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Obesogenic environment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666451/exploring-the-extent-and-scope-of-epigenetic-inheritance
#1
REVIEW
Elizabeth J Radford
Environmental factors, particularly during early life, are important for the later metabolic health of the individual. In our obesogenic environment, it is of major socio-economic importance to investigate the mechanisms that contribute to the risk of metabolic ill health. Increasing evidence from a variety of model organisms suggests that non-genetically determined phenotypes, including metabolic effects such as glucose intolerance and obesity, can be passed between generations, which encourages us to revisit heredity...
April 17, 2018: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662629/pre-diagnostic-biomarkers-of-metabolic-dysregulation-and-cancer-mortality
#2
Tomi Akinyemiju, Justin Xavier Moore, Suzanne E Judd, Maria Pisu, Michael Goodman, Virginia J Howard, Leann Long, Monika Safford, Susan C Gilchrist, Mary Cushman
INTRODUCTION: The obesogenic milieu is a pro-tumorigenic environment that promotes tumor initiation, angiogenesis and metastasis. In this prospective cohort, we examined the association between pre-diagnostic metabolic biomarkers, plasma adiponectin, resistin, leptin and lipoprotein (a), and the risk of cancer mortality. METHODS: Prospective data was obtained from the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort of Blacks and Whites followed from 2003 through 2012 for cancer mortality...
March 23, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625608/the-obesogenic-environment-around-elementary-schools-food-and-beverage-marketing-to-children-in-two-mexican-cities
#3
Simón Barquera, Lucia Hernández-Barrera, Stephen J Rothenberg, Enrique Cifuentes
BACKGROUND: Unhealthy environments and food advertisements are major determinants of childhood obesity. Recent regulation has banned unhealthy foods from schools in Mexico. However, currently there is no regulation limiting exposure to food marketing around schools. Thus, our objective was to analyze the characteristics of food advertising practices around 60 elementary schools in two cities and to evaluate compliance with the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) recommendations and the local food industry self-regulatory marketing code...
April 7, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619632/food-cues-and-obesity-overpowering-hormones-and-energy-balance-regulation
#4
REVIEW
Renata Belfort-DeAguiar, Dongju Seo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In the modern obesogenic environment, food cues play a crucial role in the development of obesity by disrupting hormone and energy balance mechanisms. Thus, it is critical to understand the neurobiology of feeding behaviors and obesity in the context of ubiquitous food cues. The current paper reviews the physiology of feeding, hormonal regulation of energy balance, and food cue responses and discusses their contributions to obesity. RECENT FINDINGS: Food cues have strong impact on human physiology...
April 4, 2018: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597308/-obesogenic-school-food-environments-an-urban-case-study-in-the-netherlands
#5
Joris Timmermans, Coosje Dijkstra, Carlijn Kamphuis, Marlijn Huitink, Egbert van der Zee, Maartje Poelman
(1) Background: This study aimed to explore and define socio-economic (SES) differences in urban school food environments in The Netherlands. (2) Methods: Retail food outlets, ready-to-eat products, in-store food promotions and food advertisements in public space were determined within 400 m walking distance of all secondary schools in the 4th largest city of The Netherlands. Fisher's exact tests were conducted. (3) Results: In total, 115 retail outlets sold ready-to-eat food and drink products during school hours...
March 28, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594339/obesogenic-habits-among-children-and-their-families-in-response-to-initiation-of-gluten-free-diet
#6
Neriya Levran, Michael Wilschanski, Jessica Livovsky, Edna Shachar, Moti Moskovitz, Lama Assaf-Jabrin, Eyal Shteyer
Initiation of a lifelong, gluten-free diet (GFD) in children with celiac disease (CD) influences the child's life in many ways. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of GFD on the child and his/her family's eating habits and lifestyle behaviors. To study this, we asked children and their parents completed the Family Eating and Activity Habits Questionnaire (FEAHQ) at the time of diagnosis of CD and at least 6 months after initiation of GFD and a questionnaires assessing symptoms related to CD and adherence to the GFD diet...
March 29, 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567621/diet-matters-glucocorticoid-related-neuroadaptations-associated-with-calorie-intake-in-female-rhesus-monkeys
#7
Jodi R Godfrey, Maylen Perez Diaz, Melanie Pincus, Zsofia Kovacs-Balint, Eric Feczko, Eric Earl, Oscar Miranda-Dominguez, Damien Fair, Mar M Sanchez, Mark E Wilson, Vasiliki Michopoulos
Exposure to psychosocial stressors increases consumption of palatable, calorically dense diets (CDD) and the risk for obesity, especially in females. While consumption of an obesogenic diet and chronic stress have both been shown to decrease dopamine 2 receptor (D2R) binding and alter functional connectivity (FC) within the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), it remains uncertain how social experience and dietary environment interact to affect reward pathways critical for the regulation of motivated behavior...
