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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080985/emerging-oomycete-threats-to-plants-and-animals
#1
REVIEW
Lida Derevnina, Benjamin Petre, Ronny Kellner, Yasin F Dagdas, Mohammad Nasif Sarowar, Artemis Giannakopoulou, Juan Carlos De la Concepcion, Angela Chaparro-Garcia, Helen G Pennington, Pieter van West, Sophien Kamoun
Oomycetes, or water moulds, are fungal-like organisms phylogenetically related to algae. They cause devastating diseases in both plants and animals. Here, we describe seven oomycete species that are emerging or re-emerging threats to agriculture, horticulture, aquaculture and natural ecosystems. They include the plant pathogens Phytophthora infestans, Phytophthora palmivora, Phytophthora ramorum, Plasmopara obducens, and the animal pathogens Aphanomyces invadans, Saprolegnia parasitica and Halioticida noduliformans For each species, we describe its pathology, importance and impact, discuss why it is an emerging threat and briefly review current research activities...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078067/%C3%AE-linolenic-acid-reduces-tnf-induced-apoptosis-in-c2c12-myoblasts-by-regulating-expression-of-apoptotic-proteins
#2
Felicia Carotenuto, Dario Coletti, Paolo Di Nardo, Laura Teodori
Impaired regeneration and consequent muscle wasting is a major feature of muscle degenerative diseases. Nutritional interventions such as adjuvant strategy for preventing these conditions are recently gaining increasing attention. Ingestion of n3-polyunsaturated fatty acids has been suggested as having a positive impact on muscle diseases. We recently demonstrated that a diet enriched with plant derived n3-fatty acid, α-linolenic acid (ALA), exerts potent beneficial effects in preserving skeletal muscle regeneration in models of muscle dystrophy...
September 15, 2016: European Journal of Translational Myology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068633/polyphenol-rich-ethanolic-extract-from-boerhavia-diffusa-l-mitigates-angiotensin-ii-induced-cardiac-hypertrophy-and-fibrosis-in-rats
#3
Prathapan A, Mathews V Varghese, Abhilash S, Salin Raj P, Anil K Mathew, Anupama Nair, R Harikumaran Nair, Raghu K G
Boerhavia diffusa is a renowned edible medicinal plant extensively used against different ailments including heart diseases in the traditional system of medicine in several countries. The present study aims to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of ethanolic extract of Boerhavia diffusa (BDE) on cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis induced by angiotensin II (Ang II) in male wistar rats and to identify the active components present in it. A substantial increase of hypertrophy markers such as cardiac mass index, concentration of ANP and BNP, cardiac injury markers like CK-MB, LDH and SGOT, has been observed in hypertrophied groups whereas BDE treatment attenuated these changes when compared to hypertrophied rats...
January 6, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053889/antioxidant-antiglycation-and-insulinotrophic-properties-of-coccinia-grandis-l-in%C3%A2-vitro-possible-role-in-prevention-of-diabetic-complications
#4
Packirisamy Meenatchi, Ayyakkanuu Purushothaman, Sivaprakasam Maneemegalai
In an attempt to develop Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) for the treatment of diabetes and related complications, the antidiabetic potential of the mature unripe fruits of Coccinia grandis (CGF) was evaluated. Oxidative stress and glycation plays an important role in manifesting of diabetes and vascular complications. Agents with antioxidant and antiglycation properties may retard these pathological alterations. In this study, the edible plant Coccinia grandis was assessed for in vitro estimation of antioxidant and antiglycation potential and its insulinotrophic properties in RINm5F cells...
