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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300143/estimating-the-abundance-of-airborne-pollen-and-fungal-spores-at-variable-elevations-using-an-aircraft-how-high-can-they-fly
#1
Athanasios Damialis, Evangelos Kaimakamis, Maria Konoglou, Ioannis Akritidis, Claudia Traidl-Hoffmann, Dimitrios Gioulekas
Airborne pollen and fungal spores are monitored mainly in highly populated, urban environments, for allergy prevention purposes. However, their sources can frequently be located outside cities' fringes with more vegetation. So as to shed light to this paradox, we investigated the diversity and abundance of airborne pollen and fungal spores at various environmental regimes. We monitored pollen and spores using an aircraft and a car, at elevations from sea level to 2,000 m above ground, in the region of Thesssaloniki, Greece...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296205/the-fungal-umsrt1-and-maize-zmsut1-sucrose-transporters-battle-for-plant-sugar-resources
#2
Anke Wittek, Ingo Dreyer, Khaled A S Al-Rasheid, Norbert Sauer, Rainer Hedrich, Dietmar Geiger
The biotrophic fungus Ustilago maydis causes the corn smut disease inducing tumor formation in its host Zea mays. Upon infection, the fungal hyphae invaginate the plasma membrane of infected maize cells establishing an interface where pathogen and host are separated only by their plasma membranes. At this interface the fungal and maize sucrose transporters, UmSrt1 and ZmSUT1, compete for extracellular sucrose in the corn smut/maize pathosystem. Here we biophysically characterized ZmSUT1 and UmSrt1 in Xenopus oocytes with respect to their voltage-, pH- and substrate-dependence and determined affinities towards protons and sucrose...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285895/transcriptomic-analysis-of-basidiocarp-development-in-ustilago-maydis-dc-cda
#3
C G León-Ramírez, J L Cabrera-Ponce, D Martínez-Soto, A Sánchez-Arreguin, E T Aréchiga-Carvajal, J Ruiz-Herrera
Previously, we demonstrated that when Ustilago maydis (DC) Cda., a phytopathogenic basidiomycete and the causal agent of corn smut, is grown in the vicinity of maize embryogenic calli in a medium supplemented with the herbicide Dicamba, it developed gastroid-like basidiocarps. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in the basidiocarp development by the fungus, we proceeded to analyze the transcriptome of the process, identifying a total of 2002 and 1064 differentially expressed genes at two developmental stages, young and mature basidiocarps, respectively...
March 7, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273139/the-mitochondrial-alternative-oxidase-aox1-is-needed-to-cope-with-respiratory-stress-but-dispensable-for-pathogenic-development-in-ustilago-maydis
#4
Christian A Cárdenas-Monroy, Thomas Pohlmann, Gabriela Piñón-Zárate, Genaro Matus-Ortega, Guadalupe Guerra, Michael Feldbrügge, Juan Pablo Pardo
The mitochondrial alternative oxidase is an important enzyme that allows respiratory activity and the functioning of the Krebs cycle upon disturbance of the respiration chain. It works as a security valve in transferring excessive electrons to oxygen, thereby preventing potential damage by the generation of harmful radicals. A clear biological function, besides the stress response, has so far convincingly only been shown for plants that use the alternative oxidase to generate heat to distribute volatiles. In fungi it was described that the alternative oxidase is needed for pathogenicity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237997/umtco1-a-hybrid-histidine-kinase-gene-is-essential-for-the-sexual-development-and-virulence-of-ustilago-maydis
#5
Yeo Hong Yun, Man Hwan Oh, Jun Young Kim, Seong Hwan Kim
Hybrid histidine kinase is a part of two-component system that is required for various stress responses and pathogenesis of pathogenic fungi. The Tco1 gene in human pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans encodes a hybrid histidine kinase and is important for pathogenesis. In the present study, we identified a Tco1 gene homolog, UmTco1, in the corn smut pathogen Ustilago maydis by bioinformatics analysis. To explore the role of UmTco1 in the survival of U. maydis under environmental stresses and its pathogenesis, Δumtco1 mutants were constructed by allelic exchange...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177800/diversity-of-bacillus-like-bacterial-community-in-the-sediments-of-the-bamenwan-mangrove-wetland-in-hainan-china
#6
Min Liu, Ying Cui, Yuqing Chen, Xiangzhi Lin, Huiqin Huang, Shixiang Bao
Members of the genus Bacillus and related spore-forming genera are ubiquitous. However, Bacillus-like species isolated from marine sediments have attracted less interest than their terrestrial relatives. Here, we investigated the diversity of Bacillus-like bacterial communities in the sediments of the Bamenwan mangrove wetland in Hainan, China, using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods, and present the first report on this subject. We also discovered some potential novel species from the sediment samples...
