Read by QxMD icon Read


Elena Geiser, Sandra K Przybilla, Meike Engel, Wiebke Kleineberg, Linda Büttner, Eda Sarikaya, Tim den Hartog, Jürgen Klankermayer, Walter Leitner, Michael Bölker, Lars M Blank, Nick Wierckx
The Ustilaginaceae family of smut fungi, especially Ustilago maydis, gained biotechnological interest over the last years, amongst others due to its ability to naturally produce the versatile bio-based building block itaconate. Along with itaconate, U. maydis also produces 2-hydroxyparaconate. The latter was proposed to be derived from itaconate, but the underlying biochemistry and associated genes were thus far unknown. Here, we confirm that 2-hydroxyparaconate is a secondary metabolite of U. maydis and propose an extension of U...
October 14, 2016: Metabolic Engineering
Lucia Rochi, María José Diéguez, Germán Burguener, Martín Alejandro Darino, María Fernanda Pergolesi, Lorena Romina Ingala, Alba Romina Cuyeu, Adrián Turjanski, Enrique Domingo Kreff, Francisco Sacco
Rust fungi are one of the most devastating pathogens of crop plants. The biotrophic fungus Puccinia sorghi Schwein (Ps) is responsible for maize common rust, an endemic disease of maize (Zea mays L) in Argentina that causes significant yield losses in corn production. In spite of this, the Ps genomic sequence was not available. We used Illumina sequencing to rapidly produce the 99.6 Mb draft genome sequence of Ps race RO10H11247, derived from a single-uredinial isolate from infected maize leaves collected in the Argentine Corn Belt Region during 2010...
October 13, 2016: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
María F Jiménez-Becerril, Sanjuana Hernández-Delgado, Myrna Solís-Oba, Juan M González Prieto
The current understanding of the genetic diversity of the phytopathogenic fungus Ustilago maydis is limited. To determine the genetic diversity and structure of U. maydis, 48 fungal isolates were analyzed using mitochondrial simple sequence repeats (SSRs). Tumours (corn smut or 'huitlacoche') were collected from different Mexican states with diverse environmental conditions. Using bioinformatic tools, five microsatellites were identified within intergenic regions of the U. maydis mitochondrial genome. SSRMUM4 was the most polymorphic marker...
October 11, 2016: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
Libera Lo Presti, Bernd Zechmann, Jochen Kumlehn, Liang Liang, Daniel Lanver, Shigeyuki Tanaka, Ralph Bock, Regine Kahmann
Successful colonization of plants by prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathogens requires active effector-mediated suppression of defense responses and host tissue reprogramming. Secreted effector proteins can either display their activity in the apoplast or translocate into host cells and function therein. Although characterized in bacteria, the molecular mechanisms of effector delivery by fungal phytopathogens remain elusive. Here we report the establishment of an assay that is based on biotinylation of effectors in the host cytoplasm as hallmark of uptake...
September 26, 2016: New Phytologist
Kevin Felipe Cruz Martho, Amanda Teixeira de Melo, Juliana Possato Fernandes Takahashi, Juliana Mariotti Guerra, Dayane Cristina da Silva Santos, Sônia Ueda Purisco, Márcia de Souza Carvalho Melhem, Raquel Dos Anjos Fazioli, Clerlune Phanord, Patrícia Sartorelli, Marcelo A Vallim, Renata C Pascon
Fungal opportunistic pathogens colonize various environments, from plants and wood to human and animal tissue. Regarding human pathogens, one great challenge during contrasting niche occupation is the adaptation to different conditions, such as temperature, osmolarity, salinity, pressure, oxidative stress and nutritional availability, which may constitute sources of stress that need to be tolerated and overcome. As an opportunistic pathogen, C. neoformans faces exactly these situations during the transition from the environment to the human host, encountering nutritional constraints...
2016: PloS One
Janpeter Stock, Marius Terfrüchte, Kerstin Schipper
Unconventional secretion of proteins in eukaryotes is characterized by the circumvention of the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER). As a consequence proteins exported by unconventional pathways lack N-glycosylation, a post-transcriptional modification that is initiated in the ER during classical secretion. We are exploiting the well-established enzyme β-glucuronidase (GUS) to assay unconventional protein secretion (UPS). This bacterial protein is perfectly suited for this purpose because it carries a eukaryotic N-glycosylation motif...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Maribel Valdez-Morales, L Céspedes Carlos, María Elena Valverde, Enrique Ramírez-Chávez, Octavio Paredes-López
Huitlacoche mushroom (composed by the fruiting bodies growing on the maize ears from the basidiomycete Ustilago maydis) is a culinary delicacy with a great economic and nutraceutical value. In this work, phenolic content, antioxidant activity, ergosterol and fatty acids profile from huitlacoche produced in 15 creole and in one hybrid maize genotypes, and harvested at different stages of development were determined. The hybrid crop was studied in raw and cooked samples. Total phenolic content ranged from 415...