January 2017: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051912/utility-of-pet-ct-to-evaluate-retroperitoneal-lymph-node-metastasis-in-high-risk-endometrial-cancer-results-of-acrin-6671-gog-0233-trial
#5
Mostafa Atri, Zheng Zhang, Farrokh Dehdashti, Susanna I Lee, Helga Marques, Shamshad Ali, Wui-Jin Koh, Robert S Mannel, Paul DiSilvestro, Stephanie A King, Michael Pearl, XunClare Zhou, Marie Plante, Katherine M Moxley, Michael Gold
Purpose To assess the diagnostic accuracy of fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) combined with diagnostic contrast material-enhanced computed tomography (CT) in detecting lymph node (LN) metastasis in high-risk endometrial cancer. Materials and Methods This prospective multicenter HIPAA-compliant study had institutional review board approval, and all participants gave written informed consent. Data were accrued between January 2010 and June 2013. Patients underwent PET/CT and pelvic and abdominal lymphadenectomy...
January 3, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049396/oxidative-stress-and-antioxidant-potential-of-one-hundred-medicinal-plants
#6
Waseem Hassan, Hamsa Noreen, Shakila Rehman, Shehnaz Gul, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Jean Paul Kamdem, Bakht Zaman, Joao B T da Rocha
Reactive species are produced in biological system because of redox reactions. The imbalance in pro-oxidant and antioxidant homeostasis leads to the production of toxic reactive oxygen and nitrogen species like hydrogen peroxide, organic peroxides, hydroxyl radicals, superoxide anion and nitric oxide. Inactivation of metabolic enzymes, oxidation of biomolecules and cellular damage are some of the prominent characteristics of reactive species. Similarly, oxidative stress has been associated with more than one hundred (100) pathologies such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, pancreatic and liver diseases, joint disorders, cardiac fibrosis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, neurological diseases (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington's disorder, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease), ageing and cancer etc...
January 2, 2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043897/natural-products-against-alzheimer-s-disease-pharmaco-therapeutics-and-biotechnological-interventions
#7
REVIEW
Abhijit Dey, Raktim Bhattacharya, Anuradha Mukherjee, Devendra Kumar Pandey
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a severe, chronic and progressive neurodegenerative disease associated with memory and cognition impairment ultimately leading to death. It is the commonest reason of dementia in elderly populations mostly affecting beyond the age of 65. The pathogenesis is indicated by accumulation of the amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) in brain tissues and hyperphosphorylation of tau protein in neurons. The main cause is considered to be the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) due to oxidative stress...
December 30, 2016: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030361/redox-sensitive-gfp-to-monitor-oxidative-stress-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#8
Sonia Esposito, Alessandra Masala, Simona Sanna, Mauro Rassu, Viengsavanh Pimxayvong, Ciro Iaccarino, Claudia Crosio
Redox processes are key events in the degenerative cascade of many adult-onset neurodegenerative diseases (NDs), but the biological relevance of a single redox change is often dependent on the redox couple involved and on its subcellular origin. The biosensors based on engineered fluorescent proteins (redox-sensitive GFP [roGFP]) offer a unique opportunity to monitor redox changes in both physiological and pathological contexts in living animals and plants. Here, we review the use of roGFPs to monitor oxidative stress in different three adult-onset NDs: Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)...
December 28, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026146/profiling-the-extended-phenotype-of-plant-pathogens
#9
REVIEW
Gail M Preston
One of the most fundamental questions in plant pathology is what determines whether a pathogen grows within a plant? This question is frequently studied in terms of the role of elicitors and pathogenicity factors in triggering or overcoming host defences. However, this focus fails to address the basic question of how the environment in host tissues acts to support or restrict pathogen growth. Efforts to understand this aspect of host-pathogen interactions are commonly confounded by several issues, including the complexity of the plant environment, the artificial nature of many experimental infection systems, and the fact that the physiological properties of a pathogen growing in association with a plant can be very different from the properties of that pathogen in culture...
