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plant pathology

David Renault, Hesham Yousef, Amr A Mohamed
Antibiotics have been increasingly used over the past decades for human medicine, food-animal agriculture, aquaculture, and plant production. A significant part of the active molecules of antibiotics can be released into the environment, in turn affecting ecosystem functioning and biogeochemical processes. At lower organizational scales, these substances affect bacterial symbionts of insects, with negative consequences on growth and development of juveniles, and population dynamics. Yet, the multiple alterations of cellular physiology and metabolic processes have remained insufficiently explored in insects...
June 7, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Emma Flanagan, Michael Müller, Michael Hornberger, David Vauzour
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarises the most recent evidence regarding the effects of dietary flavonoids on age-related cognitive decline and neurodegenerative diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent evidence indicates that plant-derived flavonoids may exert powerful actions on mammalian cognition and protect against the development of age-related cognitive decline and pathological neurodegeneration. The neuroprotective effects of flavonoids have been suggested to be due to interactions with the cellular and molecular architecture of brain regions responsible for memory...
June 2018: Current Nutrition Reports
Feng Ru Tang, Konstantin Loganovsky
The extensive literature review on human epidemiological studies suggests that low dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) (≤100 mSv) or low dose rate ionizing radiation (LDRIR) (<6mSv/H) exposure could induce either negative or positive health effects. These changes may depend on genetic background, age (prenatal day for embryo), sex, nature of radiation exposure, i.e., acute or chronic irradiation, radiation sources (such as atomic bomb attack, fallout from nuclear weapon test, nuclear power plant accidents, 60 Co-contaminated building, space radiation, high background radiation, medical examinations or procedures) and radionuclide components and human epidemiological experimental designs...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Yun Huang, Jian Yin, Jian-Peng Gao, Yan Wang, Lei Dong, Ju-Hui Zhao
Portulacaoleraceal (POL) has been widely used as an edible plant and a folk medicine in many countries, due to its several health benefits. This study examined the effects of POL on trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis via enema administration. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups: untreated, TNBS, TNBS + POL 10 g/kg, TNBS + POL 5 g/kg and TNBS + POL 2.5 g/kg groups. Rats were subjected to enema treatment once a day for 10 consecutive days with POL extract or distilled water after induction of TNBS...
June 4, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Madhura B de Silva, Tewin Tencomnao
Skin cancer, represents a major public health concern. While the vast majority is non-melanoma skin cancers, melanomas are mostly responsible for mortality. Solar UVB radiation is mutagenic and carcinogenic. It is primarily responsible for both non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers via excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which mediate changes in inflammation and immunity, and have been implicated in all three stages of skin cancer development. Due to their regulatory role in numerous functions of cells, signaling pathways are targets for chemoprevention...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Bijan Rezakhaniha, Reza Heidari, Mehdi Abbasi
Excessive production of reactive oxygen species is a central mechanism in the pathology of varicocele; Melissa officinalis (MO) is a medicinal plant from the Lamiaceae family that has antioxidant activity. In this study, we have investigated the potential therapeutic effect of MO on sperm parameters and chromatin structure in varicocelised rat. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to control, sham, varicocele, MO treatment and placebo groups. Rats in varicocele, MO treatment and placebo groups underwent left varicocele induction...
June 6, 2018: Andrologia
Xiaoliang Li, Zhibin Wang, Yu Wang, Yanan Zhang, Xia Lei, Ping Xin, Xin Fu, Ning Gao, Yanping Sun, Yanhong Wang, Bingyou Yang, Qiuhong Wang, Haixue Kuang
Mammary gland hyperplasia (MGH) is a pathological condition that affects the majority of women at the child-bearing stage. The hormone and endocrinal therapy are typically used to treat MGH. Nevertheless, there are still some certain side effects accompanied with the benefits, which negatively affect the life quality of patients. Therefore, plant-derived agents that are effective against MGH development and with fewer side effects should be developed. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects and underlying mechanism of total saponins of Phytolaccae (TSP) against MGH in vivo ...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Jie Feng, Jingxue Wang, Yehong Du, Ying Liu, Wei Zhang, Jingfei Chen, Yuanjie Liu, Min Zheng, Kejian Wang, Guiqiong He
BACKGROUND: Activated microglia-mediated inflammation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In addition, chronic activation of NLRP3 inflammasomes triggered by amyloid β peptide (Aβ) in microglia contributes to persistent neuroinflammation. Here, the primary goal was to assess whether Dihydromyricetin (DHM), a plant flavonoid compound, is effective therapies for AD; it is crucial to know whether DHM will affect microglial activation and neuroinflammation in APP/PS1 transgenic mice...