November 28, 2016: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089076/comparative-analyses-of-secreted-proteins-in-plant-pathogenic-smut-fungi-and-related-basidiomycetes
#7
Mariana Schuster, Gabriel Schweizer, Regine Kahmann
In the ten years since the genome sequence of the basidiomycete corn smut fungus Ustilago maydis was published, additional genomes of smut species infecting different hosts became available. In addition, the genomes of related Malassezia species causing skin diseases and of Pseudozyma species not known to infect plants were determined. As secreted proteins are critical virulence determinants in U. maydis we compare here the secretomes of 12 basidiomycete species to gain information about their composition and conservation...
January 6, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024227/the-role-of-outdoor-fungi-on-asthma-hospital-admissions-in-children-and-adolescents-a-5-year-time-stratified-case-crossover-analysis
#8
Rachel Tham, Constance H Katelaris, Don Vicendese, Shyamali C Dharmage, Adrian J Lowe, Gayan Bowatte, Philip Taylor, Pamela Burton, Michael J Abramson, Bircan Erbas
BACKGROUND: Some fungal spores can trigger asthma exacerbation but knowledge of which outdoor fungal spores contribute to asthma hospitalisation is limited. OBJECTIVES: To examine the role of outdoor fungal spores in child and adolescent asthma hospitalisations. METHODS: We conducted a bi-directional time-stratified case-crossover study of child and adolescent asthma hospitalisations over 5 years. Conditional logistic regression assessed the role of 20 fungi taxa (Same day [L0] and lagged [L1-3]) adjusted for maximum temperature, humidity and grass pollen...
April 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995408/high-expression-of-bccip-%C3%AE-can-promote-proliferation-of-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#9
Lingling Chen, Sujie Ni, Mei Li, Chaoyan Shen, Zhipeng Lin, Yu Ouyang, Fei Xia, Li Liang, Wenyan Jiang, Runzhou Ni, Jianguo Zhang
BACKGROUND: BCCIP was originally identified as a BRCA2 interacting protein in humans and Ustilago maydis. It had low expression in some human cancer tissues. However, recent research indicated that many caretaker genes are also necessary for cell viability and their expression could contribute to tumor progression. AIM: To characterize whether BCCIP is a caretaker gene in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). METHODS: Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were used to measure the expression of BCCIP β...
December 19, 2016: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990337/mycosarcoma-ustilaginaceae-a-resurrected-generic-name-for-corn-smut-ustilago-maydis-and-its-close-relatives-with-hypertrophied-tubular-sori
#10
Alistair R McTaggart, Roger G Shivas, Teun Boekhout, Franz Oberwinkler, Kálmán Vánky, Shaun R Pennycook, Dominik Begerow
Ustilago is a polyphyletic genus of smut fungi found mainly on Poaceae. The development of a taxonomy that reflects phylogeny requires subdivision of Ustilago into smaller monophyletic genera. Several separate systematic analyses have determined that Macalpinomyces mackinlayi, M. tubiformis, Tolyposporella pachycarpa, Ustilago bouriquetii and U. maydis, occupy a unique phylogenetic position within the Ustilaginaceae. A previously introduced monotypic generic name typified by U. maydis, Mycosarcoma, is available to accommodate these species, which resolves one component of polyphyly for Ustilagos...
