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plant pathology

So Hyun Moon, Muthuraman Pandurangan, Doo Hwan Kim, Jelli Venkatesh, Rahul V Patel, Bhupendra M Mistry
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE: Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don. is an important medicinal plant with rich sources of remarkable health benefits consisting more than 100 alkaloids and significant amounts of bioactive compounds, which have been widely used as a folk medicine for treatment of several pathologies. THE AIM OF THE STUDY: In the present study, we isolated and cultured innately undifferentiated cambium meristematic cells (CMCs), which were observed stable cell growth, enhancement of bioactive compounds from C...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Han Zhang, Zhi-Yang Yan, Yu-Xi Wang, Ming Bai, Xiao-Bo Wang, Xiao-Xiao Huang, Shao-Jiang Song
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder associated with synaptic dysfunction, pathological accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ), and neuronal loss. Given the prevalence of AD and the lack of effective long-term therapies, there is a pressing need to discover viable leads that can be developed into clinically approved drugs with disease-modifying effects. The analysis of current reported literatures confirms the importance of the plants of Pithecellobium genus as candidate against AD...
February 16, 2018: Natural Product Research
Humeera M Mulla, Nupura Vibhute, Rajendra Baad, N D Shashikiran, Mustaq Parker, R C Parmod, Uzma Belgaumi, Vidya Kadashetti, Sushma Bommanawar
Introduction: Foreign bodies and tissue reactions to foreign materials are commonly encountered in the oral cavity. Exogenous materials causing foreign body reactions may be metallic (amalgam) or nonmetallic (suture materials, vegetable matter). Implantation of food particles in the oral tissues has been known to cause reactive lesions such as oral pulse granuloma. Implantation could be through extraction sockets, deep periodontal pockets, associated with tumor growth, interdental areas of teeth, unfilled root canals, and grossly decayed teeth...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Dental Research: Official Publication of Indian Society for Dental Research
Yasmina M Abd-Elhakim, Khlood M El Bohi, Sahar Khalifa Hassan, Shorouk El Sayed, Sabry M Abd-Elmotal
Melamine (MEL) is a widespread food contaminant and adulterant. Moringa olifera is a widely known medicinal plant with various pharmacological properties. Herein, this study aimed to investigate, for the first time, the probable protective or therapeutic role of M. olifera ethanolic extract (MOE) against MEL induced hemato-immune toxic hazards. Fifty Sprague Dawely male rats were orally treated with distilled water, MOE (800 mg/kg bw), MEL (700 mg/kg bw), MOE/MEl or MOE + MEl. Erythrogram and leukogram profiling were evaluated to assess hematological status...
February 10, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Shi-Lung Lin, Shin-Ju E Chang, Shao-Yao Ying
Transgenic animal models are valuable tools for testing gene functions and drug mechanisms in vivo. They are also the best similitude for a human body for etiological and pathological research of diseases. All pharmaceutically developed medicines must be proven to be safe and effective in animals before approval by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to be used in clinical trials. To this end, the transgenic animal models of diseases serve as the front line of drug evaluation. However, there is currently no transgenic animal model for microRNA (miRNA)-related research...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Naji Al-Dubaili, Khaled El-Tarabily, Na'il Saleh
We report the control of imazalil (IMZ) antifungal activity utilizing its non-covalent assembly with β-cyclodextrins (β-CD) and cucurbit[8]uril (CB8) macrocycles, as well as its stimuli-responsive disassembly with cadaverine. The NMR results are consistent with inclusion of a single IMZ molecule inside the cavities of either CB8 from its aromatic site or β-CD from its aliphatic end. Efficient complex formation with both host molecules and controlled released upon the addition of cadaverine is supported by NMR measurements...
February 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Amna Parveen, Mirim Jin, Sun Yeou Kim
BACKGROUND: Owing to the multiple causative factors, the current advances in medication for diabetic nephropathy (DN) do not appear to have improved therapies for patients. Furthermore, use of multiple synthetic medications has shown various adverse effects and ultimately leads to deterioration of the condition. Medicinal plants and their bioactive constituents are considered to be safer and more effective than synthetic medicines against various chronic diseases. Therefore, the use of natural products in the management of DN has been suggested...