June 4, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Jieni Yao, Dawei Sun, Haiyan Cen, Haixia Xu, Haiyong Weng, Fang Yuan, Yong He
Plant responses to drought stress are complex due to various mechanisms of drought avoidance and tolerance to maintain growth. Traditional plant phenotyping methods are labor-intensive, time-consuming, and subjective. Plant phenotyping by integrating kinetic chlorophyll fluorescence with multicolor fluorescence imaging can acquire plant morphological, physiological, and pathological traits related to photosynthesis as well as its secondary metabolites, which will provide a new means to promote the progress of breeding for drought tolerant accessions and gain economic benefit for global agriculture production...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Kun Yan, Guangxuan Han, Chenggang Ren, Shijie Zhao, Xiaoqing Wu, Tiantian Bian
Fusarium fungi are soil-borne pathogens, and the pathological effects on plant photosystems remain unclear. This study aimed to deeply reveal pathological characterization in apple seedlings infected with Fusarium solani by investigating photosystems performance and interaction. Roots were immersed in conidial suspension for inoculation. Thereafter, prompt and delayed chlorophyll a fluorescence and modulated 820 nm reflection were simultaneously detected. After 30 days of infection, leaf relative water content and dry weight were remarkably decreased by 55...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Hye-Sun Lim, Yu Jin Kim, Bu-Yeo Kim, Gunhyuk Park, Soo-Jin Jeong
The activation of microglia is decisively involved with the neurodegeneration observed in many neuroinflammatory pathologies, such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. Tectorigenin (TEC) is an isoflavone isolated from various medicinal plants, such as Pueraria thunbergiana Benth, Belamcanda chinensis , and Iris unguicularis . In the present study, the neuroinflammatory effects of TEC were evaluated in both lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated BV-2 microglial and mouse models. TEC remarkably inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Fernando E Vega
Fungal entomopathogens have been proposed as environmentally friendly alternatives to chemical control. Unfortunately, their effectiveness continues to be limited by their susceptibility to ultraviolet (UV) light and low moisture. A relatively recent development, the use of fungal entomopathogens as endophytes, might overcome the traditional obstacles impeding the widespread adoption of fungal entomopathogens and also provide a novel alternative for management of insect pests and plant pathogens. In addition, some fungal entomopathogens could also function as biofertilizers...
January 2018: Mycologia
Marina Boix-Castejón, María Herranz-López, Alberto Pérez Gago, Mariló Olivares-Vicente, Nuria Caturla, Enrique Roche, Vicente Micol
TRIAL DESIGN: Plant-derived polyphenols have shown potential to alleviate obesity-related pathologies by a multi-targeted mechanism in animal models and human intervention studies. A dietary supplement based on a combination of Lippia citriodora (LC) and Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) polyphenolic extracts was assayed in a double blind and placebo-controlled intervention study with 54 overweight subjects. METHODS: Blood pressure, body weight, height, triceps, biceps and abdominal skinfold thickness, and arm and abdominal circumferences were taken at the baseline, 30 and 60 days of the intervention period...
June 4, 2018: Food & Function
Xichun Wang, Shibin Feng, Nana Ding, Yanting He, Cheng Li, Manman Li, Xuedong Ding, Hongyan Ding, Jinchun Li, Jinjie Wu, Yu Li
Berberine hydrochloride is an isoquinoline type alkaloid extracted from Berberidaceae, Rutaceae, and other plants. Previous reports have shown that berberine hydrochloride has anti-inflammatory properties. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, a lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced murine model of mastitis was established to explore the anti-inflammatory action of berberine hydrochloride. Sixty mice that had been lactating for 5-7 days were randomly divided into six groups, including control, LPS, three berberine hydrochloride treatment groups (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg), and a dexamethasone (DEX) (5 mg/kg) group...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Thomas J Jentsch, Michael Pusch
CLC anion transporters are found in all phyla and form a gene family of eight members in mammals. Two CLC proteins, each of which completely contains an ion translocation parthway, assemble to homo- or heteromeric dimers that sometimes require accessory β-subunits for function. CLC proteins come in two flavors: anion channels and anion/proton exchangers. Structures of these two CLC protein classes are surprisingly similar. Extensive structure-function analysis identified residues involved in ion permeation, anion-proton coupling and gating and led to attractive biophysical models...