March 14, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564209/food-product-health-warnings-promote-dietary-self-control-through-reductions-in-neural-signals-indexing-food-cue-reactivity
#8
Daniel H Rosenblatt, Patrick Summerell, Alyssa Ng, Helen Dixon, Carsten Murawski, Melanie Wakefield, Stefan Bode
Modern societies are replete with palatable food cues. A growing body of evidence suggests that food cue exposure activates conditioned appetitive physiological and psychological responses that may override current metabolic needs and existing eating goals, such as the desire to maintain a healthy diet. This conditioned response results in unhealthy dietary choices and is a contributing factor in the current obesity epidemic. Prime based obesity prevention measures such as health warnings at point-of-sale or on product packaging may have the potential to counteract the influence of the obesogenic environment at the crucial moment when people make food purchasing or consumption decisions...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557237/physical-activity-interventions-with-african-american-or-latino-men-a-systematic-review
#9
Derek M Griffith, Erin M Bergner, Emily K Cornish, Chelsea M McQueen
Relatively little is known about what helps increase physical activity in African American men, and even less is known about promoting physical activity among Latino men. This systematic review aimed to address the key questions: (a) what is the state of the evidence on health-related behavior change interventions targeting physical activity among African American or Latino men? and (b) What factors facilitate physical activity for these men? For this review, nine electronic databases were searched to identify peer-reviewed articles published between 2011-2017 that reported interventions to promote physical activity among African American or Latino men...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Men's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538274/edmonton-obesity-staging-system-eoss-and-work-ability-in-the-evaluation-of-workers-affected-by-obesity-a-preliminary-report
#10
Luisella M Vigna, Amelia Brunani, Francesca Gori, Fabio Mussino, Silvia C M Tomaino, Gianna M Agnelli, Dario Consonni, Luciano Riboldi
OBJECTIVE: Obesity and work-ability may be influenced by reduced performance, associated diseases, and obesogenic environment. METHODS: Two hundred seventy-six male (46.7 ± 10.6 years; BMI 33.3 ± 4.4 kg/m) and 658 female (48.4 ± 9.7 years; BMI 33.6 ± 5.4 kg/m) were enrolled. They were classified by Edmonton Obesity Staging System (EOSS) and interviewed for "perceived" work-ability. RESULTS: Total work ability score was 1...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29519755/osteopontin-deficient-progenitor-cells-display-enhanced-differentiation-to-adipocytes
#11
Veronica Moreno-Viedma, Matteo Tardelli, Maximilian Zeyda, Maria Sibilia, J Deborah Burks, M Thomas Stulnig
OBJECTIVE: Osteopontin (OPN, Spp1) is a protein upregulated in white adipose tissue (WAT) of obese subjects. Deletion of OPN protects mice from high-fat diet-induced WAT inflammation and insulin resistance. However, the alterations mediated by loss of OPN in WAT before the obesogenic challenge have not yet been investigated. Therefore, we hypothesised that the lack of OPN might enhance the pro-adipogenic micro environment before obesity driven inflammation. METHODS: OPN deficiency was tested in visceral (V) and subcutaneous (SC) WAT from WT and Spp1-/- female mice...
March 6, 2018: Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518693/effects-of-paternal-high-fat-diet-and-rearing-environment-on-maternal-investment-and-development-of-defensive-responses-in-the-offspring
#12
Austin C Korgan, Elizabeth O'Leary, Jillian L King, Ian C G Weaver, Tara S Perrot
Paternal preconception risk factors (e.g. stress, diet, drug use) correlate with metabolic dysfunction in offspring, which is often comorbid with depressive and anxiety-like phenotypes. Detection of these risk factors or deleterious phenotypes informs a female about prevailing ecological demands, in addition to potential adverse environment-induced phenotypes that may be disseminated to her offspring. We examined whether a F0 male rat's prior exposure to an obesogenic high-fat diet (HFD) influences a female's attraction towards a male, subsequent mother-infant interactions and the development of defensive (emotional) responses in the F1 offspring...
