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Obesogenic environment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893834/competing-teammates-food-in-new-zealand-sports-settings
#1
Mary-Ann Carter, Louise N Signal, Richard Edwards, Janet Hoek
Despite the global popularity of sport, we know surprisingly little about food in sports settings. This two-phased study analysed the foods available in New Zealand sports settings. Phase one included a systematic literature review and 18 interviews with key informants from national and regional sporting organizations. Phase two involved 37 key informant interviews with stakeholders from two exemplar sports, rugby and netball and direct observations at netball and rugby venues. This study found most foods and beverages at New Zealand sports events were energy-dense and nutrient-poor...
June 9, 2018: Health Promotion International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892787/associations-between-cool-and-hot-executive-functions-and-children-s-eating-behavior
#2
REVIEW
Cin Cin Tan, Julie C Lumeng
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Studies on obesogenic eating behaviors in young children have mainly focused on the roles of family environment and parental behaviors. However, intrapersonal characteristics, particularly executive functions, have recently gained more attention in the literature. Therefore, herein we review work on children's executive functions (EFs), particularly the roles of cold and hot executive functions on children's obesogenic eating behaviors. RECENT FINDINGS: Most work examining the associations between EF and obesogenic eating among children has focused on the cool EF, particularly inhibitory control/impulsivity...
June 2018: Current Nutrition Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892044/polygenic-differential-susceptibility-to-cumulative-stress-exposure-and-childhood-obesity
#3
Ying Sun, Jiao Fang, Yuhui Wan, Jingjing Hu, Yuanyuan Xu, Fangbiao Tao
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether polygenic susceptibility for body mass index (BMI) interacts with cumulative stress exposure, potentially exacerbating and buffering the effects of chronic stress, to predict obesity during childhood. METHODS: Data were analyzed from an established prospective puberty cohort in Anhui province, China. A total of 1000 children (421 boys and 579 girls, mean (standard deviation) age 8.97 (0.86) years) who had complete DNA genotyping, hair cortisol concentration and BMI were eligible for the study...
June 11, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886517/hypothalamic-integration-of-the-endocrine-signaling-related-to-food-intake
#4
Anica Klockars, Allen S Levine, Pawel K Olszewski
Hypothalamic integration of gastrointestinal and adipose tissue-derived hormones serves as a key element of neuroendocrine control of food intake. Leptin, adiponectin, oleoylethanolamide, cholecystokinin, and ghrelin, to name a few, are in a constant "cross talk" with the feeding-related brain circuits that encompass hypothalamic populations synthesizing anorexigens (melanocortins, CART, oxytocin) and orexigens (Agouti-related protein, neuropeptide Y, orexins). While this integrated neuroendocrine circuit successfully ensures that enough energy is acquired, it does not seem to be equally efficient in preventing excessive energy intake, especially in the obesogenic environment in which highly caloric and palatable food is constantly available...
June 10, 2018: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777741/effect-of-exposure-to-similar-flavours-in-sensory-specific-satiety-implications-for-eating-behaviour
#5
Ana González, Sergio Andrés Recio, Jesús Sánchez, Marta Gil, Isabel de Brugada
Sensory-specific satiety (SSS) refers to a decline in pleasantness of eaten foods in comparison to other non-ingested meals. Although SSS is specific to the eaten food, it can also generalize to other meals that share similar properties to the satiated food. It is possible that this phenomenon could become more specific after extensive experience, as repeated exposure to an assortment of similar food could cause perceptual learning (i.e. an increase in the distinctiveness of each specific item). This in turn would reduce generalization from the consumed food to other similar products, so they will be more readily consumed...
May 16, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764530/influence-of-maternal-adiposity-preterm-birth-and-birth-weight-centiles-on-early-childhood-obesity-in-an-indigenous-australian-pregnancy-through-to-early-childhood-cohort-study
#6
K G Pringle, Y Q Lee, L Weatherall, L Keogh, C Diehm, C T Roberts, S Eades, A Brown, R Smith, E R Lumbers, L J Brown, C E Collins, K M Rae
Childhood obesity rates are higher among Indigenous compared with non-Indigenous Australian children. It has been hypothesized that early-life influences beginning with the intrauterine environment predict the development of obesity in the offspring. The aim of this paper was to assess, in 227 mother-child dyads from the Gomeroi gaaynggal cohort, associations between prematurity, Gestation Related-Optimal Weight (GROW) centiles, maternal adiposity (percentage body fat, visceral fat area), maternal non-fasting plasma glucose levels (measured at mean gestational age of 23...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745353/the-nutrition-transition-in-mexico-1988-2016-the-role-of-wealth-in-the-social-patterning-of-obesity-by-education
#7
Carolina Pérez-Ferrer, Anne McMunn, Paola Zaninotto, Eric J Brunner
OBJECTIVE: The present study investigates whether the reversal of the social gradient in obesity, defined as a cross-over to higher obesity prevalence among groups with lower education level, has occurred among men and women in urban and rural areas of Mexico. DESIGN: Cross-sectional series of nationally representative surveys (1988, 1999, 2006, 2012 and 2016). The association between education and obesity was investigated over the period 1988-2016. Effect modification of the education-obesity association by household wealth was tested...
