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Neuropathy investigation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164296/pharmacokinetic-and-toxicodynamic-evaluation-of-oxaliplatin-induced-neuropathy-and-hematological-toxicity-in-rats
#1
Yukako Ito, Shinji Kobuchi, Risa Shimizu, Yosuke Katsuyama
PURPOSE: Oxaliplatin (L-OHP) is a third-generation, platinum-based chemotherapeutic agent and is widely used in gastroenterological cancer regimens. It is important to complete chemotherapy cycles to improve treatment efficacy for cancer patients. However, undesirable side effects, including acute and chronic neuropathies, and myelosuppression, lead to the discontinuation of chemotherapy in some treatment regimens. To predict and prevent the onset of side effects, and to establish appropriate dose adjustment, pharmacokinetic and toxicodynamic studies were performed to investigate the effects of L-OHP in rats...
November 21, 2017: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164152/foot-complications-in-a-representative-australian-inpatient-population
#2
Peter A Lazzarini, Sheree E Hurn, Suzanne S Kuys, Maarten C Kamp, Vanessa Ng, Courtney Thomas, Scott Jen, Jude Wills, Ewan M Kinnear, Michael C d'Emden, Lloyd F Reed
We investigated the prevalence and factors independently associated with foot complications in a representative inpatient population (adults admitted for any reason with and without diabetes). We analysed data from the Foot disease in inpatients study, a sample of 733 representative inpatients. Previous amputation, previous foot ulceration, peripheral arterial disease (PAD), peripheral neuropathy (PN), and foot deformity were the foot complications assessed. Sociodemographic, medical, and foot treatment history were collected...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163216/distinct-mechanism-of-cysteine-oxidation-dependent-activation-and-cold-sensitization-of-human-transient-receptor-potential-ankyrin-1-channel-by-high-and-low-oxaliplatin
#3
Takahito Miyake, Saki Nakamura, Zhao Meng, Satoshi Hamano, Keisuke Inoue, Tomohiro Numata, Nobuaki Takahashi, Kazuki Nagayasu, Hisashi Shirakawa, Yasuo Mori, Takayuki Nakagawa, Shuji Kaneko
Oxaliplatin, a third-generation platinum-based chemotherapeutic agent, displays unique acute peripheral neuropathy triggered or enhanced by cold, and accumulating evidence suggests that transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) is responsible. TRPA1 is activated by oxaliplatin via a glutathione-sensitive mechanism. However, oxaliplatin interrupts hydroxylation of a proline residue located in the N-terminal region of TRPA1 via inhibition of prolyl hydroxylase (PHD), which causes sensitization of TRPA1 to reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163177/assessment-of-pharmacogenomic-panel-assay-for-prediction-of-taxane-toxicities-preliminary-results
#4
Raffaele Di Francia, Luigi Atripaldi, Salvo Di Martino, Carla Fierro, Tommaso Muto, Anna Crispo, Sabrina Rossetti, Gaetano Facchini, Massimiliano Berretta
Backbone: Paclitaxel and docetaxel are the primary taxane anticancer drugs regularly used to treat, breast, gastric, ovarian, head/neck, lung, and genitourinary neoplasm. Suspension of taxane treatments compromising patient benefits is more frequently caused by peripheral neuropathy and allergy, than to tumor progression. Several strategies for preventing toxicity have been investigated so far. Recently, findings on the genetic variants associated with toxicity and resistance to taxane-based chemotherapy have been reported...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163069/notes-on-the-recent-history-of-neuroscience-in-africa
#5
REVIEW
Vivienne A Russell
Neuroscience began with neuroanatomy and neurosurgery in Egypt more than 5000 years ago. Knowledge grew over time and specialized neurosurgery centers were established in north Africa in the eleventh century. However, it was not until the twentieth century that neuroscience research became established in sub-Saharan Africa. In most African countries, clinical research focused on understanding the rationale and improving treatment of epilepsy, infections, nutritional neuropathies, stroke and tumors. Significant advances were made...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161320/in-vivo-effects-of-intraocular-and-intracranial-pressures-on-the-lamina-cribrosa-microstructure
#6
Bo Wang, Huong Tran, Matthew A Smith, Tigran Kostanyan, Samantha E Schmitt, Richard A Bilonick, Ning-Jiun Jan, Larry Kagemann, Elizabeth C Tyler-Kabara, Hiroshi Ishikawa, Joel S Schuman, Ian A Sigal, Gadi Wollstein
