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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440187/genetic-modifications-of-icosahedral-plant-virus-based-nanoparticles-for-vaccine-and-immunotherapy-applications
#1
Kannan Badri Narayanan, Sung Soo Han
Vaccine development is one of the greatest achievements of modern medicine. Vaccines made of live-attenuated pathogens can revert to virulent live strains, which causes safety concerns. On the other hand, the use of purified antigenic components as subunit vaccines is safer, but less effective, as these components induce lower levels of protective immunity. Multiple copy presentation of an antigenic determinant in a well-ordered and well-defined orientation on a nanosized particle can mimic the natural host-pathogen surface interaction to provide antigen stability and immunogenicity similar to that of conventional vaccines with improved safety...
April 24, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423086/evaluation-of-cytogenotoxicity-antioxidant-and-hypoglycemiant-activities-of-isolate-compounds-from-mansoa-hirsuta-d-c-bignoniaceae
#2
Joquebede R Pereira, Raphael F Queiroz, Erlânia A DE Siqueira, Ana Christina Brasileiro-Vidal, Antônio E G Sant'ana, Daniel M Silva, Paulo R A DE Mello Affonso
Mansoa hirsuta (Bignoniaceae) is a native plant from caatinga in Brazilian semiarid. This plant has been locally used as antimicrobial and hypoglycemiant agents, but their action mechanisms and toxicity remain largely unknown. Therefore, we evaluated the composition and antioxidant, cytoprotective and hypoglycemiant effects of raw extract, fractions and compounds from leaves of M. hirsuta. The cytogenotoxic effects of ursolic and oleanolic acids, the main phytotherapic components of this plant, were assessed...
January 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422543/newer-insights-into-the-antidiarrheal-effects-of-acacia-catechu-willd-extract-in-guinea-pig
#3
Matteo Micucci, Roberto Gotti, Ivan Corazza, Gabriella Tocci, Alberto Chiarini, Marta De Giorgio, Luca Camarda, Maria Frosini, Carla Marzetti, Monica Cevenini, Roberta Budriesi
Acacia catechu Willd. is a plant diffused in India and other Asian countries, where it is used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of several ailments including diarrhea, one of the most common pathologies worldwide. In this study, we determined the chemical composition of Acacia catechu Willd. extract (AC) and evaluated its effect on spontaneous and induced contractility in isolated guinea pig ileum and proximal colon. Preliminary data about its antimicrobial effect against some pathogen agents versus some microbiota intestinal strain have been also reported...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419665/lettuce-produced-hepatitis-c-virus-e1e2-heterodimer-triggers-immune-responses-in-mice-and-antibody-production-after-oral-vaccination
#4
Jihong Liu Clarke, Lisa Paruch, Mihaela-Olivia Dobrica, Iuliana Caras, Catalin Tucureanu, Adrian Onu, Sonya Ciulean, Crina Stavaru, Andre Eerde, Yanliang Wang, Hege Steen, Sissel Haugslien, Catalina Petrareanu, Catalin Lazar, Ioan Popescu, Ralph Bock, Jean Dubuisson, Norica Branza-Nichita
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major etiologic agent for severe liver diseases (e.g., cirrhosis, fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma). Approximately 140 million people have chronic HCV infections and about 500,000 die yearly from HCV-related liver pathologies. To date, there is no licenced vaccine available to prevent HCV infection and production of an HCV vaccine remains a major challenge. Here we report the successful production of the HCV E1E2 heterodimer, an important vaccine candidate, in an edible crop (lettuce, Lactuca sativa) using Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression technology...
April 17, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418377/the-magnaporthe-oryzae-nitrooxidative-stress-response-suppresses-rice-innate-immunity-during-blast-disease
#5
Margarita Marroquin-Guzman, David Hartline, Janet D Wright, Christian Elowsky, Travis J Bourret, Richard A Wilson
Understanding how microorganisms manipulate plant innate immunity and colonize host cells is a major goal of plant pathology. Here, we report that the fungal nitrooxidative stress response suppresses host defences to facilitate the growth and development of the important rice pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae in leaf cells. Nitronate monooxygenases encoded by NMO genes catalyse the oxidative denitrification of nitroalkanes. We show that the M. oryzae NMO2 gene is required for mitigating damaging lipid nitration under nitrooxidative stress conditions and, consequently, for using nitrate and nitrite as nitrogen sources...