May 10, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717277/dechlorane-plus-increases-adipogenesis-in-3t3-l1-and-human-primary-preadipocytes-independent-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-transcriptional-activity
#8
Vian Peshdary, Gabriella Calzadilla, Anne Landry, Alexander Sorisky, Ella Atlas
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are chemicals that were added to consumer products to reduce flammability but were deemed toxic and bioaccumulative and were phased out of commerce. Flame retardants (FRs) such as Dechlorane Plus (DP) were introduced as replacements. DP is being produced in high volumes and is detected in the environment, human milk, and human serum. Although human exposure to DP is evident, little is known about its potential effects on human health...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709528/identifying-behavioral-phenotypes-for-childhood-obesity
#9
REVIEW
Tanja V E Kral, Reneé H Moore, Jesse Chittams, Elizabeth Jones, Lauren O'Malley, Jennifer O Fisher
Existing programs which aim to prevent and treat childhood obesity often do not take into account individual variation and the underlying mechanisms that impact child eating behavior. Individual differences in children's appetitive traits have been shown to appear as early as during infancy and become more pronounced as children grow older and become more exposed to the obesogenic food environment. Differences in genetic predispositions interacting with factors in children's early environment account in part for individual differences in appetitive traits...
April 27, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681516/super-obese-patient-derived-ipsc-hypothalamic-neurons-exhibit-obesogenic-signatures-and-hormone-responses
#10
Uthra Rajamani, Andrew R Gross, Brooke E Hjelm, Adolfo Sequeira, Marquis P Vawter, Jie Tang, Vineela Gangalapudi, Yizhou Wang, Allen M Andres, Roberta A Gottlieb, Dhruv Sareen
The hypothalamus contains neurons that integrate hunger and satiety endocrine signals from the periphery and are implicated in the pathophysiology of obesity. The limited availability of human hypothalamic neurons hampers our understanding of obesity disease mechanisms. To address this, we generated human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) from multiple normal body mass index (BMI; BMI ≤ 25) subjects and super-obese (OBS) donors (BMI ≥ 50) with polygenic coding variants in obesity-associated genes...
May 3, 2018: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666451/exploring-the-extent-and-scope-of-epigenetic-inheritance
#11
REVIEW
Elizabeth J Radford
Environmental factors, particularly during early life, are important for the later metabolic health of the individual. In our obesogenic environment, it is of major socio-economic importance to investigate the mechanisms that contribute to the risk of metabolic ill health. Increasing evidence from a variety of model organisms suggests that non-genetically determined phenotypes, including metabolic effects such as glucose intolerance and obesity, can be passed between generations, which encourages us to revisit heredity...
June 2018: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662629/pre-diagnostic-biomarkers-of-metabolic-dysregulation-and-cancer-mortality
#12
Tomi Akinyemiju, Justin Xavier Moore, Suzanne E Judd, Maria Pisu, Michael Goodman, Virginia J Howard, Leann Long, Monika Safford, Susan C Gilchrist, Mary Cushman
INTRODUCTION: The obesogenic milieu is a pro-tumorigenic environment that promotes tumor initiation, angiogenesis and metastasis. In this prospective cohort, we examined the association between pre-diagnostic metabolic biomarkers, plasma adiponectin, resistin, leptin and lipoprotein (a), and the risk of cancer mortality. METHODS: Prospective data was obtained from the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort of Blacks and Whites followed from 2003 through 2012 for cancer mortality...
March 23, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625608/the-obesogenic-environment-around-elementary-schools-food-and-beverage-marketing-to-children-in-two-mexican-cities
#13
Simón Barquera, Lucia Hernández-Barrera, Stephen J Rothenberg, Enrique Cifuentes
BACKGROUND: Unhealthy environments and food advertisements are major determinants of childhood obesity. Recent regulation has banned unhealthy foods from schools in Mexico. However, currently there is no regulation limiting exposure to food marketing around schools. Thus, our objective was to analyze the characteristics of food advertising practices around 60 elementary schools in two cities and to evaluate compliance with the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) recommendations and the local food industry self-regulatory marketing code...
April 7, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619632/food-cues-and-obesity-overpowering-hormones-and-energy-balance-regulation
#14
REVIEW
Renata Belfort-DeAguiar, Dongju Seo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In the modern obesogenic environment, food cues play a crucial role in the development of obesity by disrupting hormone and energy balance mechanisms. Thus, it is critical to understand the neurobiology of feeding behaviors and obesity in the context of ubiquitous food cues. The current paper reviews the physiology of feeding, hormonal regulation of energy balance, and food cue responses and discusses their contributions to obesity. RECENT FINDINGS: Food cues have strong impact on human physiology...