There is increasing clinical evidence that the eye is not only affected by intraocular pressure (IOP), but also by intracranial pressure (ICP). Both pressures meet at the optic nerve head of the eye, specifically the lamina cribrosa (LC). The LC is a collagenous meshwork through which all retinal ganglion cell axons pass on their way to the brain. Distortion of the LC causes a biological cascade leading to neuropathy and impaired vision in situations such as glaucoma and idiopathic intracranial hypertension...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157614/poems-syndrome-diagnosis-and-investigative-work-up
#7
REVIEW
Angela Dispenzieri, Taxiarchis Kourelis, Francis Buadi
POEMS syndrome is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome secondary to a plasma cell dyscrasia. Recognition of a combination of peripheral neuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal plasmaproliferative disorder, skin changes, papilledema, extravascular volume overload, sclerotic bone lesions, thrombocytosis, and Castleman disease is the first step in managing the disease. Increased blood levels of vascular endothelial growth factor are usually confirmatory. This rare disorder should not be missed, especially if the patient has a putative diagnosis of chronic inflammatory polyradiculoneuropathy, a lambda restricted monoclonal gammopathy, and thrombocytosis, and is not responding as expected to immunomodulatory therapy commonly used for chronic inflammatory polyradiculoneuropathy...
February 2018: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154979/small-fiber-neuropathy-diagnosis-causes-and-treatment
#8
Damien Sène
Small fiber neuropathy, which affects the sensory A≏ and C fibers, is now a major diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Nearly 7% of the general population have chronic neuropathic pain responsible for severe quality-of-life impairments. Awareness must therefore be raised among clinicians of the somatosensory and autonomic symptoms that can reveal small fiber neuropathy, appropriate diagnostic investigations, most common causes, and best treatment options for each patient profile. To help achieve this goal, the present review article discusses the clinical presentation of neuropathic pain and paresthesia and/or autonomic dysfunction due to involvement of nerves supplying exocrine glands and smooth muscle; normal findings from standard electrophysiological investigations; most informative diagnostic tests (epidermal nerve fiber density in a skin biopsy, laser-evoked potentials, heat- and cold-detection thresholds, electrochemical skin conductance); main causes, which consist chiefly of metabolic diseases (diabetes mellitus, glucose intolerance), dysimmunity syndromes (Sjögren's syndrome, sarcoidosis, monoclonal gammopathy), and genetic abnormalities (familial amyloidosis due to a transthyretin mutation, Fabry disease, sodium channel diseases); and the available symptomatic and etiological treatments...
November 15, 2017: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154935/ghrelin-alleviates-paclitaxel-induced-peripheral-neuropathy-by-reducing-oxidative-stress-and-enhancing-mitochondrial-anti-oxidant-functions-in-mice
#9
Nobuyuki Ishii, Hironobu Tsubouchi, Ayako Miura, Shigehisa Yanagi, Hiroaki Ueno, Kazutaka Shiomi, Masamitsu Nakazato
Paclitaxel is an effective chemotherapeutic agent, but has some treatment-limiting adverse effects that markedly decrease patients' quality of life. Peripheral neuropathy is one of these, and no treatment for it has been established yet. Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, is secreted from the stomach and has widespread effects on multiple systems. We investigated the pharmacological potential of ghrelin in preventing paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy using wild-type mice, ghrelin-null mice, and growth hormone secretagogue receptor-null mice...
November 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154836/a-new-promising-simultaneous-approach-for-attenuating-type-ii-diabetes-mellitus-induced-neuropathic-pain-in-rats-inos-inhibition-and-neuroregeneration
#10
Abhilasha Ahlawat, Saurabh Sharma
In view of the pathologic basis for the treatment of diabetic neuropathy, it is important to enhance nerve regeneration as well as prevent nerve degeneration. So, in the present study, we have investigated the effect of S-Methylisothiourea Sulfate (selective iNOS inhibitor) and Citicoline, alone and in combination, on Type II Diabetes Mellitus induced neuropathic pain in wistar rats. Type II diabetes was induced by providing high fat diet and low dose of Streptozotocin for 35 days in rats. Type II Diabetes Mellitus was assessed in terms of increased glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, LDL levels, glucose tolerance and decrease in HDL levels...
