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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642729/safety-evaluation-of-soy-leghemoglobin-protein-preparation-derived-from-pichia-pastoris-intended-for-use-as-a-flavor-catalyst-in-plant-based-meat
#1
Rachel Z Fraser, Mithila Shitut, Puja Agrawal, Odete Mendes, Sue Klapholz
The leghemoglobin protein (LegH) from soy ( Glycine max) expressed in Pichia pastoris (LegH preparation, LegH Prep) imparts a meat-like flavor profile onto plant-based food products. The safety of LegH Prep was evaluated through a series of in vitro and in vivo tests. The genotoxic potential of LegH Prep was assessed using the bacterial reverse mutation assay (Ames test) and the in vitro chromosome aberration test. LegH Prep was nonmutagenic and nonclastogenic in each test, respectively. Systemic toxicity was assessed in a 28-day dietary study in male and female Sprague Dawley rats...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626672/the-suppressive-effects-of-vochysia-divergens-aqueous-leaf-extract-and-its-5-methoxyflavone-on-murine-macrophages-and-lymphocytes
#2
Maria Fernanda Paresqui Corrêa, Thatiana Lopes Biá Ventura, Michelle Frazão Muzitano, Elaine Dos Anjos da Cruz, Maria Camilla Bergonzi, Anna Rita Bilia, Bartira Rossi-Bergmann, Sônia Soares Costa
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Leaf infusion from the tree Vochysia divergens Pohl (Vochysiaceae), known as "cambará", is used in Brazilian popular medicine against respiratory infections and asthma. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the health-beneficial effects related to the ethnomedicinal uses of V. divergens (Vd), a biomonitored fractionation of an aqueous leaf extract was carried out. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Leaves were extracted by decoction with distilled water, and the extract fractionated by a combination of separation techniques including precipitation, organic partition and chromatography...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615506/coexistence-of-multiple-endemic-and-pandemic-lineages-of-the-rice-blast-pathogen
#3
Pierre Gladieux, Sébastien Ravel, Adrien Rieux, Sandrine Cros-Arteil, Henri Adreit, Joëlle Milazzo, Maud Thierry, Elisabeth Fournier, Ryohei Terauchi, Didier Tharreau
The rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (syn., Pyricularia oryzae ) is both a threat to global food security and a model for plant pathology. Molecular pathologists need an accurate understanding of the origins and line of descent of M. oryzae populations in order to identify the genetic and functional bases of pathogen adaptation and to guide the development of more effective control strategies. We used a whole-genome sequence analysis of samples from different times and places to infer details about the genetic makeup of M...
April 3, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614843/role-of-plant-derived-flavonoids-and-their-mechanism-in-attenuation-of-alzheimer-s-and-parkinson-s-diseases-an-update-of-recent-data
#4
REVIEW
Ghulam Hussain, Longbin Zhang, Azhar Rasul, Haseeb Anwar, Muhammad Umar Sohail, Aroona Razzaq, Nimra Aziz, Asghar Shabbir, Muhammad Ali, Tao Sun
Neurodegeneration is a progressive loss of neuronal cells in certain regions of the brain. Most of the neurodegenerative disorders (NDDs) share the communal characteristic such as damage or reduction of various cell types typically including astrocytes and microglial activity. Several compounds are being trialed to treat NDDs but they possess solitary symptomatic advantages along with copious side effects. The finding of more enthralling and captivating compounds to suspend and standstill the pathology of NDDs will be considered as a hallmark of present times...
April 2, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29613803/treatment-of-canine-oral-melanoma-with-nanotechnology-based-immunotherapy-and-radiation
#5
P Jack Hoopes, Robert J Wagner, Kayla Duval, Kevin Kang, David J Gladstone, Karen L Moodie, Margaret Crary-Burney, Hugo Ariaspulido, Frank A Veliz, Nicole F Steinmetz, Steven Fiering
The presence and benefit of a radiation therapy-associated immune reaction is of great interest as the overall interest in cancer immunotherapy expands. Radiation therapy (RT) pathology studies have rarely demonstrated a consistent immune or inflammatory response following conventional RT. More recent information, primarily associated with the "abscopal effect", suggests a subtle radiation-based systemic immune response may be more common and have more therapeutic potential than previously believed...