September 7, 2016: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Mine Erdem, Zülal Kesmen, Esra Özbekar, Bülent Çetin, Hasan Yetim
A new method based on high resolution melting (HRM) analysis was developed for the differentiation and classification of the yeast species that cause food spoilage. A total 134 strains belonging to 21 different yeast species were examined to evaluate the discriminative power of HRM analysis. Two different highly variable DNA regions on the 26 rRNA gene were targeted to produce the HRM profiles of each strain. HRM-based grouping was compared and confirmed by (GTG)5 rep-PCR fingerprinting analysis. All of the yeast species belonging to the genera Pichia, Candida, Kazachstania, Kluyveromyces, Debaryomyces, Dekkera, Saccharomyces, Torulaspora, Ustilago, and Yarrowia, which were produced as species-specific HRM profiles, allowed discrimination at species and/or strain level...
September 2016: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
Matthias Kretschmer, Daniel Croll, James W Kronstad
The ability of biotrophic fungi to metabolically adapt to the host environment is a critical factor in fungal diseases of crop plants. In this study, we analyzed the transcriptome of maize tumors induced by Ustilago maydis to identify key features underlying metabolic shifts during disease. Among other metabolic changes, this analysis highlighted modifications during infection in transcriptional regulation of carbohydrate allocation and starch metabolism. We confirmed the relevance of these changes by establishing that symptom development was altered in an id1 (indeterminate1) mutant that has increased accumulation of sucrose as well as being defective in the vegetative to reproductive transition...
August 26, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
Matthias Kretschmer, Daniel Croll, James W Kronstad
Biotrophic fungal pathogens must evade or suppress plant defense responses to establish a compatible interaction in living host tissue. In addition, metabolic changes during disease reflect both the impact of nutrient acquisition by the fungus to support proliferation and the integration of metabolism with the plant defense response. In this study, we used transcriptome analyses to predict that the chloroplast and associated functions are important for symptom formation by the biotrophic fungus Ustilago maydis on maize...
August 26, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
Martin Schuster, Magdalena Martin-Urdiroz, Yujiro Higuchi, Christian Hacker, Sreedhar Kilaru, Sarah J Gurr, Gero Steinberg
Fungal cells are surrounded by an extracellular cell wall. This complex matrix of proteins and polysaccharides protects against adverse stresses and determines the shape of fungal cells. The polysaccharides of the fungal wall include 1,3-β-glucan and chitin, which are synthesized by membrane-bound synthases at the growing cell tip. A hallmark of filamentous fungi is the class V chitin synthase, which carries a myosin-motor domain. In the corn smut fungus Ustilago maydis, the myosin-chitin synthase Mcs1 moves to the plasma membrane in secretory vesicles, being delivered by kinesin-1 and myosin-5...
2016: Nature Microbiology
Juan Antonio Cervantes-Montelongo, Elva Teresa Aréchiga-Carvajal, José Ruiz-Herrera
Fungi are capable to adapt to environments with different pH values. Here we used microarrays to analyze the transcriptomic response of the Basidiomycota Ustilago maydis when transferred from a neutral pH medium to acidic, or alkaline media. Yeast and hyphal monomorphic mutants were used as controls, permitting the identification of 301 genes differentially regulated during the transfer from neutral to an acidic medium, of which 162 were up-regulated and 139 down-regulated. When cells were transferred to an alkaline medium, we identified 797 differentially regulated genes, 335 up-regulated, and 462 down-regulated...
August 22, 2016: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Alexandra Matei, Gunther Doehlemann
Ustilago maydis is a well-established model system for biotrophic fungal plant pathogens. The fungus has a dimorphic life cycle with a yeast-like saprophytic phase switching to filamentous, pathogenic growth upon hyphal fusion. Due to its highly differentiated development and the amenability for reverse-genetics U. maydis provides a model system for both fungal cell biology as well as the study of biotrophic plant interaction. The present article highlights key findings in different aspects of cell biology on the corn smut disease and provides an outlook on the most intriguing open questions...