December 27, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025940/a-mini-review-on-the-chemistry-and-neuroprotective-effects-of-silymarin
#10
Kasi Pandima Devi, Dicson Sheeja Malar, Nady Braidy, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi, Seyed Fazel Nabavi
The plant milk thistle and silymarin has been traditionally used as a natural remedy for the treatment of various ailments including neurological disorders such Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Disease and cerebral ischemia for over 2000 years. The neuroprotective effects conferred by silymarin include modulation of various antioxidant mechanisms, and several kinases involved in cell signaling pathways, inhibition of the inflammatory response generated during neurodegeneration, neurotropic effects, regulation of neurotransmitters and inhibition of apoptosis...
December 27, 2016: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025496/plant-micrornas-novel-players-in-natural-medicine
#11
REVIEW
Anna Lukasik, Piotr Zielenkiewicz
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) represent a class of small non-coding RNAs that act as efficient gene expression regulators and thus play many important roles in living organisms. Due to their involvement in several known human pathological and pathogenic states, miRNA molecules have become an important issue in medicine and gained the attention of scientists from the pharmaceutical industry. In recent few years, a growing number of studies have provided evidence that miRNAs may be transferred from one species to another and regulate gene expression in the recipients' cells...
December 22, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008157/the-tumor-associated-yb-1-protein-new-player-in-the-circadian-control-of-cell-proliferation
#12
Cristina Pagano, Orsola di Martino, Gennaro Ruggiero, Andrea Maria Guarino, Nathalie Mueller, Rima Siauciunaite, Markus Reischl, Nicholas Simon Foulkes, Daniela Vallone, Viola Calabrò
Correct spatial and temporal control of cell proliferation is of fundamental importance for tissue homeostasis. Its deregulation has been associated with several pathological conditions. In common with almost every aspect of plant and animal biology, cell proliferation is dominated by day-night rhythms generated by the circadian clock. However, our understanding of the crosstalk between the core clock and cell cycle control mechanisms remains incomplete. In this study, using zebrafish as a vertebrate model system, we show that the nuclear localization of the Y-box binding protein 1 (YB-1), a regulator of cyclin expression and a hallmark of certain cancers, is robustly regulated by the circadian clock...
December 20, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999995/lipid-glycosylation-a-primer-for-histochemists-and-cell-biologists
#13
REVIEW
Jürgen Kopitz
Glycolipids are glycoconjugates that are predominantly found on the extracellular surface of cells ranging from bacteria to men. In bacteria and plants, glycoglycerolipids represent the main glycolipid species. Ceramides as carrier for glycans, termed glycosphingolipids (GSLs), are characteristic for vertebrates and insects. The glycan part is involved in a variety of biological activities including cell adhesion and initiation of signaling. Most of these functions rest on two basic principles: (1) GSLs spontaneously contribute to organize lipid rafts in biological membranes, thereby forming functional complexes ('glycosynapses') with receptor proteins and ion channels and (2) their glycans are bound by receptors like galectins (protein-glycan recognition) or cognate glycans (glycan-glycan recognition)...
December 20, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996374/image-based-quantification-of-plant-immunity-and-disease
#14
Bradley Laflamme, Maggie Middleton, Timothy Lo, Darrell Desveaux, David S Guttman
Measuring the extent and severity of disease is a critical component of plant pathology research and crop breeding. Unfortunately, existing visual scoring systems are qualitative, subjective, and the results are difficult to transfer between research groups, while existing quantitative methods can be quite laborious. Here, we present plant immunity and disease image-based quantification (PIDIQ), a quantitative, semi-automated system to rapidly and objectively measure disease symptoms in a biologically relevant context...