April 3, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595110/coumarin-compounds-in-medicinal-chemistry-some-important-examples-from-the-last-year
#6
Arthur Eugen Kummerle, Felipe Vitorio, Daiana Portella Franco, Thiago Moreira Pereira
Coumarins are natural products characterized as 1,2 benzopirones widely distributed in plants, as well as, in many species of fungi and bacteria. Nowadays, many synthetic procedures allow the discovery of coumarins with expanded chemical space. The ability to exert noncovalent interactions with many enzymes and receptors in live organisms lead the coumarins to exhibit a wide range of biological activities and applications. Then, this manuscript provides an overview of the use of coumarins compounds in Medicinal Chemistry in treating many diseases...
March 28, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593653/identification-of-metabolomic-biomarkers-for-endometrial-cancer-and-its-recurrence-after-surgery-in-postmenopausal-women
#7
Yannick Audet-Delage, Lyne Villeneuve, Jean Grégoire, Marie Plante, Chantal Guillemette
Endometrial cancer (EC) is the most frequent gynecological cancer in developed countries. Most EC occurs after menopause and is diagnosed as endometrioid (type I) carcinomas, which exhibit a favorable prognosis. In contrast, non-endometrioid (type II) carcinomas such as serous tumors have a poor prognosis. Our goal was to identify novel blood-based markers associated with EC subtypes and recurrence after surgery in postmenopausal women. Using mass spectrometry-based untargeted metabolomics, we examined preoperative serum metabolites among control women ( n  = 18) and those with non-recurrent (NR) and recurrent (R) cases of type I endometrioid ( n  = 24) and type II serous ( n  = 12) carcinomas...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567573/-1-h-nmr-based-metabolomics-approach-to-investigate-the-urine-samples-of-collagen-induced-arthritis-rats-and-the-intervention-of-tetrandrine
#8
Xinming Yun, Shu Dong, Qiaoqiao Hu, Yue Dai, Yufeng Xia
Tetrandrine is an effective ingredient isolated from the roots of a frequently used medicinal plant Stephania tetrandra S. Moore. It has been used for the management of arthritis in China, but the precise mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, a metabolomics method based on the1 H NMR was constituted to quantify the alterations of the endogenous metabolites in the urines of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rats treated with tetrandrine. Data showed that tetrandrine treatment could alleviate the ankle joint swelling and ameliorate histopathological changes in rats...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564985/structural-optimization-of-mangiferin-binding-to-cancer-molecular-targets-a-guide-for-synthetic-derivatization
#9
Bamigboye J Taiwo, Olujide O Olubiyi, Fanie R van Heerden
Nigerian medicinal plants have been demonstrated to be veritable source of lead compounds for drug discovery efforts. One such example is mangiferin. Mangiferin was originally isolated from the Nigerian plant Ceiba pentandra (Mombacaceae), after which its structure was elucidated with the aid of spectroscopy. Mangiferin, a xanthone glycoside, has also been reported in certain other plant families including Gentianaceae and Anacardiaceae. In certain other climes and different parts of the world, folkloric and traditional medicine has extensively employed Mangifera indica (another source of mangiferin) in treating different diseases...
