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Obesogenic environment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915080/a-nudge-in-a-healthier-direction-how-environmental-cues-help-restrained-eaters-pursue-their-weight-control-goal
#1
Aline E Stämpfli, Sabrina Stöckli, Thomas A Brunner
Losing weight is a goal for many people, but it is hard to pursue. However, dieting cues in the environment hold promise for improving individuals' eating behavior. For example, exposure to thin, human-like sculptures by the artist Alberto Giacometti has been found to promote healthy snack choices at a vending machine. Whether health- or weight-related processes drive such effects has not yet been determined. However, a detailed understanding of the content-related drivers of environmental cues' effects provides the first indications regarding a cue's possible use...
November 30, 2016: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877118/contexts-paired-with-junk-food-impair-goal-directed-behavior-in-rats-implications-for-decision-making-in-obesogenic-environments
#2
Michael D Kendig, Ambrose M K Cheung, Joel S Raymond, Laura H Corbit
The high prevalence of obesity and related metabolic diseases calls for greater understanding of the factors that drive excess energy intake. Calorie-dense palatable foods are readily available and often are paired with highly salient environmental cues. These cues can trigger food-seeking and consumption in the absence of hunger. Here we examined the effects of palatable food-paired environmental cues on control of instrumental food-seeking behavior. In Experiment 1, adult male rats received exposures to one context containing three "junk" foods (JFs context) and another containing chow (Chow context)...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848725/results-from-south-africa-s-2016-report-card-on-physical-activity-for-children-and-youth
#3
Monika Uys, Susan Bassett, Catherine E Draper, Lisa Micklesfield, Andries Monyeki, Anniza de Villiers, Estelle V Lambert
BACKGROUND: We present results of the 2016 Healthy Active Kids South Africa (HAKSA) Report Card on the current status of physical activity (PA) and nutrition in South African youth. The context in which we interpret the findings is that participation in PA is a fundamental human right, along with the right to "attainment of the highest standard of health." METHODS: The HAKSA 2016 Writing Group was comprised of 33 authorities in physical education, exercise science, nutrition, public health, and journalism...
November 2016: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845255/loss-of-lateral-prefrontal-cortex-control-in-food-directed-attention-and-goal-directed-food-choice-in-obesity
#4
Lieneke K Janssen, Iris Duif, Ilke van Loon, Joost Wegman, Jeanne H M de Vries, Roshan Cools, Esther Aarts
Loss of lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC)-mediated attentional control may explain the automatic tendency to eat in the face of food. Here, we investigate the neurocognitive mechanism underlying attentional bias to food words and its association with obesity using a food Stroop task. We tested 76 healthy human subjects with a wide body mass index (BMI) range (19-35kg/m(2)) using fMRI. As a measure of obesity we calculated individual obesity scores based on BMI, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio using principal component analyses...
November 11, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834179/-it-s-not-like-a-fat-camp-a-focus-group-study-of-adolescents-experiences-on-group-based-obesity-treatment
#5
Anna Engström, Eirik Abildsnes, Thomas Mildestvedt
BACKGROUND: The health burden related to obesity is rising among children and adolescents along with the general population worldwide. For the individual as well as the society this trend is alarming. Several factors are driving the trend, and the solution seems to be multifaceted because long-lasting treatment alternatives are lacking. This study aims to explore adolescents' and young adults' motivation for attending group-based obesity treatment and social and environmental factors that can facilitate or hinder lifestyle change...
2016: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827997/fto-deficiency-affects-the-gene-and-microrna-expression-involved-in-brown-adipogenesis-and-browning-of-white-adipose-tissue-in-mice
#6
Justiina Ronkainen, Eleonora Mondini, Francesca Cinti, Saverio Cinti, Sylvain Sebért, Markku J Savolainen, Tuire Salonurmi
Genetic variants in the fat mass- and obesity-associated gene Fto are linked to the onset of obesity in humans. The causal role of the FTO protein in obesity is supported by evidence obtained from transgenic mice; however, the underlying molecular pathways pertaining to the role of FTO in obesity have yet to be established. In this study, we investigate the Fto gene in mouse brown adipose tissue and in the browning process of white adipose tissue. We analyze distinct structural and molecular factors in brown and white fat depots of Fto-deficient mice under normal and obesogenic conditions...
November 7, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818069/maternal-obesity-mediated-predisposition-to-respiratory-complications-at-birth-and-in-later-life-understanding-the-implications-of-the-obesogenic-intrauterine-environment
#7
REVIEW
Erin V McGillick, Mitchell C Lock, Sandra Orgeig, Janna L Morrison
More women than not are entering pregnancy either overweight or obese. This presents a significant health care burden with respect to maternal morbidities and offspring complications at birth and in later life. In recent years it has also become clear that maternal obesity is an even greater global health problem than anticipated, because the effects are not limited to the mother but are also programmed in the fetus, known as the 'intergenerational cycle of obestiy'. Despite a large body of epidemiological evidence reporting outcomes of obese pregnancies, including offspring respiratory complications, much less is known about the molecular effects of maternal obesity on fetal lung development...
