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Davide Sosso, Karina Van Der Linde, Margaret Bezrutczyk, David Schuler, Karina Schneider, Jörg T Kämper, Virginia Walbot
The basidiomycete Ustilago maydis causes smut disease in maize (Zea mays L.) by infecting all plant aerial tissues. The infection causes leaf chlorosis and stimulates the plant to produce nutrient-rich niches, i.e., tumors, where the fungus can proliferate and complete its life cycle. Previous studies have recorded high accumulation of soluble sugars and starch within these tumors. Using interdisciplinary approaches, we found that the sugar accumulation within tumors coincided with differential expression of plant SWEET sugar transporters and the H+/sucrose symporter ZmSUT1 (Sucrose Transporter1)...
December 28, 2018: Plant Physiology
Karla Yuritzi Amador-Rodríguez, Laura Eugenia Pérez-Cabrera, Fidel Guevara-Lara, Norma Angélica Chávez-Vela, Francisco Aníbal Posadas-Del Río, Héctor Silos-Espino, Fernando Martínez-Bustos
The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of the addition of huitlacoche paste to nixtamalized blue-corn flours (NBCF) on the physicochemical, thermal, and rheological properties of masas. Raw blue maize was nixtamalized (hydrothermal alkalinized process), then was wet-milled in a stone mill, masa was dehydrated, pulverized and sieved to obtain NBCF; commercial nixtamalized blue-corn flour (CNBCF) was used as a control. Huitlacoche paste in concentrations of 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18% was added to nixtamalized flours...
April 25, 2019: Food Chemistry
Lalu M K Vijayakrishnapillai, John S Desmarais, Michael N Groeschen, Michael H Perlin
The PTEN/PI3K/mTOR signal transduction pathway is involved in the regulation of biological processes such as metabolism, cell growth, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. This pathway has been extensively studied in mammals, leading to the conclusion that PTEN is a major tumor suppressor gene. PTEN orthologues have been characterized in a variety of organisms, both vertebrates and non-vertebrates, and studies of the associated PTEN/PI3K/mTOR pathway indicate that it is widely conserved. Studies in fungal systems indicated a role of PTEN in fungal defense mechanisms in Candida albicans , and in the developmental process of sporulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae ...
December 20, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Markus Jan Müller, Sarah Stachurski, Peter Stoffels, Kerstin Schipper, Michael Feldbrügge, Jochen Büchs
Background: Pectin is a rather complex and highly branched polysaccharide strengthening the plant cell wall. Thus, many different pectinases are required for an efficient microbial conversion of biomass waste streams with a high pectin content like citrus peel, apple pomace or sugar beet pulp. The screening and optimization of strains growing on pectic substrates requires both, quantification of the residual substrate and an accurate determination of the enzymatic activity. Galacturonic acid, the main sugar unit of pectin, is an uncommon substrate for microbial fermentations...
2018: Journal of Biological Engineering
Matthias G Steiger, Alice Rassinger, Diethard Mattanovich, Michael Sauer
We engineered Aspergillus niger using a gene responsible for citric acid transport, which has a significant impact on citric acid secretion when overexpressed.. The transport gene was identified by a homology search using an itaconic acid transporter from Ustilago maydis as template. The encoding homologous protein CexA belongs to the major facilitator superfamily subclass DHA1 and members of this family work as drug-H+ antiporter. The disruption of this gene completely abolishes citric acid secretion, which indicates that this protein is the main citric acid transporter in A...
December 13, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
Lilli Olgeiser, Carl Haag, Susan Boerner, Jernej Ule, Anke Busch, Janine Koepke, Julian König, Michael Feldbrügge, Kathi Zarnack
RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) determine spatiotemporal gene expression by mediating active transport and local translation of cargo mRNAs. Here, we cast a transcriptome-wide view on the transported mRNAs and cognate RBP binding sites during endosomal messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) transport in Ustilago maydis Using individual-nucleotide resolution UV crosslinking and immunoprecipitation (iCLIP), we compare the key transport RBP Rrm4 and the newly identified endosomal mRNP component Grp1 that is crucial to coordinate hyphal growth...
December 14, 2018: EMBO Reports
Shigeyuki Tanaka, Gabriel Schweizer, Nicole Rössel, Fumi Fukada, Marco Thines, Regine Kahmann
Plant-pathogenic fungi hijack their hosts by secreting effector proteins. Effectors serve to suppress plant immune responses and modulate the host metabolism to benefit the pathogen. Smut fungi are biotrophic pathogens that also parasitize important cereals, including maize1 . Symptom development is usually restricted to the plant inflorescences. Ustilago maydis is an exception in its ability to cause tumours in both inflorescences and leaves of maize, and in inducing anthocyanin biosynthesis through the secreted Tin2 effector2,3 ...