January 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Ryota Otsubo, Zhanna Mussazhanova, Yuko Akazawa, Ayako Sato, Katsuya Matsuda, Megumi Matsumoto, Hiroshi Yano, Michiko Matsuse, Norisato Mitsutake, Takao Ando, Daisuke Niino, Takeshi Nagayasu, Masahiro Nakashima
BACKGROUND: There have been great concerns about pediatric thyroid cancers after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a 7-year-old Japanese girl with sporadic papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) harboring an ETV6/NTRK3 rearrangement. The patient presented with tumors in both lobes and underwent thyroidectomy followed by radioactive iodine (RAI) ablation. Histopathology showed a classic type of PTC with cervical lymph node metastasis...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
Heejung Cho, Eun-Sung Song, Young Kee Lee, Seungdon Lee, Seon-Woo Lee, Ara Jo, Byoung-Moo Lee, Jeong-Gu Kim, Ingyu Hwang
The Ralstonia solanacearum species complex (RSSC) can be divided into four phylotypes, and includes phenotypically diverse bacterial strains that cause bacterial wilt on various host plants. This study used 93 RSSC isolates responsible for potato bacterial wilt in Korea, and investigated their phylogenetic relatedness based on the analysis of phylotype, biovar, and host range. Of the 93 isolates, twenty-two were identified as biovar 2, eight as biovar 3, and sixty-three as biovar 4. Applied to the phylotype scheme, biovar 3 and 4 isolates belonged to phylotype I, and biovar 2 isolates belonged to phylotype IV...
February 2018: Plant Pathology Journal
Feng Liu, Bangjian Dong, Xueyuan Yang, Yuling Yang, Jie Zhang, Da-Qing Jin, Yasushi Ohizumi, Dongho Lee, Jing Xu, Yuanqiang Guo
The extensive pathology studies revealed that Alzheimer's disease (AD) is closely related to neuroinflammation and anti-neuroinflammatory agents may be potentially useful for the treatment of AD. Inula japonica is a member of the Asteraceae plant family and its flowers have been used as a healthy tea and a traditional Chinese medicine. Our continuous search for new nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory substances as anti-neuroinflammatory agents for AD resulted in the isolation of two new sesquiterpenes and ten known terpenes from the flowers of I...
January 4, 2018: Bioorganic Chemistry
Mesfin Yimam, Ping Jiao, Mei Hong, Lidia Brownell, Hyun-Jin Kim, Young-Chul Lee, Qi Jia
Patients with osteoarthritis experience debilitating pain and loss of joint function that requires chronic treatment. While nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been effective for temporary symptomatic relief, their long term usage has been limited by their associated side-effects. UP1306, a standardized novel composition from the extracts of root barks of Morus alba and the heartwoods of Acacia catechu, has been used in over the counter joint care dietary supplements as a safer alternative. These two medicinal plants have long track records of safe human consumption...
January 30, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Mahamane Haidara, Mohamed Haddad, Adama Denou, Guillaume Marti, Sandra Bourgeade-Delmas, Rokia Sanogo, Geneviève Bourdy, Agnès Aubouy
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum malaria is still one of the most deadly pathology worldwide. Efficient treatment is jeopardized by parasite resistance to artemisinin and its derivatives, and by poor access to treatment in endemic regions. Anti-malarial traditional remedies still offer new tracks for identifying promising antiplasmodial molecules, and a way to ensure that all people have access to care. The present study aims to validate the traditional use of Terminalia macroptera, a Malian plant used in traditional medicine...
February 5, 2018: Malaria Journal
Solomon Habtemariam
Both caffeic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid (danshensu) are synthesized through two distinct routs of the shikimic acid biosynthesis pathway. In many plants, especially the rosemary and sage family of Lamiaceae, these two compounds are joined through an ester linkage to form rosmarinic acid (RA). A further structural diversity of RA derivatives in some plants such as Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge is a form of RA dimer, salvianolic acid-B (SA-B), that further give rise to diverse salvianolic acid derivatives...
February 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Bryan L Stegelmeier, T Zane Davis
Because most poisonings occur by toxin ingestion, the gastrointestinal system is the first exposed and, in most cases, it is exposed to the highest toxin concentrations. Consequently, enterocyte damage is common. However, because many toxins produce organ-specific damage, and enterocyte necrosis is easily confused with autolysis, many gastrointestinal lesions are overlooked or overshadowed by other clinical and pathologic changes. The objective of this work is to review several common toxins and poisonous plants that produce primarily gastrointestinal disease...
