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Leihong Zhao, Lining Yang, Hongjun Lin, Meijia Zhang, Haiying Yu, Bao-Qiang Liao, Fangyuan Wang, Xiaoling Zhou, Renjie Li
While the adsorptive fouling in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) is highly dependent of the surface morphology, little progress has been made on modeling biocake layer surface morphology. In this study, a novel method, which combined static light scattering method for fractal dimension (Df) measurement with fractal method represented by the modified two-variable Weierstrass-Mandelbrot function, was proposed to model biocake layer surface in a MBR. Characterization by atomic force microscopy showed that the biocake surface was stochastic, disorder, self-similarity, and with non-integer dimension, illustrating obvious fractal features...
October 13, 2016: Bioresource Technology
Zhe Yang, Chao Shan, Weiming Zhang, Zhao Jiang, Xiaohong Guan, Bingcai Pan
Enhanced removal of As(V) and Se(VI) by zero valent iron (ZVI) has been recently revealed by using H2O2 as the corrosion accelerator, however, the detailed performance of such enhanced removal in ZVI column as well as the underlying mechanism is still unclear. In this study, the temporospatial evolution of As(V) and Se(VI) along a self-designed ZVI/H2O2 column in down-flow mode was systematically investigated. The variations of concerned aqueous parameters (pH, ORP, H2O2, Fe(2+), As, and Se) were monitored at different positions along the column throughout the experiments...
October 12, 2016: Water Research
Xu Jiao, Yuvaraja Gutha, Weijiang Zhang
The utilization of CS/PVA/CuO as a novel adsorbent for the removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution has been examined in a batch adsorption process with several experimental conditions including initial solution pH, dose, contact time, initial metal ion concentration, and temperature. The new and novel material was characterized by structural (XRD), spectral (FTIR), morphological with elemental (SEM with EDS), and size of the nanoparticles (TEM) analyses. The pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion kinetics equations were used to analyze the kinetic data of the adsorption process and the data was fitted well with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model with R(2) values (close to the unity)...
October 13, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Jian-Jun Shu, Ji Bin Melvin Teo, Weng Kong Chan
The problem presented involves the development of a new analytical model for the general fluid-solid temperature jump. To the best of our knowledge, there are no analytical models that provide the accurate predictions of the temperature jump for both gas and liquid systems. In this paper, a unified model for the fluid-solid temperature jump has been developed based on our adsorption model of the interfacial interactions. Results obtained from this model are validated with available results from the literature...
2016: PloS One
Biswa Nath Bhadra, Pill Won Seo, Nazmul Abedin Khan, Sung Hwa Jhung
Two highly porous Co-based metal-azolate frameworks (MAFs), MAF-5(Co) and MAF-6(Co), which are isostructural with MAF-5(Zn) and MAF-6(Zn), respectively, were first synthesized in high yield and purity at room temperature. The syntheses compared two mixing methods, slow and fast, using cobalt acetate as the metal ion (Co(2+)) source and 2-ethylimidazole as the ligand. Triethylamine was applied as an additive/promoter in aqueous/ethanol solutions, and benzene and cyclohexane were used as hydrophobic templates...
October 20, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
Agnieszka Mierczynska-Vasilev, Paul A Smith
The adsorption of macromolecules on solid surfaces is of great importance in the field of nanotechnology, biomaterials, biotechnological, and food processes. In the field of oenology adsorption of wine macromolecules such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, and proteins is much less desirable on membrane materials because of fouling and reduced filtering performance. On the other hand, adsorption of these molecules on processing aids is very beneficial for achieving wine clarity and stability. In this article, the effect of surface chemical functionalities on the adsorption of white, rosé, and red wine constituents was evaluated...
October 18, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Liang Yan, Di Lv, Xinwen Huang, Huixiang Shi, Geshan Zhang
The adsorption behavior of pharmaceuticals and personal care product, Bisphenol-A (BPA), according to four coal-based and four wood-based granular activated carbons modified using outgassing treatment, acidic treatment or alkaline treatment was studied. The adsorption isotherm results indicated that carbon surface acidity played a very important role in the adsorption of BPA. It was found that increasing surface acidity would increase the hydrogen bonding effects and increase adsorption of BPA on activated carbon...