October 11, 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796780/prevention-and-care-programs-addressing-the-growing-prevalence-of-diabetes-in-china
#8
REVIEW
Junmei Yin, Alice P S Kong, Juliana C N Chan
According to a 2010 national survey, 11 % of adults in China have diabetes, affecting 109.6 million individuals. The high prevalence of diabetes has been attributed to the aging of the population, the rapid adoption of energy-dense foods, and a reduction in physical activity. Collectively, these secular changes have created an obesogenic environment that can unmask diabetes in subjects with a genetic predisposition. The growing prevalence of maternal obesity, gestational diabetes, childhood obesity, and early-onset disease can lead to premature morbidity and mortality...
December 2016: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771443/the-interaction-between-physical-activity-and-obesity-gene-variants-in-association-with-bmi-does-the-obesogenic-environment-matter
#9
M Graff, A S Richardson, K L Young, A L Mazul, Heather Highland, K E North, K L Mohlke, L A Lange, E M Lange, K M Harris, P Gordon-Larsen
Little is known about how obesity susceptibility single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) interact with moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in relation to BMI during adolescence, once obesogenic neighborhood factors are accounted for. In race stratified models, including European (EA; N=4977), African (AA; N=1726), and Hispanic Americans (HA; N=1270) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (1996; ages 12-21), we assessed the evidence for a SNPxMVPA interaction with BMI-for-age Z score, once accounting for obesogenic neighborhood factors including physical activity amenities, transportation and recreation infrastructure, poverty and crime...
November 2016: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759069/excessive-gain-in-body-mass-index-for-age-z-score-and-associated-factors-a-cohort-study-in-female-adolescents
#10
M L D Araújo, P C Cabral, I K G de Arruda, L de Souza Holanda, A S Diniz, R Maio, P B P Coelho
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the occurrence of excessive gain in body mass index-for-age Z-score (BMI/AZ) and its associated factors in adolescent girls. METHODOLOGY: This is a cohort study conducted between 2007 and 2012 with 382 girls between 10 and 18 years of age attending public schools in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. Excessive gain in BMI/AZ (EGBMI/AZ) at follow-up was considered if the adolescent had a BMI/AZ >0.63 between follow-up and baseline. RESULTS: In 2007, 33...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730262/-the-idefics-primary-prevention-as-a-good-practice-example
#11
Iris Pigeot, Stefaan De Henauw, Wolfgang Ahrens
BACKGROUND: Worldwide the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity is strikingly high. Prevention programs are therefore of high priority at a national and international level. In the framework of the IDEFICS study a primary prevention program was developed, implemented and evaluated. OBJECTIVE: This paper investigates to what degree the IDEFICS intervention may serve as good practice example. For this purpose, the single modules are described and the achieved effects are discussed...
October 11, 2016: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702393/sex-comparative-analysis-of-the-mirnome-of-human-amniotic-stem-cells-during-obesity
#12
Carmela Nardelli, Ilaria Granata, Laura Iaffaldano, Valeria D'Argenio, Valentina Del Monaco, Giuseppe Maria Maruotti, Luigi Del Vecchio, Pasquale Martinelli, Francesco Salvatore, Mario Rosario Guarracino, Lucia Sacchetti, Lucio Pastore
Experimental evidence indicates differences between women and men in several medical areas, including susceptibility to metabolic diseases. Sexual dimorphism could be influenced by microRNA (miRNA)-mediated regulation of gene expression, and miRNAs have also been implicated in fetal programming of obesity. Our previous finding of altered proteome in human amniotic stem cells (hA-MSCs) during obesity (Ob-) prompted us to look for gender-related differences in the miRNA regulation of gene expression in Ob-hA-MSCs that might be involved in metabolic changes...
October 5, 2016: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698344/maternal-vitamin-d-beneficially-programs-metabolic-gut-and-bone-health-of-mouse-male-offspring-in-an-obesogenic-environment
#13
C R Villa, J Chen, B Wen, S M Sacco, A Taibi, W E Ward, E M Comelli
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Vitamin D is an anti-inflammatory nutrient and a determinant of bone health. Some prospective studies suggest that maternal vitamin D status is positively associated with offspring bone mass. We found that serum concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an inflammatory molecule related to adiposity, insulin resistance and bone resorption, is lower in healthy mouse offspring exposed to high dietary vitamin D during pregnancy and lactation. LPS reaches the circulation via the gut...