April 18, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409526/the-impact-of-coat-protein-mediated-virus-resistance-in-applied-plant-pathology-and-basic-research
#6
John A Lindbo, Bryce W Falk
Worldwide, plant viruses cause serious reductions in marketable crop yield and in some cases even plant death. In most cases, the most effective way to control virus diseases is through genetically controlled resistance. However, developing virus-resistant (VR) crops through traditional breeding can take many years, and in some cases is not even possible. Because of this, the demonstration of the first VR transgenic plants in 1985 generated much attention. This seminal report served as an inflection point for research in both basic and applied plant pathology, the results of which have dramatically changed both basic research and in a few cases, commercial crop production...
April 14, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405668/functional-food-supplements-to-ameliorate-the-secondary-complications-in-high-fructose-fed-diabetic-rats
#7
S S Gite, S A Yadav, S S Nilegaonkar, V V Agte
Functional foods are the most natural and safest source of health ingredients, providing health benefits beyond basic nutrition, and hence can be used as supplements for the prevention of secondary complications in diabetes. Persistent diabetes may cause glycation of various tissue proteins such as of those in lens, kidney, blood, and brain, which may further lead to the development of pathological conditions such as cataract and cardiovascular diseases. This study on adult rats was designed to assess if the functional food supplements A and B (proprietary blends of antioxidant rich plant materials) can reduce secondary complications such as cataract, dyslipidemia, and oxidative stress under severe diabetic conditions...
April 13, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403590/efficacy-of-pollen-extract-in-association-with-group-b-vitamins-for-pain-relief-in-chronic-prostatitis-chronic-pelvic-pain-syndrome-a-survey-of-urologists-knowledge-about-its-clinical-application
#8
Giacomo Maria Pirola, Stefano Puliatti, Tommaso Bocchialini, Eugenio Martorana, Salvatore Micali, Giampaolo Bianchi
INTRODUCTION AND AIM OF THE STUDY: Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPSS) is a pathology of high prevalence in Italian male population, difficult to diagnose and to treat and with poor response to conventional therapy. Aim of this study was to review the evidence of the literature about the therapeutic effects of a plant product containing flower pollen extracts and group B vitamins on symptoms resolution and amelioration of CP/CPPS patients' quality of life and to investigate the knowledge among practicing urologists about the clinical application of this product...
March 31, 2017: Archivio Italiano di Urologia, Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402782/ecology-and-pathology-of-phytophthora-its-clade-3-species-in-forests-in-western-oregon-usa
#9
Everett M Hansen, Paul W Reeser, Wendy Sutton
Phytophthora species are widespread and diverse in forest ecosystems, but little is known about their ecology. We explore ecological attributes of the closely related clade 3 species that occur sympatrically in western North American forests. We address the population structure, pathology, and epidemiology of P. ilicis, P. nemorosa, P. pluvialis, P. pseudosyringae, and P. psychrophila. Phytophthora species were isolated from plant tissues, rainwater falling through the forest canopy, streams, and soils in forests in western Oregon...
2017: Mycologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391524/intron-retention-as-a-component-of-regulated-gene-expression-programs
#10
REVIEW
Aishwarya G Jacob, Christopher W J Smith
Intron retention has long been an exemplar of regulated splicing with case studies of individual events serving as models that provided key mechanistic insights into the process of splicing control. In organisms such as plants and budding yeast, intron retention is well understood as a major mechanism of gene expression regulation. In contrast, in mammalian systems, the extent and functional significance of intron retention have, until recently, remained greatly underappreciated. Technical challenges to the global detection and quantitation of transcripts with retained introns have often led to intron retention being overlooked or dismissed as "noise"...
