human subjects with a wide body mass index (BMI) range (19-35kg/m(2)) using fMRI. As a measure of obesity we calculated individual obesity scores based on BMI, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio using principal component analyses...
February 1, 2017: NeuroImage
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