December 3, 2018: Nature Microbiology
Shunwen Lu, Justin D Faris
The virally encoded KP4 killer toxin protein was first identified from Ustilago maydis (Um), and its homologues are present in diverse fungi and in one species of moss. No KP4-like (KP4L) proteins have been functionally characterized. Here, we report the identification and functional analysis of four KP4L proteins from Fusarium graminearum (Fg), the primary causal pathogen of Fusarium head blight (FHB), which is also known to associate with seedling rot of wheat. The four FgKP4L proteins (FgKP4L-1, -2, -3 and -4) are encoded by small open reading frames (378-825 bp) located on chromosome 1 with the FgKP4L-1, -2 and -3 genes clustering together...
November 19, 2018: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Karina van der Linde, Rachel L Egger, Ljudmilla Timofejeva, Virginia Walbot
Maize, Zea mays, the second-most-widely-grown crop, yields 20 % of all consumed calories worldwide.1 Despite its agronomic importance, research progress is limited by costly transformation. We recently described the Trojan horse method as a useful tool to study maize proteins in situ that circumvents time- and space-consuming whole plant transformation. The Trojan horse approach uses the protein-folding and secretory properties of the corn smut fungus Ustilago maydis to secrete maize proteins from fungal cells into the maize apoplast...
November 16, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Yi Zhen Deng, Bin Zhang, Changqing Chang, Yixu Wang, Shan Lu, Shuquan Sun, Xiaomeng Zhang, Baoshan Chen, Zide Jiang
In the phytopathogenic fungus Sporisorium scitamineum , sexual mating between two compatible haploid cells and the subsequent formation of dikaryotic hyphae is essential for infection. This process was shown to be commonly regulated by a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and a cAMP/PKA signaling pathway in the corn smut fungus Ustilago maydis but remains largely unknown in S. scitamineum . In this study, we identified a conserved putative MAP kinase Kpp2 in S. scitamineum and named it as SsKpp2. The sskpp2 Δ mutant displayed significant reduction in mating/filamentation, which could be partially restored by addition of cAMP or tryptophol, a quorum-sensing molecule identified in budding yeast...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Hamza Mbareche, Marc Veillette, Guillaume J Bilodeau, Caroline Duchaine
Occupational exposure to harmful bioaerosols in industrial environments is a real threat to the workers. In particular, dairy-farm workers are exposed to high levels of fungal bioaerosols on a daily basis. Associating bioaerosol exposure and health problems is challenging and adequate exposure monitoring is a top priority for aerosol scientists. Using only culture-based tools does not express the overall microbial diversity and underestimate the large spectrum of microbes in bioaerosols and therefore the extended fungal profile that farmers are exposed to...
October 26, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Robinson C Jose, Louis Bengyella, Pratap J Handique, Narayan C Talukdar
The perennial wild rice Zizania latifolia is confined in the swampy habitat and wetland of the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot of India and infection by the biotrophic fungus Ustilago esculenta is hallmarked by swellings that develop to form localized smut-gall at the topmost internodal region. The cellular and proteomic events involved in the non-systemic colonization of Z. latifolia by U. esculenta leading to smut-gall formation is poorly understood. Proteins were extracted from the smut-gall region at the topmost internodal region below the apical meristematic tissue from the infected and uninfected parts of Z...
October 24, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Juan A Cervantes-Montelongo, José Ruiz-Herrera
The most important signal transduction mechanism related to environmental pH responses in fungi is the Pal/Rim pathway. Our knowledge of this pathway came initially from studies on Ascomycota species where it is made by seven members divided into two complexes, one located at the plasma membrane, and other at the endosomal membrane. In Basidiomycota sepecies only the homologs of the endosomal membrane complex (genes PalA/Rim20, PalB/ Rim13, and PalC/ Rim23), plus the transcription factor PacC/Rim101 have been identified...