October 2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Ivo Šafařík, Zdenka Maděrová, Kristýna Pospíšková, Hans-Peter Schmidt, Eva Baldíková, Jan Filip, Michal Křížek, Ondřej Malina, Mirka Šafaříková
Large amounts of biochar are produced worldwide for potential agricultural applications. However, this material can also be used as an efficient biosorbent for xenobiotics removal. In this work, biochar was magnetically modified using microwave-synthesized magnetic iron oxide particles. This new type of a magnetically responsive biocomposite material can be easily separated by means of strong permanent magnets. Magnetic biochar has been used as an inexpensive magnetic adsorbent for the removal of water-soluble dyes...
October 2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Shabnam Pourmoslemi, Ali Mohammadi, Farzad Kobarfard, Mohsen Amini
Zinc oxide nano-particles were synthesized, characterized and used for photocatalytic degradation of doxycycline using UV-C and visible light. Effects of several operational factors including initial pH of antibiotic solution, initial antibiotic concentration and ZnO nano-particles loading amount were investigated. Comparing photocatalytic degradation and mineralization of doxycycline under UV-C and visible light showed successful application of the method under both light sources. However, reaction rate was higher under UV-C irradiation, which degraded doxycycline almost completely in 5 hours, and 68% mineralization was achieved...
October 2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Mona El-Sayed, Gh Eshaq, A E ElMetwally
In our study, Mg-Al-Zn mingled oxides were prepared by the co-precipitation method. The structure, composition, morphology and thermal stability of the synthesized Mg-Al-Zn mingled oxides were analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, N2 physisorption, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry. Batch experiments were performed to study the adsorption behavior of cobalt(II) and nickel(II) as a function of pH, contact time, initial metal ion concentration, and adsorbent dose...
October 2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Cuizhen Sun, Jinwei Qiu, Zhibin Zhang, Taha F Marhaba, Yanhao Zhang
In this paper, flocculating performance and mechanisms of a new composite coagulant, poly-ferric aluminum chloride-polydimethyl diallylammonium chloride (PFAC-PD) with different OH(-)/(Fe(3+) + Al(3+)) molar ratios, were investigated for humic acid (HA)-kaolin synthetic wastewater treatment. The impact of OH(-)/(Fe(3+) + Al(3+)) molar ratios on the removal efficiencies of turbidity and dissolved organic carbon, specific UV absorbance, coagulation mechanisms and dynamics was explored during the coagulation process using composite coagulants...
October 2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Long Pang, Peijie Yang, Jihong Zhao, Hongzhong Zhang
Organophosphate esters (OPs), widely used as flame retardants and plasticizers, are regarded as a class of emerging pollutants. The effluent of municipal wastewater treatment plants is generally considered to be the main contributor of OP pollution to the surface water. In this study, anoxic-oxic (AO) and University of Capetown (UCT) processes were selected to investigate the removal efficiency of OPs. The results indicated that the UCT process showed better removal efficiency than that of the AO process. For the chlorinated OPs, approximately 12...
October 2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Ai Phing Lim, Zufarzaana Zulkeflee, Ahmad Zaharin Aris
Dead calcareous skeletons (CSs) as low-cost adsorbents were studied to remove lead ions (Pb (II)) in an aqueous solution. Factors influencing the efficiency of CSs were evaluated by adsorbent size, contact time, initial concentration, dosage concentration and pH. The optimum CS size for removal of Pb (II) was 710 μm at an equilibrium time of 720 min. The best dosage of CS was 10 g/L for a 99% removal efficiency without pH adjustment. Pb (II) ions were effectively removed in the initial pH of the metal solution...