June 2018: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597308/-obesogenic-school-food-environments-an-urban-case-study-in-the-netherlands
#15
Joris Timmermans, Coosje Dijkstra, Carlijn Kamphuis, Marlijn Huitink, Egbert van der Zee, Maartje Poelman
(1) Background: This study aimed to explore and define socio-economic (SES) differences in urban school food environments in The Netherlands. (2) Methods: Retail food outlets, ready-to-eat products, in-store food promotions and food advertisements in public space were determined within 400 m walking distance of all secondary schools in the 4th largest city of The Netherlands. Fisher's exact tests were conducted. (3) Results: In total, 115 retail outlets sold ready-to-eat food and drink products during school hours...
March 28, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594339/obesogenic-habits-among-children-and-their-families-in-response-to-initiation-of-gluten-free-diet
#16
Neriya Levran, Michael Wilschanski, Jessica Livovsky, Edna Shachar, Moti Moskovitz, Lama Assaf-Jabrin, Eyal Shteyer
Initiation of a lifelong, gluten-free diet (GFD) in children with celiac disease (CD) influences the child's life in many ways. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of GFD on the child and his/her family's eating habits and lifestyle behaviors. To study this, we asked children and their parents completed the Family Eating and Activity Habits Questionnaire (FEAHQ) at the time of diagnosis of CD and at least 6 months after initiation of GFD and a questionnaires assessing symptoms related to CD and adherence to the GFD diet...
June 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567621/diet-matters-glucocorticoid-related-neuroadaptations-associated-with-calorie-intake-in-female-rhesus-monkeys
#17
Jodi R Godfrey, Maylen Perez Diaz, Melanie Pincus, Zsofia Kovacs-Balint, Eric Feczko, Eric Earl, Oscar Miranda-Dominguez, Damien Fair, Mar M Sanchez, Mark E Wilson, Vasiliki Michopoulos
Exposure to psychosocial stressors increases consumption of palatable, calorically dense diets (CDD) and the risk for obesity, especially in females. While consumption of an obesogenic diet and chronic stress have both been shown to decrease dopamine 2 receptor (D2R) binding and alter functional connectivity (FC) within the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), it remains uncertain how social experience and dietary environment interact to affect reward pathways critical for the regulation of motivated behavior...
May 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564209/food-product-health-warnings-promote-dietary-self-control-through-reductions-in-neural-signals-indexing-food-cue-reactivity
#18
Daniel H Rosenblatt, Patrick Summerell, Alyssa Ng, Helen Dixon, Carsten Murawski, Melanie Wakefield, Stefan Bode
Modern societies are replete with palatable food cues. A growing body of evidence suggests that food cue exposure activates conditioned appetitive physiological and psychological responses that may override current metabolic needs and existing eating goals, such as the desire to maintain a healthy diet. This conditioned response results in unhealthy dietary choices and is a contributing factor in the current obesity epidemic. Prime based obesity prevention measures such as health warnings at point-of-sale or on product packaging may have the potential to counteract the influence of the obesogenic environment at the crucial moment when people make food purchasing or consumption decisions...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557237/physical-activity-interventions-with-african-american-or-latino-men-a-systematic-review
#19
Derek M Griffith, Erin M Bergner, Emily K Cornish, Chelsea M McQueen
Relatively little is known about what helps increase physical activity in African American men, and even less is known about promoting physical activity among Latino men. This systematic review aimed to address the key questions: (a) what is the state of the evidence on health-related behavior change interventions targeting physical activity among African American or Latino men? and (b) What factors facilitate physical activity for these men? For this review, nine electronic databases were searched to identify peer-reviewed articles published between 2011-2017 that reported interventions to promote physical activity among African American or Latino men...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Men's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538274/edmonton-obesity-staging-system-eoss-and-work-ability-in-the-evaluation-of-workers-affected-by-obesity-a-preliminary-report
#20
Luisella M Vigna, Amelia Brunani, Francesca Gori, Fabio Mussino, Silvia C M Tomaino, Gianna M Agnelli, Dario Consonni, Luciano Riboldi
OBJECTIVE: Obesity and work-ability may be influenced by reduced performance, associated diseases, and obesogenic environment. METHODS: Two hundred seventy-six male (46.7 ± 10.6 years; BMI 33.3 ± 4.4 kg/m) and 658 female (48.4 ± 9.7 years; BMI 33.6 ± 5.4 kg/m) were enrolled. They were classified by Edmonton Obesity Staging System (EOSS) and interviewed for "perceived" work-ability. RESULTS: Total work ability score was 1...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
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