November 14, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154506/evaluation-of-major-and-minor-lower-extremity-amputation-in-diabetic-foot-patients
#11
Fırat Ozan, Kaan Gürbüz, İlhami Çelik, Zehra Beştepe Dursun, Erdal Uzun
Background/aim: We evaluated the existing risk factors with clinical results in patients who underwent major and minor amputation of the lower extremity as a result of diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs). Materials and methods: We retrospectively studied 107 patients who had undergone lower extremity amputation. The patients were divided into minor (Group 1, n = 75) and major (Group 2, n = 32) amputation groups. On clinical evaluation, the type of surgery performed, smoking history, comorbidities, duration of diabetes mellitus (DM) diagnosis, duration of DFU presence, peripheral neuropathy, peripheral arterial disease, results of deep tissue culture, length of hospitalization, and blood parameters were investigated...
August 23, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154084/penetration-of-gold-nanoparticles-across-the-stratum-corneum-layer-of-thick-skin
#12
Gayathri Raju, Neeraj Katiyar, Sajini Vadukumpully, Sahadev A Shankarappa
BACKGROUND: Transdermal particulate penetration across thick-skin, such as that of palms and sole, is particularly important for drug delivery for disorders such as small fiber neuropathies. Nanoparticle-based drug delivery across skin is believed to have much translational applications, but their penetration especially through thick-skin, is not clear. OBJECTIVE: This study specifically investigates the effectiveness of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) for thick-skin penetration, especially across the stratum corneum (SC) as a function of particle size...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149731/purinergic-drug-targets-for-gastrointestinal-disorders
#13
REVIEW
Geoffrey Burnstock, Kenneth A Jacobson, Fievos L Christofi
Purinergic receptors are implicated in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal disorders and are being explored as potential therapeutic targets. Gut inflammation releases ATP that acts on neuronal, glial, epithelial and immune cells. Purinergic signalling in glia and neurons is implicated in enteric neuropathies. Inflammation activates glia to increase ATP release and alter purinergic signalling. ATP release causes neuron death and gut motor dysfunction in colitis via a P2X7-dependent neural-glial pathway and a glial purinergic-connexin-43 pathway...
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149211/occupational-exposure-to-unburnt-tobacco-and-potential-risk-of-toxic-optic-neuropathy-a-cross-sectional-study-among-beedi-rollers-in-selected-rural-areas-of-coastal-karnataka-india
#14
Soujanya Kaup, Ansaba Naseer, Siddharudha Shivalli, Cynthia Arunachalam
BACKGROUND: Beedi also known as poor man's cigarette is manufactured in almost all major states of India. Beedi workers are exposed to various health risks. There is an increased risk of systemic absorption of tobacco through skin and mucous membrane. The optic nerve is susceptible to damage from several toxic substances including tobacco. This group of disorders is known as toxic optic neuropathy (TON). The association of TON with occupational exposure to unburnt tobacco in beedi rollers has not been explored...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146590/camkii%C3%AE-mediates-the-effect-of-il-17-to-promote-ongoing-spontaneous-and-evoked-pain-in-multiple-sclerosis
#15
Xiaoyu Hu, Fang Huang, Zaijie Jim Wang
Pain is a common and severe symptom in multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic inflammatory and demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. The neurobiological mechanism underlying MS pain is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role of Ca(2+)/calmodulin dependent kinase type IIα (CaMKIIα) in driving chronic pain in MS using a mouse experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model. We found that spinal CaMKIIα activity was enhanced in EAE correlating with the development of ongoing spontaneous pain and evoked hypersensitivity to mechanical and thermal stimuli...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145602/genotype-based-selection-of-treatment-for-patients-with-advanced-colorectal-cancer-seticc-a-pharmacogenetic-based-randomized-phase-ii-trial
#16
A Abad, E Martínez-Balibrea, J M Viéitez, V A Orduña, P García Alfonso, J L Manzano, B Massutí, M Benavides, A Carrato, M Zanui, J Gallego, C Grávalos, V Conde, M Provencio, M Valladares, R Salazar, J Sastre, C Montagut, F Rivera, E Aranda
Background: There has been little progress toward personalized therapy for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). TYMS-3' untranslated region (UTR) 6 bp ins/del and ERCC1-118C/T polymorphisms were previously reported to facilitate selecting patients for fluoropyrimidine-based treatment in combination with oxaliplatin as first-line therapy. We assessed the utility of these markers in selecting therapy for patients with mCRC. Patients and methods: This randomized, open-label phase II trial compared bevacizumab plus XELOX (control) versus treatment tailored according to TYMS-3'UTR 6 bp ins/del and ERCC1-118C/T polymorphisms...