March 20, 2018: Current Computer-aided Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561224/intestinal-life-cycle-of-eimeria-caliginosa-apicomplexa-eimeriidae-from-the-dusky-rice-rat-melanomys-caliginosus-rodentia-cricetidae-sigmodontinae-in-costa-rica
#10
Misael Chinchilla
The endogenous life cycle of Eimeria caliginosa was studied in experimentally-infected dusky rice rats, Melanomys caliginosus. All endogenous stages were located in the epithelial cells of villi in the small intestine. Both Giemsa-stained mucosal scrapings and histological sections were studied for the diagnosis of all the life cycle stages. Eimeria caliginosa has 3 generations of meronts (M) that differ by size, shape, and number of merozoites (m), which also differ in their size, shape, and location of their nuclei within the cytoplasm of the meronts...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559851/role-of-plant-derived-alkaloids-and-their-mechanism-in-neurodegenerative-disorders
#11
REVIEW
Ghulam Hussain, Azhar Rasul, Haseeb Anwar, Nimra Aziz, Aroona Razzaq, Wei Wei, Muhammad Ali, Jiang Li, Xiaomeng Li
Neurodegenerative diseases are conventionally demarcated as disorders with selective loss of neurons. Conventional as well as newer molecules have been tested but they offer just symptomatic advantages along with abundant side effects. The discovery of more compelling molecules that can halt the pathology of these diseases will be considered as a miracle of present time. Several synthetic compounds are available but they may cause several other health issues. Therefore, natural molecules from the plants and other sources are being discovered to replace available medicines...
2018: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559255/immunization-with-larrea-divaricata-cav-proteins-elicits-opsonic-antibodies-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-induces-phagocytic-activity-of-murine-macrophages
#12
Fernando Pablo Canale, Silvia Del Valle Dávila, Corina Verónica Sasso, Nicolás Wilson Pellarín, María Aída Mattar Domínguez
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen implicated in nosocomial infections for which no vaccines have been approved. Larrea divaricata Cav. (Jarilla) is a widely spread plant in America and it is used in folk medicine to treat several pathologies. It has also been shown that antibodies elicited against Jarilla proteins of crude extract (JPCE) cross-react with proteins from gram-negative bacteria. In this study we aim to assess the contribution of anti-JPCE antibodies in the opsonophagocytosis of P...
March 17, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555333/nutritional-patterns-associated-with-the-maintenance-of-neurocognitive-functions-and-the-risk-of-dementia-and-alzheimer-s-disease-a-focus-on-human-studies
#13
REVIEW
Francesca Pistollato, Ruben Calderón Iglesias, Roberto Ruiz, Silvia Aparicio, Jorge Crespo, Luis Dzul Lopez, Piera Pia Manna, Francesca Giampieri, Maurizio Battino
Ample epidemiological evidence suggests a strong correlation among diet, lifestyle factors and the onset and consolidation of dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD). It has been demonstrated that AD, diabetes, obesity, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular disease are strongly interconnected pathologies. Preventive strategies and nutritional interventions seem to be promising approaches to delay neurocognitive decline and reduce the risk of AD and other non-psychiatric co-morbidities. In this regard, healthy dietary patterns, characterized by high intake of plant-based foods, probiotics, antioxidants, soy beans, nuts, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and a low intake of saturated fats, animal-derived proteins, and refined sugars, have been shown to decrease the risk of neurocognitive impairments and eventually the onset of AD...
March 16, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554441/micrornas-in-type-1-diabetes-new-research-progress-and-potential-directions
#14
Chenggui Miao, Jun Chang, Guoxue Zhang, Yanxi Fang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of noncoding single-stranded RNA molecules encoded by endogenous genes of about 22 nucleotides, which are involved in post-transcriptional gene expression regulation in animals and plants. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease that is clinically silent until the majority of β cells are destroyed, and a large number of studies have shown that miRNAs are involved in the pathological mechanism of T1D. In this review, we searched the related research in recent years and summarized the important roles of miRNAs in T1D diagnosis and treatment...