October 25, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641926/bisphenol-a-induces-hypothalamic-down-regulation-of-the-the-cannabinoid-receptor-1-and-anorexigenic-effects-in-male-mice
#14
Antonio Suglia, Rosanna Chianese, Marina Migliaccio, Concetta Ambrosino, Silvia Fasano, Riccardo Pierantoni, Gilda Cobellis, Teresa Chioccarelli
Bisphenol A is an environment-polluting industrial chemical able to interfere with the endocrine system. An obesogenic effect in perinatally exposed rodents has been described as estrogenic activity. We exposed male mice to Bisphenol A during fetal-perinatal period (from 10 days post coitum to 31 days post partum) and investigated the effects of this early-life exposure at 78 days of age. Body weight, food intake, fat mass, and hypothalamic signals related to anorexigenic control of food intake were analyzed...
September 15, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619760/a-school-based-program-for-overweight-and-obese-adolescents-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Lori Pbert, Susan Druker, Bruce Barton, Kristin L Schneider, Barbara Olendzki, Mary A Gapinski, Stephen Kurtz, Stavroula Osganian
BACKGROUND: Given the dramatic increase in adolescent overweight and obesity, models are needed for implementing weight management treatment through readily accessible venues. We evaluated the acceptability and efficacy of a school-based intervention consisting of school nurse-delivered counseling and an afterschool exercise program in improving diet, activity, and body mass index (BMI) among overweight and obese adolescents. METHODS: A pair-matched cluster-randomized controlled school-based trial was conducted in which 8 public high schools were randomized to either a 12-session school nurse-delivered cognitive-behavioral counseling intervention plus school-based after school exercise program, or 12-session nurse contact with weight management information (control)...
October 2016: Journal of School Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613228/the-effects-of-maternal-under-nutrition-and-a-post-natal-high-fat-diet-on-lens-growth-transparency-and-oxidative-defense-systems-in-rat-offspring
#16
Sachini K Jayaratne, Paul J Donaldson, Mark H Vickers, Julie C Lim
PURPOSE: A poor early life nutrition environment is well established to result in a range of cardiometabolic disorders in offspring in later life. These effects can be exacerbated via exposure to an obesogenic dietary environment. To date, the effect of maternal diet and/or a post-natal obesogenic nutritional environment on key characteristics related to lens growth and oxidative stress has not been undertaken. The present study, therefore, examined the characteristics and oxidative status of the lens...
September 9, 2016: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27568240/one-small-step-in-understanding-the-role-that-mobility-limitations-play-in-the-obesogenic-environment
#17
Reginald L Washington
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27554185/maternal-characteristics-associated-with-the-obesogenic-quality-of-the-home-environment-in-early-childhood
#18
Stephanie Schrempft, Cornelia H M van Jaarsveld, Abigail Fisher, Alison Fildes, Jane Wardle
The home environment is likely to influence children's diet and activity patterns and ultimately, their weight trajectories. Identifying family characteristics associated with a more 'obesogenic' home can provide insight into the determinants, and has implications for targeting and tailoring strategies to promote healthier lifestyles. The present study examined maternal characteristics associated with a more obesogenic home environment in 1113 families with preschool children. Primary caregivers (99% mothers) from the Gemini cohort completed the Home Environment Interview (HEI) when their children were 4 years old...
December 1, 2016: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27544538/parental-response-to-a-letter-reporting-child-overweight-measured-as-part-of-a-routine-national-programme-in-england-results-from-interviews-with-parents
#19
Lawrence A Nnyanzi, Carolyn D Summerbell, Louisa Ells, Janet Shucksmith
BACKGROUND: Rising rates of childhood obesity have become a pressing issue in public health, threatening both the mental and physical well-being of children. Attempts to address this problem are multifaceted, and in England include the National Child Measurement Programme (NCMP) which assesses weight status in English primary school children in reception class (aged 4-5) and in year 6 (aged 10-11), with results being sent out to parents. However the effectiveness and impact of this routine parental feedback has yet to be fully understood...
2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539059/latino-parents-perceptions-of-the-eating-and-physical-activity-experiences-of-their-pre-school-children-at-home-and-at-family-child-care-homes-a-qualitative-study
#20
Ana C Lindsay, Mary L Greaney, Sherrie F Wallington, Faith D Sands, Julie A Wright, Judith Salkeld
OBJECTIVE: Research indicates that healthful eating and physical activity (PA) practices implemented in child-care settings can have a positive effect on children's healthful behaviours in this setting, and this effect on healthful behaviours may possibly transfer to the home environment. While more research is needed to examine whether behaviours learned in family child-care homes (FCCH) transfer, the potential for transferability is especially important given that Latino children's home environment has been characterized by obesogenic parenting practices...
August 19, 2016: Public Health Nutrition
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