December 2016: IMA Fungus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931683/in-silico-pass-analysis-and-determination-of-antimycobacterial-antifungal-and-antioxidant-efficacies-of-maslinic-acid-in-an-extract-rich-in-pentacyclic-triterpenoids
#11
Prasad G Jamkhande, Shahbaz K Pathan, Shailesh J Wadher
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Microbial infections such as tuberculosis is a major cause of mortality worldwide. Plant-derived phytochemicals have a long history of providing much-needed novel therapeutics. Triterpenoids are among the prominent phytochemicals that possess numerous biological activities. Among them is maslinic acid (MA), a biologically active olean-type pentacyclic triterpenoid. In search of a novel antimicrobial agent, we aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of MA. METHODS: Antibacterial and antifungal activity was evaluated through the agar well diffusion method...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913634/comparative-analysis-highlights-variable-genome-content-of-wheat-rusts-and-divergence-of-the-mating-loci
#12
Christina A Cuomo, Guus Bakkeren, Hala Badr Khalil, Vinay Panwar, David Joly, Rob Linning, Sharadha Sakthikumar, Xiao Song, Xian Adiconis, Lin Fan, Jonathan M Goldberg, Joshua Z Levin, Sarah Young, Qiandong Zeng, Yehoshua Anikster, Myron Bruce, Meinan Wang, Chuntao Yin, Brent McCallum, Les J Szabo, Scot Hulbert, Xianming Chen, John P Fellers
Three members of the Puccinia genus, Pucciniatriticina (Pt), Pstriiformis f.sp. tritici (Pst), and Pgraminis f.sp. tritici (Pgt), cause the most common and often most significant foliar diseases of wheat. While similar in biology and life cycle, each species is uniquely adapted and specialized. The genomes of Pt and Pst were sequenced and compared to that of Pgt to identify common and distinguishing gene content, to determine gene variation among wheat rust pathogens, other rust fungi, and basidiomycetes, and to identify genes of significance for infection...
February 9, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888605/natural-antisense-transcripts-are-linked-to-the-modulation-of-mitochondrial-function-and-teliospore-dormancy-in-ustilago-maydis
#13
Lauren A Ostrowski, Barry J Saville
The basidiomycete smut fungus Ustilago maydis causes common smut of corn. This disease is spread through the production of teliospores, which are thick-walled dormant structures characterized by low rates of respiration and metabolism. Teliospores are formed when the fungus grows within the plant, and the morphological steps involved in their formation have been described, but the molecular events leading to dormancy are not known. In U. maydis, natural antisense transcripts (NATs) can function to alter gene expression and many NATs have increased levels in the teliospore...
November 26, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835569/a-complete-toolset-for-the-study-of-ustilago-bromivora-and-brachypodium-sp-as-a-fungal-temperate-grass-pathosystem
#14
Franziska Rabe, Jason Bosch, Alexandra Stirnberg, Tilo Guse, Lisa Bauer, Denise Seitner, Fernando A Rabanal, Angelika Czedik-Eysenberg, Simon Uhse, Janos Bindics, Bianca Genenncher, Fernando Navarrete, Ronny Kellner, Heinz Ekker, Jochen Kumlehn, John P Vogel, Sean P Gordon, Thierry C Marcel, Martin Münsterkötter, Mathias C Walter, Christian Mk Sieber, Gertrud Mannhaupt, Ulrich Güldener, Regine Kahmann, Armin Djamei
Due to their economic relevance, the study of plant pathogen interactions is of importance. However, elucidating these interactions and their underlying molecular mechanisms remains challenging since both host and pathogen need to be fully genetically accessible organisms. Here we present milestones in the establishment of a new biotrophic model pathosystem: Ustilago bromivora and Brachypodium sp. We provide a complete toolset, including an annotated fungal genome and methods for genetic manipulation of the fungus and its host plant...
November 11, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825929/the-mechanism-of-peroxisome-motility-in-filamentous-fungi
#15
Gero Steinberg
Peroxisomes (POs) are an essential part of the fungal cell's inventory. They are involved in cellular lipid homeostasis, reactive oxygen metabolism and in the synthesis of secondary metabolites. These functions are thought to require frequent organelle-organelle interactions and the even-distribution of POs in fungal hypha. Recent work in the basidiomycete Ustilago maydis and the ascomycete Aspergillus nidulans reveals a crucial role of early endosomes (EEs) in the dynamic behavior of POs required for their cellular distribution and interaction...