October 2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Kun Zhong, Yi-Yong Luo, Zheng-Song Wu, Qiang He, Xue-Bin Hu, Qi-Wu Jie, Yan-Ting Li, Shao-Jie Wang
A vertical flow constructed wetland was combined with a biological aerated filter to develop an ecological filter, and to obtain the optimal operating parameters: The hydraulic loading was 1.55 m(3)/(m(2)·d), carbon-nitrogen ratio was 10, and gas-water ratio was 6. The experimental results demonstrated considerable removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+)-N), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) in wastewater by the ecological filter, with average removal rates of 83...
October 2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
M Kumorek, D Kubies, T Riedel
Understanding the behavior of single proteins at the polyelectrolyte multilayer film/solution interface is of prime importance for the designing of bio-functionalized surface coatings. In the present paper, we study the adsorption of the model proteins, albumin and lysozyme, as well as basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) on a polysaccharide multilayer film composed of quaternized chitosan and heparin. Several analytical methods were used to describe the formation of the polysaccharide film and its interactions with the proteins...
October 20, 2016: Physiological Research
Xianyu Song, Shuangliang Zhao, Shenwen Fang, Yongzhang Ma, Ming Duan
The dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) method is used to investigate the adsorption behavior of PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymers at the liquid/solid interface. The effect of molecular architecture on the self-assembled monolayer adsorption of PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymers on hydrophobic surfaces is elucidated by adsorption process, film properties, adsorption morphologies, respectively. The adsorption thicknesses on hydrophobic surfaces and diffusion coefficient as well as aggregation number of Pluronic copolymers in aqueous solution observed in our simulations agree well with previous experimental and numerical observations...
October 20, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Bratindranath Mukherjee, Swagotom Sarker, Eric Crone, Pawan Pathak, Vaidyanathan Ravi Subramanian
This work presents a hitherto unreported approach to assemble a 1D oxide-1D chalcogenide heterostructured photoactive film. As a representative system, bismuth (Bi), a low melting point catalyst, facilitated 1D CdSe nanowires are directly grown on anodized 1D-TiO2 nanotube (T_NT). A combination of the reductive successive-ionic-layer-adsorption-reaction (R-SILAR) and the solution-liquid-solid (S-L-S) approach is implemented towards the assembly of this heterostructure, reported in this 1D-1D form for the first time...
October 20, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Shanshan Guo, Xiaoying Zhu, Min Li, Liya Shi, June Lay Ting Ong, Dominik Jańczewski, Koon Gee Neoh
Surface charge and wettability, the two prominent physical factors governing protein adsorption and cell adhesion, have been extensively investigated in the literature. However, a comparison between these driving forces in terms of their independent and cooperative effects in affecting adhesion is rarely explored on a systematic and quantitative level. Herein, we formulate a protocol which features two-dimensional control over both surface charge and wettability with limited cross parameter influence. This strategy is implemented by controlling both the polyion charge density in the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly process and the polyion side chain chemical structures...
October 20, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Hui-Hsu Gavin Tsai, Jia-Cheng Hu, Chun-Jui Tan, Yung-Ching Sheng, Chih-Chiang Chiu
The loading of dye sensitizers on a semiconductor is crucial for determining the light harvesting efficiency of dye-sensitizer solar cells (DSSCs). The interfacial properties of dyes adsorbed on TiO2 film such as adsorption configurations and adsorption energy can influence the total amount of dye sensitizers that loads and the stability of a DSSC device. Therefore, it is important to characterize the adsorption properties of dye sensitizers on TiO2 film atomically and electronically to ensure rational structure-based dye design for high-performance DSSCs...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Yan Yan Li, Xin Yu Ming Dong, Xiaodan Sun, Ying Wang, Jian Hua Zhu
To fabricate new solid base with high efficiency in adsorption of CO2 at 473 K and catalytic activity in degradation of nitrosamines, magnesium oxalate and copper nitrate were mixed with assistance of microwave irradiation followed by calcination to immobilize CuO among MgO particles. The binary solid base CuO-MgO is thus moderately reduced to form the Cu inserted MgO composite with highly exposed strong basic sites, and it can capture 34.6 mg g(-1) of CO2 in the harsh instantaneous adsorption at 473 K and keep a high strong basicity to trap the CO2 mixed with SO2 and NO...
October 20, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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