March 19, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551452/the-genus-datura-l-solanaceae-in-mexico-and-spain-ethnobotanical-perspective-at-the-interface-of-medical-and-illicit-uses
#15
REVIEW
Guillermo Benítez, Martí March-Salas, Alberto Villa-Kamel, Ulises Cháves-Jiménez, Javier Hernández, Nuria Montes-Osuna, Joaquín Moreno-Chocano, Paloma Cariñanos
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The different species of the genus Datura have been used traditionally by some pre-Columbian civilizations, as well as in medieval rituals linked to magic and witchcraft in both Mexico and Europe. It is also noteworthy the use of different alkaloids obtained from the plants for medicinal purposes in the treatment of various groups of diseases, especially of the respiratory and muscularskeletal systems. AIM OF THE STUDY: A review of the ethnobotanical uses of the genus Datura in Mexico and Spain has been conducted...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541056/lipidomics-analysis-of-behavioral-variant-frontotemporal-dementia-a-scope-for-biomarker-development
#16
Woojin Scott Kim, Eve Jary, Russell Pickford, Ying He, Rebekah M Ahmed, Olivier Piguet, John R Hodges, Glenda M Halliday
Behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is the most prevalent form of FTD syndromes. bvFTD is characterized clinically by changes in behavior and cognition and pathologically by focal brain atrophy and concomitant loss of lipids. bvFTD is further characterized by eating abnormalities that result in dyslipidemia. Although dyslipidemia is apparent in bvFTD, very little is known about global lipid changes in bvFTD and lipid dysregulation underlying bvFTD. Here, we undertook a comprehensive lipidomics analysis of blood plasma from patients with bvFTD, patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and controls, using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, with the aim of understanding lipid dysregulation in bvFTD...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533978/cannabinoid-receptors-and-the-endocannabinoid-system-signaling-and-function-in-the-central-nervous-system
#17
REVIEW
Shenglong Zou, Ujendra Kumar
The biological effects of cannabinoids, the major constituents of the ancient medicinal plant Cannabis sativa (marijuana) are mediated by two members of the G-protein coupled receptor family, cannabinoid receptors 1 (CB1R) and 2. The CB1R is the prominent subtype in the central nervous system (CNS) and has drawn great attention as a potential therapeutic avenue in several pathological conditions, including neuropsychological disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Furthermore, cannabinoids also modulate signal transduction pathways and exert profound effects at peripheral sites...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523701/using-molecular-simulation-to-explore-the-nanoscale-dynamics-of-the-plant-kinome
#18
REVIEW
Alexander S Moffett, Diwakar Shukla
Eukaryotic protein kinases (PKs) are a large family of proteins critical for cellular response to external signals, acting as molecular switches. PKs propagate biochemical signals by catalyzing phosphorylation of other proteins, including other PKs, which can undergo conformational changes upon phosphorylation and catalyze further phosphorylations. Although PKs have been studied thoroughly across the domains of life, the structures of these proteins are sparsely understood in numerous groups of organisms, including plants...
March 9, 2018: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518372/impact-of-polyphenols-on-extracellular-vesicle-levels-and-effects-and-their-properties-as-tools-for-drug-delivery-for-nutrition-and-health
#19
REVIEW
Raffaella Soleti, Ramaroson Andriantsitohaina, M Carmen Martinez
Polyphenols are found in plant-derived foods and beverages and display numerous protective effects against cancers, cardiovascular, metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), microparticles, exosomes, and apoptotic bodies, originated by different cell types are emerging as a novel mean of cell-to-cell communication in physiology and pathology and represent a new way to convey fundamental information between cells. Polyphenols can act on signaling pathways that interfere with the biogenesis of EVs...
March 5, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509982/development-of-an-anesthetized-rat-model-of-exercise-hyperpnoea-an-integrative-model-of-respiratory-control-using-an-equilibrium-diagram
#20
Tadayoshi Miyamoto, Kou Manabe, Shinya Ueda, Hidehiro Nakahara
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? The lack of useful small animal models for studying exercise hyperpnoea makes it difficult to investigate the underlying mechanisms of exercise-induced ventilatory abnormalities in various disease states. What is the main finding and its importance? We developed an anesthetized rat model for studying exercise hyperpnoea, using respiratory equilibrium diagram for quantitative characterization of the respiratory chemoreflex feedback system...
March 6, 2018: Experimental Physiology
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