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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786939/an-update-on-enzymatic-cocktails-for-lignocellulose-breakdown
#1
REVIEW
Andreza de Mello Lopes, Edivaldo Ximenes Ferreira Filho, Leonora Rios de Souza Moreira
Alternative energy sources have received increasing attention in recent years. The possibility of adding value to agricultural wastes, by producing biofuels and other products with economic value from lignocellulosic biomass by enzymatic hydrolysis, has been widely explored. Lignocellulosic biomass, as well as being an abundant residue, is a complex recalcitrant structure that requires a consortium of enzymes for its complete degradation. Pools of enzymes with different specificities acting together usually produce an increase in hydrolysis yield...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786635/mechanical-behavior-optimization-of-chitosan-extracted-from-shrimp-shells-as-a-sustainable-material-for-shopping-bags
#2
Giacomo D'Angelo, Amal Elhussieny, Marwa Faisal, I S Fahim, Nicola M Everitt
The use of biodegradable materials for shopping bag production, and other products made from plastics, has recently been an object of intense research-with the aim of reducing the environmental burdens given by conventional materials. Chitosan is a potential material because of its biocompatibility, degradability, and non-toxicity. It is a semi-natural biopolymeric material produced by the deacetylation of chitin, which is the second most abundant natural biopolymer (after cellulose). Chitin is found in the exoskeleton of insects, marine crustaceans, and the cell walls of certain fungi and algae...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786104/correlation-between-the-expression-of-il%C3%A2-18-and-deep-venous-thrombosis
#3
Guangdi Li, Rudan Zhou, Xueling Zhao, Riguang Liu, Chuan Ye
The present study aimed to investigate the effect of the expression of interleukin (IL)‑18 and related markers on deep venous thrombosis (DVT) to examine their correlation. Sprague‑Dawley rats of different models were established and were randomly assigned into three groups. The expression of IL‑18, nuclear factor (NF)‑κB and von Willebrand factor (vWF) were detected in blood samples. The inferior vena cava (IVC) was ligated to establish the DVT model. Rat IL‑18 overexpression and inhibition vectors were constructed...
May 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785605/selection-of-inactivation-medium-for-fungal-spores-in-clinical-wastes-by-supercritical-carbon-dioxide
#4
Efaq Noman, Nik Norulaini Nik Ab Rahman, Adel Al-Gheethi, Hideyuki Nagao, Balkis A Talip, Omar Ab Kadir
The present study aimed to select the best medium for inactivation of Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus spp. in section Nigri, A. niger, A. terreus var. terreus, A. tubingensis, Penicillium waksmanii, P. simplicissimum, and Aspergillus sp. strain no. 145 spores in clinical wastes by using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 ). There were three types of solutions used including normal saline, seawater, distilled water, and physiological saline with 1% of methanol; each solution was tested at 5, 10, and 20 mL of the water contents...
May 21, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785407/unusual-occurrence-of-orbital-hemangiopericytoma-in-the-zygomatic-bone-of-an-adolescent-a-case-report
#5
Bahram Eshraghi, Hadi Ghadimi, Zohreh Nozarian
Background: Hemangiopericytoma and solitary fibrous tumor are considered related variants on the same spectrum and both may essentially be the same tumor. They are infrequently encountered in the orbital region while the zygomatic bone is an extremely rare location for these neoplasms to occur. Case presentation: A 14-year-old boy presented with complaint of deformity of left infraorbital area and a firm, regular mass in the region. Orbital CT scan revealed a well-defined round isodense intraosseous lesion in the lowermost portion of the lateral orbital wall (zygomatic bone), expanding the bone and protruding anteriorly and medially...