August 6, 2016: Current Opinion in Microbiology
S Baumann, S Zander, S Weidtkamp-Peters, M Feldbrügge
Septins are highly conserved cytoskeletal proteins involved in a variety of biological processes such as cell polarization and cytokinesis. In humans, functional defects in these proteins have been linked to cancer and neuronal diseases. In recent years, substantial progress has been made in studying the structure of septin subunits and the formation of defined heteromeric building blocks. These are assembled into higher-order structures at distinct subcellular sites. An important microscopic approach in studying septin assembly and dynamics is the use of septins tagged with fluorescent proteins...
2016: Methods in Cell Biology
Thiemo Zambanini, Joerg M Buescher, Guido Meurer, Nick Wierckx, Lars M Blank
The basidiomycetous smut fungus Ustilago trichophora RK089 produces malate from glycerol. De novo genome sequencing revealed a 20.7-Mbp genome (301 gap-closed contigs, 246 scaffolds). A comparison to the genome of Ustilago maydis 521 revealed all essential genes for malate production from glycerol contributing to metabolic engineering for improving malate production.
2016: Genome Announcements
Colleen E Doyle, H Y Kitty Cheung, Kelsey L Spence, Barry J Saville
In this study, Ustilago maydis Ndt80 homolog one, unh1, of the obligate sexual pathogen U. maydis,is described. Unh1 is the sole Ndt80-like DNA-binding protein inU. maydis. In this model basidiomycete, Unh1 plays a role in sexual development, influencing tumor maturation, teliospore development and subsequent meiotic completion. Teliospore formation was reduced in deletion mutants, and those that did form had unpigmented, hyaline cell walls, and germinated without completing meiosis. Constitutively expressing unh1 in haploid cells resulted in abnormal pigmentation, when grown in both potato dextrose broth and minimal medium, suggesting that pigmentation may be triggered by unh1 in U...
September 2016: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Franziska Rabe, Denise Seitner, Lisa Bauer, Fernando Navarrete, Angelika Czedik-Eysenberg, Fernando A Rabanal, Armin Djamei
The phenolic compound salicylic acid (SA) is a key signaling molecule regulating local and systemic plant defense responses, mainly against biotrophs. Many microbial organisms, including pathogens, share the ability to degrade SA. However, the mechanism by which they perceive SA is unknown. Here we show that Ustilago maydis, the causal agent of corn smut disease, employs a so far uncharacterized SA sensing mechanism. We identified and characterized the novel SA sensing regulator, Rss1, a binuclear zinc cluster protein with dual functions as putative SA receptor and transcriptional activator regulating genes important for SA and tryptophan degradation...
July 8, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
Thiemo Zambanini, Wiebke Kleineberg, Eda Sarikaya, Joerg M Buescher, Guido Meurer, Nick Wierckx, Lars M Blank
BACKGROUND: In order to establish a cost-efficient biodiesel biorefinery, valorization of its main by-product, crude glycerol, is imperative. Recently, Ustilago trichophora TZ1 was found to efficiently produce malic acid from glycerol. By adaptive laboratory evolution and medium optimization, titer and rate could be improved significantly. RESULTS: Here we report on the investigation of this strain in fed-batch bioreactors. With pH controlled at 6.5 (automatic NaOH addition), a titer of 142 ± 1 g L(-1) produced at an overall rate of 0...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Joise Hander Mares, Karina Peres Gramacho, Everton Cruz Dos Santos, André da Silva Santiago, Edson Mário de Andrade Silva, Fátima Cerqueira Alvim, Carlos Priminho Pirovani
BACKGROUND: Witches' broom, a disease caused by the basidiomycete Moniliophthora perniciosa, is considered to be the most important disease of the cocoa crop in Bahia, an area in the Brazilian Amazon, and also in the other countries where it is found. M. perniciosa germ tubes may penetrate into the host through intact or natural openings in the cuticle surface, in epidermis cell junctions, at the base of trichomes, or through the stomata. Despite its relevance to the fungal life cycle, basidiospore biology has not been extensively investigated...
2016: BMC Microbiology
Robinson C Jose, Sailendra Goyari, Bengyella Louis, Sayanika D Waikhom, Pratap J Handique, Narayan C Talukdar
Ustilago esculenta is a uniquely flavored biotrophic smut fungus that forms a smut gall on the top internodal region of Zizania latifolia, a perennial wild rice found in the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot. The smut gall is an edible vegetable locally called "kambong" in Manipur, India. The life cycle of the fungus was studied in vitro and its biotrophism was observed during different stages of the plant growth starting from the bud stage to decaying stage using light, fluorescent and electron microscopy. The size of the smut gall and the number of internodes below the apical smut gall varied significantly (P < 0...
September 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"