January 31, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
Amirul Ridzuan Abu Bakar, Adiratna Mat Ripen, Amir Feisal Merican, Saharuddin Bin Mohamad
Dysregulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) activity is known in many pathological conditions with which most of the conditions are related to elevate MMPs activities. Ficus deltoidea (FD) is a plant known for its therapeutic properties. In order to evaluate the therapeutic potential of FD leaf extract, we study the enzymatic inhibition properties of FD leaf extract and its major bioactive compounds (vitexin and isovitexin) on a panel of MMPs (MMP-2, MMP-8 and MMP-9) using experimental and computational approaches...
February 2, 2018: Natural Product Research
Bo Wang, Guichun Wu, Yuqiang Zhang, Guoliang Qian, Fengquan Liu
Hypothetical proteins without defined functions are largely distributed in all sequenced bacterial genomes. Understanding their potent functionalities is a basic demand for bacteriologists. Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), the causal agent of bacterial leaf blight of rice, is one of the model systems for studying molecular plant pathology. One quarter of proteins in the genome of this bacterium were defined as hypothetical proteins, but their roles in Xoo pathogenicity is unknown. Here, we generated in-frame deletions for six hypothetical proteins selected from strain PXO99A and found one (PXO_03177) of them is required for the full virulence of this strain...
February 2, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Isnatin Miladiyah, Jumina Jumina, Sofia Mubarika Haryana, Mustofa Mustofa
Background: Xanthone derivatives have a wide range of pharmacological activities, such as those involving antibacterial, antiviral, antimalarial, anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory, antiprotozoal, and anticancer properties. Among these, we investigated the anticancer properties of xanthone. This research aimed to analyze the biological activity of ten novel xanthone derivatives, to investigate the most contributing-descriptors for their cytotoxic activities, and to examine the possible mechanism of actions of xanthone compound through molecular docking...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Cheul Muu Sim, Bong Jae Seong, Dong Won Kim, Yong Bum Kim, Seung Gon Wi, Gyuil Kim, Hwasuk Oh, TaeJoo Kim, Byung Yeoup Chung, Jeong Young Song, Hong Gi Kim, Sang-Keun Oh, Young Dol Shin, Jea Hwan Seok, Min Young Kang, Yunhee Lee, Mabuti Jacob Radebe, Nikolay Kardjilov, Bernd Honermeier
Various medicinal plants are threatened with extinction owing to their over-exploitation and the prevalence of soil borne pathogens. In this study, soils infected with root-rot pathogens, which prevent continuous-cropping, were treated with an electron beam. The level of soil-borne fungus was reduced to ≤0.01% by soil electron beam treatment without appreciable effects on the levels of antagonistic microorganism or on the physicochemical properties of the soil. The survival rate of 4-year-old plant was higher in electron beam-treated soil (81...
February 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jung-Han Kim, Hae-Mi Kang, Su-Bin Yu, Jae-Min Song, Chul-Hoon Kim, Bok-Joo Kim, Bong-Soo Park, Sang-Hun Shin, In-Ryoung Kim
With rapid economic growth and further developments in medical science, the entry into the aging population is currently increasing, as is the number of patients with metabolic diseases, such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, heart disease, and diabetes. The current treatments for metabolic bone diseases, which are also on the rise, cause negative side effects. Bisphosphonates, which are used to treat osteoporosis, inhibit the bone resorption ability of osteoclasts and, during prolonged administration, cause bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ)...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Jinlin Zhang, Aihua Yang, Yu Wu, Wei Guan, Biao Xiong, Xiaoqing Peng, Xiaojin Wei, Chang Chen, Zhaoguo Liu
Inflammation and oxidative stress are two crucial factors mediating liver fibrosis. Stachydrine (STA) is a naturally occurring compound extracted from a medicinal plant Leonuru heterophyllus, which can inhibit the proliferation and induce the apoptosis of breast cancer cells, relieve high glucose-induced endothelial cell senescence and isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy, and exert antitumor effects. However, its roles in hepatic fibrosis remain largely unknown. We aimed to evaluate the effect of STA on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats and to elucidate the possible mechanisms...
January 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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