2018: Eye and Vision (London, England)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784804/structure-of-xyloglucan-xylosyltransferase-1-reveals-simple-steric-rules-that-define-biological-patterns-of-xyloglucan-polymers
#6
Alan T Culbertson, Jacqueline J Ehrlich, Jun-Yong Choe, Richard B Honzatko, Olga A Zabotina
The plant cell wall is primarily a polysaccharide mesh of the most abundant biopolymers on earth. Although one of the richest sources of biorenewable materials, the biosynthesis of the plant polysaccharides is poorly understood. Structures of many essential plant glycosyltransferases are unknown and suitable substrates are often unavailable for in vitro analysis. The dearth of such information impedes the development of plants better suited for industrial applications. Presented here are structures of Arabidopsis xyloglucan xylosyltransferase 1 (XXT1) without ligands and in complexes with UDP and cellohexaose...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784357/a-sensitively-non-enzymatic-amperometric-sensor-and-its-application-in-living-cell-superoxide-anion-radical-detection
#7
Xinhe Liu, Miaomiao Ran, Guoan Liu, Xiuhui Liu, Zhonghua Xue, Xiaoquan Lu
Here, we report a nanocomposite composed of silver nanoparticles and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (AgNPs/MWNTs) utilized as an efficient electrode material for sensitive detection superoxide anion (O2 •- ). The procedure to synthesize AgNPs/MWNTs nanocomposites was green and facile. In the presence of functionalized multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were in situ generated by chemical reduction of silver nitrate with glucose as a reducing and stabilizing agent to give the desired AgNPs/MWNTs nanocomposites...
August 15, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783699/a-tube-integrated-painted-biosensor-for-glucose-and-lactate
#8
Weihua Shi, Xiaojin Luo, Yue Cui
Developing a simple and direct approach for sensitive, specific, and rapid detection of metabolic compounds is of great importance for a variety of biological, medical, and food applications. Tubes are a highly portable and accessible container shape which are widely used for scientific research in cell biology and chemical synthesis, and which are also of great use in domestic health care applications. Here, we show for the first time the development of a tube-based painted amperometric biosensor for the detection of glucose and lactate...
May 18, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783107/effect-of-cd-on-growth-physiological-response-cd-subcellular-distribution-and-chemical-forms-of-koelreuteria-paniculata
#9
Lan Peng Yang, Jian Zhu, Ping Wang, Jing Zeng, Rong Tan, Yu Zhong Yang, Zhi Ming Liu
Koelreuteria paniculata were cultivated in nutrient solution with different concentrations of Cd (0, 50, 150, 250 and 500 µM) and sampled after 90 days. The resistance, translocation, accumulation and stress responses in Koelreuteria paniculata were investigated by hydroponic experiments. The results showed that Koelreuteria paniculata is an efficient Cd excluder that can tolerate high concentrations of Cd (up to 150-250 µM of Cd). The concentration of Cd never exceeds 5 ppm in leaves and 10 ppm in roots...
May 18, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783050/disruption-of-ergosterol-and-tryptophan-biosynthesis-as-well-as-cell-wall-integrity-pathway-and-the-intracellular-ph-homeostasis-lead-to-mono-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-toxicity-in-budding-yeast
#10
Linghuo Jiang, Litong Wang, Tianshu Fang, Vassilios Papadopoulos
Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are substances in the environment, food, and consumer products that interfere with hormone homeostasis, metabolism or reproduction in humans and animals. One such EDC, the plasticizer di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP), exerts its function through its principal bioactive metabolite, mono-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (MEHP). To fully understand the effects of MEHP on cellular processes and metabolism as well as to assess the impact of genetic alteration on the susceptibility to MEHP-induced toxicity, we screened MEHP-sensitive mutations on a genome-scale in the eukaryotic model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
May 15, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782932/resin-flow-in-conifers
#11
Paulo Cabrita
