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WaaL ligase protein lipopolysaccharid

Yue Han, Xiangan Han, Shaohui Wang, Qingmei Meng, Yuxi Zhang, Chan Ding, Shengqing Yu
Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes avian colibacillosis, resulting in economically devastating to poultry industries worldwide. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been identified as an important virulence factor of E. coli. The waaL gene encodes O-antigen ligase, which is responsible for attaching the O-antigen to lipid A-core oligosaccharide. In this study, a mutant strain ΔwaaL was constructed from APEC serotype 2 strain DE17. The mutant strain showed a decreased swimming motility and resistance to complement-mediated killing but a similar growth rate in the culture, compared with its parent strain...
August 27, 2014: Veterinary Microbiology
Jenny-Lee Thomassin, Mark J Lee, John R Brannon, Donald C Sheppard, Samantha Gruenheid, Hervé Le Moual
Enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EPEC and EHEC) are food-borne pathogens that colonize the small intestine and colon, respectively. To cause disease, these pathogens must overcome the action of different host antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) secreted into these distinct niches. We have shown previously that EHEC expresses high levels of the OmpT protease to inactivate the human cathelicidin LL-37, an AMP present in the colon. In this study, we investigate the mechanisms used by EPEC to resist human α-defensin 5 (HD-5), the most abundant AMP in the small intestine...
2013: PloS One
Eduardo Balsanelli, Thalita Regina Tuleski, Valter Antonio de Baura, Marshall Geoffrey Yates, Leda Satie Chubatsu, Fabio de Oliveira Pedrosa, Emanuel Maltempi de Souza, Rose Adele Monteiro
Herbaspirillum seropedicae is a plant growth-promoting diazotrophic betaproteobacterium which associates with important crops, such as maize, wheat, rice and sugar-cane. We have previously reported that intact lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is required for H. seropedicae attachment and endophytic colonization of maize roots. In this study, we present evidence that the LPS biosynthesis gene waaL (codes for the O-antigen ligase) is induced during rhizosphere colonization by H. seropedicae. Furthermore a waaL mutant strain lacking the O-antigen portion of the LPS is severely impaired in colonization...
2013: PloS One
Matias A Musumeci, Amirreza Faridmoayer, Yasuharu Watanabe, Mario F Feldman
Bacterial O-Oligosaccharyltransferases (O-OTases) constitute a growing family of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a glycan from a lipid carrier to protein acceptors. O-OTases are inner membrane proteins that display limited sequence similarity, except for the Wzy_C signature domain also present in a predicted periplasmic loop of the WaaL ligase, the enzyme responsible for transferring the O antigen to the lipid A core. The mechanism of O-OTase-dependent glycosylation is poorly understood. In this work, conserved amino acid residues in the O-OTases were replaced with alanine in PglL, the O-OTase of Neisseria meningitidis...
January 2014: Glycobiology
Gaoyan Tang, Teresa Ruiz, Keith P Mintz
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is hypothesized to colonize through the interaction with collagen and establish a reservoir for further dissemination. The trimeric adhesin EmaA of A. actinomycetemcomitans binds to collagen and is modified with sugars mediated by an O-antigen polysaccharide ligase (WaaL) that is associated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthesis (G. Tang and K. Mintz, J. Bacteriol. 192:1395-1404, 2010). This investigation characterized the function and cellular localization of EmaA glycosylation...
August 2012: Infection and Immunity
Susana Merino, Lamiaa Bouamama, Yuriy A Knirel, Sofya N Senchenkova, Miguel Regué, Juan M Tomás
We previously reported that A. hydrophila GalU mutants were still able to produce UDP-glucose introduced as a glucose residue in their lipopolysaccharide core. In this study, we found the unique origin of this UDP-glucose from a branched α-glucan surface polysaccharide. This glucan, surface attached through the O-antigen ligase (WaaL), is common to the mesophilic Aeromonas strains tested. The Aeromonas glucan is produced by the action of the glycogen synthase (GlgA) and the UDP-Glc pyrophosphorylase (GlgC), the latter wrongly indicated as an ADP-Glc pyrophosphorylase in the Aeromonas genomes available...