April 8, 2017: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386311/antioxidant-and-ex-vivo-immune-system-regulatory-properties-of-boswellia-serrata-extracts
#11
Daniela Beghelli, Gloria Isani, Paola Roncada, Giulia Andreani, Onelia Bistoni, Martina Bertocchi, Giulio Lupidi, Alessia Alunno
Boswellia serrata (BS) is an important traditional medicinal plant that currently represents an interesting topic for pharmaceutical research since it possesses several pharmacological properties (e.g., anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antitumour). The safety and versatility of this dietary supplement should allow for its use in numerous pathological conditions; however the quality of the extracts needs to be standardized to increase the clinical success rate resulting from its use. In the present study, different commercially available B...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384335/data-processing-of-qualitative-results-from-an-interlaboratory-comparison-for-the-detection-of-flavescence-dor%C3%A3-e-phytoplasma-how-the-use-of-statistics-can-improve-the-reliability-of-the-method-validation-process-in-plant-pathology
#12
Aude Chabirand, Marianne Loiseau, Isabelle Renaudin, Françoise Poliakoff
A working group established in the framework of the EUPHRESCO European collaborative project aimed to compare and validate diagnostic protocols for the detection of "Flavescence dorée" (FD) phytoplasma in grapevines. Seven molecular protocols were compared in an interlaboratory test performance study where each laboratory had to analyze the same panel of samples consisting of DNA extracts prepared by the organizing laboratory. The tested molecular methods consisted of universal and group-specific real-time and end-point nested PCR tests...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384054/virulence-of-pseudomonas-syringae-pv-tomato-dc3000-is-influenced-by-the-catabolite-repression-control-protein-crc
#13
Suma Chakravarthy, Bronwyn G Butcher, Yingyu Liu, Katherine D'Amico, Matthew Coster, Melanie J Filiatrault
Pseudomonas syringae infects diverse plant species and is widely used as a model system in the study of effector function and the molecular basis of plant diseases. Although the relationship between bacterial metabolism, nutrient acquisition, and virulence has attracted increasing attention in bacterial pathology, it is largely unexplored in P. syringae. The Crc (catabolite repression control) protein is a putative RNA-binding protein that regulates carbon metabolism as well as a number of other factors in the pseudomonads...
April 6, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381077/the-effect-of-silver-and-copper-nanoparticles-on-the-wheat-pseudocercosporella-herpotrichoides-pathosystem
#14
V N Belava, O O Panyuta, G M Yakovleva, Y M Pysmenna, M V Volkogon
The paper covers the study of the effects of silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) nanoparticles on wheat-Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides pathosystem in general and, separately, on their interaction both with the plant and with the pathogen. Plants, treated with nonionic colloidal solutions of biogenic metal nanoparticles of Ag and Cu, have taken seed treatment as stress and have demonstrated the same changes in the dynamic patterns of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content as a seedling infection or in its combination with a nanoparticle treatment...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364627/protective-role-of-rhapontin-in-experimental-pulmonary-fibrosis-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#15
Lijun Tao, Juan Cao, Wencheng Wei, Haifeng Xie, Mian Zhang, Chaofeng Zhang
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary fibrosis is a scaring process related to chronic lung injury of all causes. The treatment options for pulmonary fibrosis are very limited. Rhapontin has anti-inflammatory effect and anti-proliferative activity which is widely distributed in the medicinal plants of Rheum genus in China. However, the anti-fibrotic activities of rhapontin have not been previously investigated. METHODS: The effect of rhapontin on TGF-β1-mediated extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition in primary lung fibroblast (PLF) cells, on TGF-β1 secretion in LPS-stimulated human THP-1 derived macrophages in vitro, and on bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis was investigated in vivo...