December 2016: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786737/assessment-of-fungal-diversity-in-a-water-damaged-office-building
#16
Brett J Green, Angela R Lemons, Yeonmi Park, Jean M Cox-Ganser, Ju-Hyeong Park
Recent studies have described fungal communities in indoor environments using gene sequencing-based approaches. In this study, dust-borne fungal communities were elucidated from a water-damaged office building located in the northeastern region of the United States using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rRNA gene sequencing. Genomic DNA was extracted from 5 mg of floor dust derived from 22 samples collected from either the lower floors (n = 8) or a top floor (n = 14) of the office building. ITS gene sequencing resolved a total of 933 ITS sequences and was clustered into 216 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs)...
April 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768088/genetic-manipulation-of-the-plant-pathogen-ustilago-maydis-to-study-fungal-biology-and-plant-microbe-interactions
#17
Kristin Bösch, Lamprinos Frantzeskakis, Miroslav Vraneš, Jörg Kämper, Kerstin Schipper, Vera Göhre
Gene deletion plays an important role in the analysis of gene function. One of the most efficient methods to disrupt genes in a targeted manner is the replacement of the entire gene with a selectable marker via homologous recombination. During homologous recombination, exchange of DNA takes place between sequences with high similarity. Therefore, linear genomic sequences flanking a target gene can be used to specifically direct a selectable marker to the desired integration site. Blunt ends of the deletion construct activate the cell's DNA repair systems and thereby promote integration of the construct either via homologous recombination or by non-homologous-end-joining...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750034/genetic-and-biochemical-insights-into-the-itaconate-pathway-of-ustilago-maydis-enable-enhanced-production
#18
Elena Geiser, Sandra K Przybilla, Meike Engel, Wiebke Kleineberg, Linda Büttner, Eda Sarikaya, Tim den Hartog, Jürgen Klankermayer, Walter Leitner, Michael Bölker, Lars M Blank, Nick Wierckx
The Ustilaginaceae family of smut fungi, especially Ustilago maydis, gained biotechnological interest over the last years, amongst others due to its ability to naturally produce the versatile bio-based building block itaconate. Along with itaconate, U. maydis also produces 2-hydroxyparaconate. The latter was proposed to be derived from itaconate, but the underlying biochemistry and associated genes were thus far unknown. Here, we confirm that 2-hydroxyparaconate is a secondary metabolite of U. maydis and propose an extension of U...
October 14, 2016: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746189/characterization-and-comparative-analysis-of-the-genome-of-puccinia-sorghi-schwein-the-causal-agent-of-maize-common-rust
#19
Lucia Rochi, María José Diéguez, Germán Burguener, Martín Alejandro Darino, María Fernanda Pergolesi, Lorena Romina Ingala, Alba Romina Cuyeu, Adrián Turjanski, Enrique Domingo Kreff, Francisco Sacco
Rust fungi are one of the most devastating pathogens of crop plants. The biotrophic fungus Puccinia sorghi Schwein (Ps) is responsible for maize common rust, an endemic disease of maize (Zea mays L) in Argentina that causes significant yield losses in corn production. In spite of this, the Ps genomic sequence was not available. We used Illumina sequencing to rapidly produce the 99.6 Mb draft genome sequence of Ps race RO10H11247, derived from a single-uredinial isolate from infected maize leaves collected in the Argentine Corn Belt Region during 2010...
October 13, 2016: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27728988/analysis-of-mitochondrial-genetic-diversity-of-ustilago-maydis-in-mexico
#20
María F Jiménez-Becerril, Sanjuana Hernández-Delgado, Myrna Solís-Oba, Juan M González Prieto
The current understanding of the genetic diversity of the phytopathogenic fungus Ustilago maydis is limited. To determine the genetic diversity and structure of U. maydis, 48 fungal isolates were analyzed using mitochondrial simple sequence repeats (SSRs). Tumours (corn smut or 'huitlacoche') were collected from different Mexican states with diverse environmental conditions. Using bioinformatic tools, five microsatellites were identified within intergenic regions of the U. maydis mitochondrial genome. SSRMUM4 was the most polymorphic marker...
October 11, 2016: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
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