December 20, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990170/evaluation-of-wound-healing-properties-of-grape-seed-sesame-and-fenugreek-oils
#15
Dorsaf Moalla Rekik, Sameh Ben Khedir, Kamilia Ksouda Moalla, Naziha Grati Kammoun, Tarek Rebai, Zouheir Sahnoun
Background. Medicinal plants have proved at all times to be a powerful remedy for health care. Accordingly, grape seed, sesame, and fenugreek extracted oils with pharmacological properties are investigated as wound treatments. This study assesses the potential of our oils for healing wounds induced on rats. Methods. Phytochemical analyses of oils have involved: quality value, polyphenol, chlorophylls, carotene, and fatty acids. Antibacterial activity was carried out. Antioxidant activity was evaluated: the scavenging effect on DPPH radicals, the reducing power, and β-carotene discoloration...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989523/gastrointestinal-phytobezoar-following-bariatric-surgery-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Tair Ben-Porat, Shiri Sherf Dagan, Ariela Goldenshluger, Jonathan B Yuval, Ram Elazary
Bezoars are collections of undigested foreign material that accumulate in the gastrointestinal tract. The most common are phytobezoars, which are formed from plant fibers, especially those related to the ingestion of persimmon. Patients who undergo abdominal surgery, including bariatric surgery for obesity, and particularly gastrectomy, are prone to bezoar formation due to reduced gastric motility, loss of pyloric function, and hypoacidity. Bezoars can form months to years postoperatively. Our objective was to review the published literature regarding phytobezoar formation after bariatric surgery...
November 2016: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960236/radiation-associated-neoplasia-clinical-pathological-and-genomic-correlates
#17
REVIEW
Lynette M Sholl, Justine A Barletta, Jason L Hornick
Ionizing radiation is an established risk factor for the development of benign and malignant tumours. The epidemiology of radiation-associated neoplasia has been studied over the decades in diverse populations, including Japanese atomic bomb survivors, exposed communities following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster, and paediatric and adult populations receiving therapeutic irradiation. Radiation has been associated with an increased risk of neoplasia throughout the human body, with some sites showing a markedly increased relative risk of developing tumours (thyroid; soft tissues), depending on patient age and the context of exposure...
January 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957421/acute-interstitial-nephritis-induced-by-solanum-nigrum
#18
Sung Sik Oh, Myung Woo Choi, Mi Rim Choi, Jong Hwa Lee, Hyun Ju Yang, Yeong Jin Choi, A Young Cho, Kwang Young Lee, In O Sun
Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is an important cause of reversible acute kidney injury and pathologically characterized by inflammatory infiltrate in the renal interstitium. Solanum nigrum (S. nigrum) is a medicinal plant member of the Solanaceae family. Although S. nigrum has been traditionally used to treat various ailments such as pain, inflammation, and fever, it has also been reported to have a toxic effect, resulting in anticholinergic symptoms. However, there have been no reports of AIN caused by S...
December 2016: Kidney Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939889/trigonella-foenum-graecum-alleviates-airway-inflammation-of-allergic-asthma-in-ovalbumin-induced-mouse-model
#19
Chun Hua Piao, Thi Tho Bui, Chang Ho Song, Hee Soon Shin, Dong-Hwa Shon, Ok Hee Chai
Trigonella foenum-graecum, a member oldest medicinal plant in the fabaceae (legumes) family, is used as a herb, spice, and vegetable, and known for its olfactory, laxative, and galactogogue effects. However, the inhibitory effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum on allergic inflammatory response remains unclear, therefore, we investigated the precise role of Trigonella foenum-graecum in the allergic asthma and revealed the effects of Trigonella foenum-graecum in regulating airway inflammation and its possible mechanism...
January 22, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924531/fusarium-species-and-their-associated-mycotoxins
#20
Gary P Munkvold
The genus Fusarium includes numerous toxigenic species that are pathogenic to plants or humans, and are able to colonize a wide range of environments on earth. The genus comprises around 70 well-known species, identified by using a polyphasic approach, and as many as 300 putative species, according to phylogenetic species concepts; many putative species do not yet have formal names. Fusarium is one of the most economically important fungal genera because of yield loss due to plant pathogenic activity; mycotoxin contamination of food and feed products which often render them unaccep for marketing; and health impacts to humans and livestock, due to consumption of mycotoxins...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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