March 29, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363102/green-synthesized-nano-silver-synthesis-physicochemical-profiling-antibacterial-anticancer-activities-and-biological-in-vivo-toxicity
#16
Jayachandra Reddy Nakkala, Rani Mata, Sudha Rani Sadras
Green synthesis of nanoparticles using plants is gaining much interest in recent years. Anyway, intricate details on the role of phytochemicals involved in capping and stabilization of nanoparticles in diminishing toxicity and enhancing therapeutic potential are required. In this study, Ficus religiosa silver nanoparticles (FRAgNPs) were synthesized using Ficus religiosa leaf extract (FRLE) and characterized. The FRAgNPs showed good antibacterial activity and also cytotoxic effect in different cancer cell lines...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362417/application-of-genetically-encoded-fluorescent-nitric-oxide-no%C3%A2-probes-the-genops-for-real-time-imaging-of-no%C3%A2-signals-in-single-cells
#17
Emrah Eroglu, Rene Rost, Helmut Bischof, Sandra Blass, Anna Schreilechner, Benjamin Gottschalk, Maria R Depaoli, Christiane Klec, Suphachai Charoensin, Corina T Madreiter-Sokolowski, Jeta Ramadani, Markus Waldeck-Weiermair, Wolfgang F Graier, Roland Malli
Nitric Oxide (NO•) is a small radical, which mediates multiple important cellular functions in mammals, bacteria and plants. Despite the existence of a large number of methods for detecting NO• in vivo and in vitro, the real-time monitoring of NO• at the single-cell level is very challenging. The physiological or pathological effects of NO• are determined by the actual concentration and dwell time of this radical. Accordingly, methods that allow the single-cell detection of NO• are highly desirable...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358304/characteristic-variations-and-similarities-in-biochemical-molecular-and-functional-properties-of-glyoxalases-across-prokaryotes-and-eukaryotes
#18
REVIEW
Charanpreet Kaur, Shweta Sharma, Mohammad Rokebul Hasan, Ashwani Pareek, Sneh L Singla-Pareek, Sudhir K Sopory
The glyoxalase system is the ubiquitous pathway for the detoxification of methylglyoxal (MG) in the biological systems. It comprises two enzymes, glyoxalase I (GLYI) and glyoxalase II (GLYII), which act sequentially to convert MG into d-lactate, thereby helping living systems get rid of this otherwise cytotoxic byproduct of metabolism. In addition, a glutathione-independent GLYIII enzyme activity also exists in the biological systems that can directly convert MG to d-lactate. Humans and Escherichia coli possess a single copy of GLYI (encoding either the Ni- or Zn-dependent form) and GLYII genes, which through MG detoxification provide protection against various pathological and disease conditions...
March 30, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350392/animal-like-prostaglandins-in-marine-microalgae
#19
Valeria Di Dato, Ida Orefice, Alberto Amato, Carolina Fontanarosa, Angela Amoresano, Adele Cutignano, Adrianna Ianora, Giovanna Romano
Diatoms are among the most successful primary producers in ocean and freshwater environments. Deriving from a secondary endosymbiotic event, diatoms have a mixed genome containing bacterial, animal and plant genes encoding for metabolic pathways that may account for their evolutionary success. Studying the transcriptomes of two strains of the diatom Skeletonema marinoi, we report, for the first time in microalgae, an active animal-like prostaglandin pathway that is differentially expressed in the two strains...
March 28, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347799/ursolic-acid-attenuates-cigarette-smoke-induced-emphysema-in-rats-by-regulating-perk-and-nrf2-pathways
#20
Lin Li, Yan Yin, Gang Hou, Dan Han, Jian Kang, Qiuyue Wang
OBJECTIVE: Ursolic acid (UA) is widely distributed in natural plants to against oxidation, virus, inflammation, tumor, and has been widely used in the pharmaceutical and cosmetics. However, its effect on emphysema of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is unknown. Unfolded protein response is involved in pathogenesis of COPD through PERK pathway. Nuclear erythroid-related factor 2 (Nrf2) regulates antioxidant defensive mechanism in COPD. This study was to explore effect and mechanism of UA on cigarette smoke (CS)-induced rat emphysema...
March 24, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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