February 21, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511050/parenting-in-an-obesogenic-environment-ghosts-at-the-dinner-table
#13
Katherine W Bauer, Julie C Lumeng, Kendrin R Sonneville
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 6, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503230/effects-of-a-lifestyle-intervention-on-psychosocial-well-being-of-severe-mentally-ill-residential-patients-elips-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-pragmatic-trial
#14
Annemarie P M Stiekema, Anne Looijmans, Lisette van der Meer, Richard Bruggeman, Robert A Schoevers, Eva Corpeleijn, Frederike Jörg
Large studies investigating the psychosocial effects of lifestyle interventions in patients with a severe mental illness (SMI) are scarce, especially in residential patients. This large, randomized controlled, multicentre pragmatic trial assessed the psychosocial effects of a combined diet-and-exercise lifestyle intervention targeting the obesogenic environment of SMI residential patients. Twenty-nine sheltered and clinical care teams were randomized into intervention (n=15) or control (n=14) arm. Team tailored diet-and-exercise lifestyle plans were set up to change the obesogenic environment into a healthier setting, and team members were trained in supporting patients to make healthier choices...
March 1, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29493482/neighbourhood-food-environments-food-choice-foodscapes-and-planning-for-health
#15
Amelia A Lake
The burden of obesity contributes to increasing health inequality, and placing healthcare systems under huge strain. The modern society could broadly be described to support unhealthful eating patterns and sedentary behaviour; also described as obesogenic. Obesity prevention and treatment has focused on educational and behavioural interventions, with limited overall success. A sustainable approach is to address the environments that promote less healthy eating and high energy intake as well as sedentary behaviour...
March 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29493480/adolescent-perspectives-of-the-recreational-ice-hockey-food-environment-and-influences-on-eating-behaviour-revealed-through-photovoice
#16
M Susan Caswell, Rhona M Hanning
OBJECTIVE: Unhealthy dietary behaviours are prevalent among adolescents. This might relate, in part, to obesogenic environments, including recreation food facilities. The REFRESH Study (Recreation Environment and Food Research: Experiences from Hockey) aimed to explore, from the perspectives of adolescent ice hockey players and parents, broad social and physical environmental influences on adolescent food behaviours associated with hockey participation. DESIGN: Players used photovoice to describe their food experiences in relation to ice hockey...
March 1, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472260/exploring-the-relationship-between-local-food-environments-and-obesity-in-uk-ireland-australia-and-new-zealand-a-systematic-review-protocol
#17
Andrea Fuentes Pacheco, Gabriela Carrillo Balam, Daryll Archibald, Elizabeth Grant, Valeria Skafida
INTRODUCTION: Obesity is a global pandemic that affects all socioeconomic strata, however, the highest figures have been observed in the most disadvantaged social groups. Evidence from the USA and Canada showed that specific urban settings encourage obesogenic behaviour in the population living and/or working there. We aim to examine the evidence on the association between local food environments and obesity in the UK, Ireland, Australia and New Zealand. METHODS: Six databases from 1990 to 2017 will be searched: MEDLINE (Ovid), Embase (Ovid), Scopus, The Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts (ASSIA) and Web of Science...
February 22, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471074/do-humans-still-forage-in-an-obesogenic-environment-mechanisms-and-implications-for-weight-maintenance
#18
Jeffrey M Brunstrom, Bobby K Cheon
Many people struggle to control their food intake and bodyweight. This is often interpreted as evidence that humans are generally predisposed to consume food when it is available, because adiposity offered insurance against the threat of starvation in our ancestral environment. In this paper we suggest that modern humans have actually inherited a far broader range of foraging skills that continue to influence our dietary behaviour. To evaluate this idea, we identify three challenges that would need to be addressed to achieve efficient foraging; (1) monitoring the 'procurement cost' of foods, (2) determining the energy content of foods, and (3) proactively adapting to perceived food insecurity...
February 19, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462654/neighbourhoods-and-obesity-a-prospective-study-of-characteristics-of-the-built-environment-and-their-association-with-adiposity-outcomes-in-children-in-montreal-canada
#19
A E Ghenadenik, L Kakinami, A Van Hulst, M Henderson, T A Barnett
This paper examined prospective associations between built environment features assessed at baseline using direct audits and adiposity outcomes two years later in Montreal, Canada. Data stem from the Quebec Adipose and Lifestyle Investigation in Youth study of 630 children aged 8-10 years with a parental history of obesity. Baseline measurements took place between 2005 and 2008. Follow-up took place between 2008 and 2011. Built environment features were assessed at baseline in up to 10 contiguous street segments around participants' residential addresses using on-site audits...
February 17, 2018: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454067/considering-our-methods-methodological-issues-with-rodent-models-of-appetite-and-obesity-research
#20
Thomas A Lutz
A large number of animal models are currently used in appetite and obesity research. Because the worldwide incidence of obesity continues to climb, it is imperative that animal models sharing characteristics of human obesity and its co-morbidities be used appropriately in the quest for novel preventions or treatments. There is probably no animal model, at least in rodents, that recapitulates all aspects of "common" human obesity and its comorbidities, but rodent models allow insight into specific mechanisms of disease or its consequences...
February 14, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
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