October 25, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Lars Regestein, Tobias Klement, Philipp Grande, Dirk Kreyenschulte, Benedikt Heyman, Tim Maßmann, Armin Eggert, Robert Sengpiel, Yumei Wang, Nick Wierckx, Lars M Blank, Antje Spiess, Walter Leitner, Carsten Bolm, Matthias Wessling, Andreas Jupke, Miriam Rosenbaum, Jochen Büchs
Renewable raw materials in sustainable biorefinery processes pose new challenges to the manufacturing routes of platform chemicals. Beside the investigations of individual unit operations, the research on process chains, leading from plant biomass to the final products like lactic acid, succinic acid, and itaconic acid is increasing. This article presents a complete process chain from wooden biomass to the platform chemical itaconic acid. The process starts with the mechanical pretreatment of beech wood, which subsequently is subjected to chemo-catalytic biomass fractionation (OrganoCat) into three phases, which comprise cellulose pulp, aqueous hydrolyzed hemicellulose, and organic lignin solutions...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Aijun Wang, Linxiu Pang, Na Wang, Peng Ai, Desuo Yin, Shuangcheng Li, Qiming Deng, Jun Zhu, Yueyang Liang, Jianqing Zhu, Ping Li, Aiping Zheng
Tilletia horrida is a soil-borne, mononucleate basidiomycete fungus with a biotrophic lifestyle that causes rice kernel smut, a disease that is distributed throughout hybrid rice growing areas worldwide. Here we report on the high-quality genome sequence of T. horrida; it is composed of 23.2 Mb that encode 7,729 predicted genes and 6,973 genes supported by RNA-seq. The genome contains few repetitive elements that account for 8.45% of the total. Evolutionarily, T. horrida lies close to the Ustilago fungi, suggesting grass species as potential hosts, but co-linearity was not observed between T...
October 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jörn Aschenbroich, Kai P Hussnaetter, Peter Stoffels, Thorsten Langner, Sabrina Zander, Björn Sandrock, Michael Bölker, Michael Feldbrügge, Kerstin Schipper
Unconventional secretion has emerged as an increasingly important cellular process in eukaryotic cells. The underlying translocation mechanisms are diverse and often little understood. We study unconventional secretion of chitinase Cts1 in the corn smut fungus Ustilago maydis. This protein participates in the cytokinesis of yeast cells. During budding it localizes to the septated fragmentation zone where it presumably functions in the degradation of remnant chitin to allow separation of mother and daughter cell...
October 11, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Proteins and proteomics
Rosane Silva, Darcy Muniz de Almeida, Bianca Catarina Azeredo Cabral, Victor Hugo Giordano Dias, Isadora Cristina de Toledo E Mello, Turán Péter Ürményi, August E Woerner, Rodrigo Soares de Moura Neto, Bruce Budowle, Cristina Aparecida Gomes Nassar
Microorganisms developing in the liner of the spent fuel pool (SFP) and the fuel transfer channel (FTC) of a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) can form high radiation resistant biofilms and cause corrosion. Due to difficulties and limitations to obtain large samples from SFP and FTC, cotton swabs were used to collect the biofilm from the wall of these installations. Molecular characterization was performed using massively parallel sequencing to obtain a taxonomic and functional gene classification. Also, samples from the drainage system were evaluated because microorganisms may travel over the 12-meter column of the pool water of the Brazilian Nuclear Power Plant (Angra1), which has been functioning since 1985...
2018: PloS One
Ganduri Swapna, Eun Y Yu, Neal F Lue
Telomeres play important roles in genome stability and cell proliferation. Telomere lengths are heterogeneous and because just a few abnormal telomeres are sufficient to trigger significant cellular response, it is informative to have accurate assays that reveal not only average telomere lengths, but also the distribution of the longest and shortest telomeres in a given sample. Herein we report for the first time, the development of single telomere length analysis (STELA) - a PCR-based assay that amplifies multiple, individual telomeres - for Ustilago maydis , a basidiomycete fungus...
August 7, 2018: Microbial Cell
Amey Redkar, Antonio Di Pietro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: New Phytologist
Deyamira Matuz-Mares, Genaro Matus-Ortega, Christian Cárdenas-Monroy, Lucero Romero-Aguilar, Juan Carlos Villalobos-Rocha, Héctor Vázquez-Meza, Guadalupe Guerra-Sánchez, Antonio Peña-Díaz, Juan Pablo Pardo
Type 2 alternative NADH dehydrogenases (NDH-2) participate indirectly in the generation of the electrochemical proton gradient by transferring electrons from NADH and NADPH into the ubiquinone pool. Due to their structural simplicity, alternative NADH dehydrogenases have been proposed as useful tools for gene therapy of cells with defects in the respiratory complex I. In this work, we report the presence of three open reading frames, which correspond to NDH-2 genes in the genome of Ustilago maydis . These three genes were constitutively transcribed in cells cultured in YPD and minimal medium with glucose, ethanol, or lactate as carbon sources...
August 2018: FEBS Open Bio
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