July 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
Samuel Chaves-Silva, Adolfo Luís Dos Santos, Antonio Chalfun-Júnior, Jian Zhao, Lázaro E P Peres, Vagner Augusto Benedito
Anthocyanins are naturally occurring flavonoids derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway. There is increasing evidence of the preventative and protective roles of anthocyanins against a broad range of pathologies, including different cancer types and metabolic diseases. However, most of the fresh produce available to consumers typically contains only small amounts of anthocyanins, mostly limited to the epidermis of plant organs. Therefore, transgenic and non-transgenic approaches have been proposed to enhance the levels of this phytonutrient in vegetables, fruits, and cereals...
May 24, 2018: Phytochemistry
A Khelfi, M Azzouz, R Abtroun, M Reggabi, B Alamir
Toxic myopathies are a group of pathologies characterized by a structural and/or functional disturbance of muscles induced by an exogenous agent. The most frequent are those induced by drugs used in clinical practice. Illegal drugs, pesticides, solvents, metals and even physical and gaseous agents can cause this kind of disease and exert toxicity on muscle tissues. Some toxins from animals, plants or micro-organisms are potent myotoxic agents, which can lead to fatal complications. Respiratory arrest and rhabdomyolysis are often referred to as the ultimate complications of these pathologies...
May 23, 2018: Annales Pharmaceutiques Françaises
Drion G Boucias, Yonghong Zhou, Shuaishuai Huang, Nemat O Keyhani
Significant progress has been made in the biochemical and genetic characterization of the host-pathogen interaction mediated by insect pathogenic fungi, with the most widely studied being the Ascomycetes (Hypocrealean) fungi, Metarhizium robertsii and Beauveria bassiana. However, few studies have examined the consequences and effects of host (insect) microbes, whether compatible or antagonistic, on the development and survival of entomopathogenic fungi. Host microbes can act on the insect cuticular surface, within the gut, in specialized insect microbe hosting structures, and within cells, and they include a wide array of facultative and/or obligate exosymbionts and endosymbionts...
May 25, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Alene Alder-Rangel, Alexandre M Bailão, Anderson F da Cunha, Célia M A Soares, Chengshu Wang, Diego Bonatto, Ekaterina Dadachova, Elias Hakalehto, Elis C A Eleutherio, Éverton K K Fernandes, Geoffrey M Gadd, Gerhard H Braus, Gilberto U L Braga, Gustavo H Goldman, Iran Malavazi, John E Hallsworth, Jon Y Takemoto, Kevin K Fuller, Laura Selbmann, Luis M Corrochano, Marcia R von Zeska Kress, Maria Célia Bertolini, Monika Schmoll, Nicolás Pedrini, Octavio Loera, Roger D Finlay, Rosane M Peralta, Drauzio E N Rangel
The topic of 'fungal stress' is central to many important disciplines, including medical mycology, chronobiology, plant and insect pathology, industrial microbiology, material sciences, and astrobiology. The International Symposium on Fungal Stress (ISFUS) brought together researchers, who study fungal stress in a variety of fields. The second ISFUS was held in May 8-11 2017 in Goiania, Goiás, Brazil and hosted by the Instituto de Patologia Tropical e Saúde Pública at the Universidade Federal de Goiás. It was supported by grants from CAPES and FAPEG...
June 2018: Fungal Biology
Nicholas Ekow Thomford, Dimakatso Alice Senthebane, Arielle Rowe, Daniella Munro, Palesa Seele, Alfred Maroyi, Kevin Dzobo
The therapeutic properties of plants have been recognised since time immemorial. Many pathological conditions have been treated using plant-derived medicines. These medicines are used as concoctions or concentrated plant extracts without isolation of active compounds. Modern medicine however, requires the isolation and purification of one or two active compounds. There are however a lot of global health challenges with diseases such as cancer, degenerative diseases, HIV/AIDS and diabetes, of which modern medicine is struggling to provide cures...
May 25, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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