November 14, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143802/the-inhibitory-effects-of-cobalt-protoporphyrin-ix-and-cannabinoid-2-receptor-agonists-in-type-2-diabetic-mice
#17
Christina McDonnell, Sergi Leánez, Olga Pol
The activation of the transcription factor Nrf2 inhibits neuropathy and modulates the activity of delta-opioid receptors (DOR) in type 2 diabetic mice but the impact of Nrf2/HO-1 pathway on the antinociceptive actions of cannabinoid 2 receptors (CB2R) has not been assessed. Using male mice BKS.Cg-m+/+Leprdb/J (db/db) we investigated if treatment with cobalt protoporphyrin IX (CoPP), an HO-1 inductor, inhibited mechanical allodynia, hyperglycemia and obesity associated to type 2 diabetes. The antinociceptive effects of JWH-015 and JWH-133 (CB2R agonists) administered with and without CoPP or sulforaphane (SFN), a Nrf2 transcription factor activator, have been also evaluated...
October 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143293/acute-motor-axonal-neuropathy-and-transverse-myelitis-overlap-the-importance-of-history-taking
#18
Diana Degan, Cindy Tiseo, Raffaele Ornello, Francesca Notturno
In young adults, acute motor axonal neuropathy and transverse myelitis rarely occur as associated conditions. Clinical reasoning, symptoms, laboratory and ancillary investigations (electroneurographic and radiological findings), should properly address the physician to the correct diagnosis.
November 15, 2017: Internal and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142182/a-real-world-retrospective-cohort-study-of-combined-therapy-with-bevacizumab-and-paclitaxel-in-japanese-patients-with-metastatic-breast-cancer
#19
Hirofumi Yamada, Kenichi Inoue, Shigenori E Nagai, Maki Nakai, Fumio Arisawa, Hiroyuki Ueda, Tsuyoshi Saito, Jun Ninomiya, Toru Kuroda, Takashi Sakurai, Hitomi Kodama, Kei Kimizuka, Satoshi Hata, Toshihiro Kai, Masafumi Kurosumi
OBJECTIVE: Combined therapy with bevacizumab and paclitaxel (BP regimen) as a first-line treatment has proven highly effective with good tolerance for patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC). The objective of this study was to examine the efficacy and safety of the BP regimen for Japanese patients with MBC in real-world clinical settings. METHODS: From June 2012 through May 2014, we recruited 94 patients at 10 medical institutions. The primary endpoint was time to treatment failure (TTF), and the secondary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and safety...
2017: Journal of Nippon Medical School, Nippon Ika Daigaku Zasshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141825/radiculopathy-in-neuromyelitis-optica-how-does-anti-aqp4-ab-involve-pns
#20
Seungyeon Kim, Joonghyun Park, Bum Sun Kwon, Jin-Woo Park, Ho Jun Lee, Jin-Ho Choi, Kiyeun Nam
BACKGROUND: Until recently, the peripheral nervous system (PNS) had been known to be spared in multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). However, some studies of late have reported PNS damage in demyelination diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) such as MS and NMOSD. Although multiple studies have reported characteristics reminiscent of peripheral neuropathy in MS, there have been limited reports in NMOSD. To investigate the incidence and pathology of peripheral neuropathy in NMOSD, we reviewed articles describing such cases including our own case...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
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