2012: PloS One
Yan Pan, Xiang Ruan, Miguel A Valvano, Lars Konermann
Computer-assisted topology predictions are widely used to build low-resolution structural models of integral membrane proteins (IMPs). Experimental validation of these models by traditional methods is labor intensive and requires modifications that might alter the IMP native conformation. This work employs oxidative labeling coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) as a validation tool for computer-generated topology models. ·OH exposure introduces oxidative modifications in solvent-accessible regions, whereas buried segments (e...
May 2012: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
Carol Gebhart, Maria Veronica Ielmini, Bela Reiz, Nancy L Price, Finn Erik Aas, Michael Koomey, Mario F Feldman
Bacterial protein glycosylation systems from varying species have been functionally reconstituted in Escherichia coli. Both N- and O-linked glycosylation pathways, in which the glycans are first assembled onto lipid carriers and subsequently transferred to acceptor proteins by an oligosaccharyltransferase (OTase), have been documented in bacteria. The identification and characterization of novel OTases with different properties may provide new tools for engineering glycoproteins of biotechnological interest...
July 2012: Glycobiology
Deborah M B Post, Liping Yu, Benjamin C Krasity, Biswa Choudhury, Mark J Mandel, Caitlin A Brennan, Edward G Ruby, Margaret J McFall-Ngai, Bradford W Gibson, Michael A Apicella
Vibrio fischeri exists in a symbiotic relationship with the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes, where the squid provides a home for the bacteria, and the bacteria in turn provide camouflage that helps protect the squid from night-time predators. Like other gram-negative organisms, V. fischeri expresses lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on its cell surface. The structure of the O-antigen and the core components of the LPS and their possible role in colonization of the squid have not previously been determined...
March 9, 2012: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Weiqing Han, Baolin Wu, Lei Li, Guohui Zhao, Robert Woodward, Nicholas Pettit, Li Cai, Vireak Thon, Peng G Wang
The WaaL-mediated ligation of O-antigen onto the core region of the lipid A-core block is an important step in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthetic pathway. Although the LPS biosynthesis has been largely characterized, only a limited amount of in vitro biochemical evidence has been established for the ligation reaction. Such limitations have primarily resulted from the barriers in purifying WaaL homologues and obtaining chemically defined substrates. Accordingly, we describe herein a chemical biology approach that enabled the reconstitution of this ligation reaction...
February 17, 2012: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Elise Pinta, Zhilin Li, Julia Batzilla, Maria Pajunen, Tiina Kasanen, Kamila Rabsztyn, Alexander Rakin, Mikael Skurnik
In lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthesis of gram-negative bacteria the lipid A-core oligosaccharide (LA-core) and O-polysaccharide (O-PS) biosynthesis pathways proceed separately and converge in periplasmic space where the waaL-encoded ligase joins O-PS onto LA-core. Enterobacterial common antigen (ECA) biosynthesis follows that of O-PS except that ECA is usually ligated to phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and only rarely to LA-core. In Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:3 LPS is composed of LA-inner core (IC) onto which a homopolymeric O-PS, a hexasaccharide called outer core (OC), and/or ECA are ligated...
January 2012: Molecular Microbiology
Xiang Ruan, David E Loyola, Cristina L Marolda, José M Perez-Donoso, Miguel A Valvano
WaaL is a membrane enzyme that catalyzes a key step in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) synthesis: the glycosidic bonding of a sugar at the proximal end of the undecaprenyl-diphosphate (Und-PP) O-antigen with a terminal sugar of the lipid A-core oligosaccharide (OS). Utilizing an in vitro assay, we demonstrate here that ligation with purified Escherichia coli WaaL occurs without adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) and magnesium ions. Furthermore, E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa WaaL proteins cannot catalyze ATP hydrolysis in vitro...
February 2012: Glycobiology
Hideaki Kobayashi, Kiyoshi Kawasaki, Keiichi Takeishi, Hiroaki Noda
The structures and biosynthesis of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a major component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, have been studied extensively in cultured bacteria such as Escherichia coli. In contrast, little is known about the structures and biosynthesis of the LPS of unculturable bacteria, including insect symbionts, many of which are Gram-negative bacteria. A brown-winged green bug, Plautia stali, is known to harbor a single species of gamma-proteobacterium in the posterior mid-gut caeca...
December 20, 2011: Microbiological Research
Lili Xu, Qiyao Wang, Jingfan Xiao, Qin Liu, Xin Wang, Tao Chen, Yuanxing Zhang
Edwardsiella tarda is the causative agent of edwardsiellosis in fish. The genome sequence of a virulent strain EIB202 has been determined. According to the genome sequence, the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) synthesis cluster containing a putative O-antigen ligase gene waaL was identified. Here, the in-frame deletion mutant ΔwaaL was constructed to analyze the function of WaaL in E. tarda EIB202. The ΔwaaL mutant displayed absence in O-antigen side chains in the LPS production. The ΔwaaL mutant exhibited an increased sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide indicating that the LPS was involved in the endurance to the oxidative stress in hosts during infection...
December 2010: Archives of Microbiology
Salim T Islam, Véronique L Taylor, Meng Qi, Joseph S Lam
Biosynthesis of B-band lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa follows the Wzy-dependent pathway, requiring the integral inner membrane proteins Wzx (O-antigen [O-Ag] flippase), Wzy (O-Ag polymerase), and WaaL (O-Ag ligase). For an important first step in deciphering the mechanisms of LPS assembly, we set out to map the membrane topology of these proteins. Random and targeted 3'wzx, wzy, and waaL truncations were fused to a phoA-lacZalpha dual reporter capable of displaying both alkaline phosphatase and beta-galactosidase activity...
August 24, 2010: MBio
Isabelle Hug, Marc R Couturier, Michelle M Rooker, Diane E Taylor, Markus Stein, Mario F Feldman
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a major component on the surface of Gram negative bacteria and is composed of lipid A-core and the O antigen polysaccharide. O polysaccharides of the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori contain Lewis antigens, mimicking glycan structures produced by human cells. The interaction of Lewis antigens with human dendritic cells induces a modulation of the immune response, contributing to the H. pylori virulence. The amount and position of Lewis antigens in the LPS varies among H. pylori isolates, indicating an adaptation to the host...
March 2010: PLoS Pathogens
Gaoyan Tang, Keith P Mintz
The human oropharyngeal pathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans synthesizes multiple adhesins, including the nonfimbrial extracellular matrix protein adhesin A (EmaA). EmaA monomers trimerize to form antennae-like structures on the surface of the bacterium, which are required for collagen binding. Two forms of the protein have been identified, which are suggested to be linked with the type of O-polysaccharide (O-PS) of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) synthesized (G. Tang et al., Microbiology 153:2447-2457, 2007)...
March 2010: Journal of Bacteriology
Nikolay A Paramonov, Joseph Aduse-Opoku, Ahmed Hashim, Minnie Rangarajan, Michael A Curtis
Porphyromonas gingivalis synthesizes two lipopolysaccharides (LPSs), O-LPS and A-LPS. Here, we elucidate the structure of the core oligosaccharide (OS) of O-LPS from two mutants of P. gingivalis W50, Delta PG1051 (WaaL, O-antigen ligase) and Delta PG1142 (O-antigen polymerase), which synthesize R-type LPS (core devoid of O antigen) and SR-type LPS (core plus one repeating unit of O antigen), respectively. Structural analyses were performed using one-dimensional and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in combination with composition and methylation analysis...
August 2009: Journal of Bacteriology
Matthew C Berry, Gayle C McGhee, Youfu Zhao, George W Sundin
Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight, is an enterobacterial pathogen of Rosaceous plants including apple and pear. We have been studying the response of E. amylovora to oxidative stress because, during infection, the bacterium elicits an oxidative burst response in host plants. During the screening of a transposon mutant library for hydrogen peroxide sensitivity, we identified a mutant carrying an insertion in waaL, a gene involved in lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis, that was more sensitive to hydrogen peroxide than the parental wild-type strain...
February 2009: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Benjamin K Billips, Anthony J Schaeffer, David J Klumpp
In the urinary tract, the innate immune system detects conserved bacterial components and responds to infection by activating the proinflammatory transcription factor NF-kappaB, resulting in cytokine secretion and neutrophil recruitment. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), however, has been shown to evade the host innate immune response by suppressing NF-kappaB activation in urothelial cells, which results in decreased cytokine secretion and increased urothelial apoptosis. To understand the molecular basis of UPEC modulation of inflammation, we performed a genetic screen with UPEC strain NU14 to identify genes which are required for modulation of urothelial cytokine secretion...
September 2008: Infection and Immunity
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