Resins are plant exudates of economic importance used by plants as defence. They flow out of resin ducts, open and long tube-like intercellular spaces lined by a layer of specialized parenchyma cells, called the epithelium, which secrete resin into the duct lumen. A model that describes resin flow in conifers is presented to investigate how duct structure, resin loading, crystallization, and viscosity affect flow and could explain differences between species. Considering resin viscosity, the structure of resin ducts, and a pressure-driven resin loading through the duct wall, the unsteady Stokes equation was applied...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782816/a-new-microsporidium-apotaspora-heleios-n-g-n-sp-from-the-riverine-grass-shrimp-palaemonetes-paludosus-decapoda-caridea-palaemonidae
#12
Yuliya Y Sokolova, Robin M Overstreet
We report a new microsporidium from a key species of the estuarine communities of the Gulf States, the Riverine grass shrimp, Palaemonetes paludosus. A milky-white shrimp was found in the Mobile Bay Delta, a large, oligohaline-freshwater wetland in Alabama, USA. Light microscopy of smears and thick sections of the abdominal tissues demonstrated infection with microsporidian spores enclosed in sporophorous vesicles (SVs) in sets of eight. Broadly oval spores measured 2.9 ± 0.06 x 1.7 ± 0.03 µm (2.5-3.3 x 1...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782792/antimicrobial-properties-of-2d-mno-2-and-mos-2-nanomaterials-vertically-aligned-on-graphene-materials-and-ti-3-c-2-mxene
#13
Farbod Alimohammadi, Mohammad Sharifian Gh, Nuwan H Attanayake, Akila C Thenuwara, Yury Gogotsi, Babak Anasori, Daniel R Strongin
Two dimensional (2D) nanomaterials have attracted considerable attention in biomedical and environmental applications due to their antimicrobial activity. In the interest of investigating the primary antimicrobial mode-of-action of 2D nanomaterials, we studied the antimicrobial properties of MnO2 and MoS2 , toward Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli bacteria were treated individually with 100 μg/mL of randomly oriented and vertically aligned nanomaterials for 3 h in the dark...
May 21, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782305/tatami-mats-a-source-of-pitted-keratolysis-in-a-martial-arts-athlete
#14
Anamaria Balić, Zrinka Bukvić Mokos, Branka Marinović, Daniela Ledić Drvar
Dear Editor, Pitted keratolysis (PK), also known as keratosis plantaris sulcatum, is a non-inflammatory, bacterial, superficial cutaneous infection, characterized by many discrete superficial crateriform ''pits'' and erosions in the thickly keratinized skin of the weight-bearing regions of the soles of the feet (1). The disease often goes unnoticed by the patient, but when it is noticed it is because of the unbearable malodor and hyperhidrosis of the feet, which are socially unacceptable and cause great anxiety to many of the patients...
April 2018: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782199/bacteriolysis-a-mere-laboratory-curiosity
#15
Isaac Ginsburg, Erez Koren
The role of bacteriolysis in the pathophysiology of microbial infections dates back to 1893 when Buchner and Pfeiffer reported for the first time the lysis of bacteria by immune serum and related this phenomenon to the immune response. Later on, basic anti-microbial peptides and certain beta-lactam antibiotics have been shown not only to kill microorganisms but also to induce bacteriolysis and the release of cell-wall components. In 2009, a novel paradigm was offered suggesting that the main cause of death in sepsis is due to the exclusive release from activated human phagocytic neutrophils (PMNs) traps adhering upon endothelial cells of highly toxic nuclear histone...
May 21, 2018: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782037/multiloculated-solitary-unicameral-bone-cyst-in-a-young-dog
#16
Sarah C Roode, Heather R Shive, Willemijn Hoorntje, Jennifer Bernard, Devorah M Stowe, Roy R Pool, Carol B Grindem
A 20-month-old female spayed Staffordshire Terrier (22.3 kg) presented to the Orthopedic Surgery Service at North Carolina State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for evaluation of a 6-week history of toe-touching to nonweight-bearing lameness in the right hind limb. Radiographs of the right stifle revealed a multiloculated lytic lesion of the distal femur, with a large open lytic zone centrally, numerous osseous septations peripherally, and focal areas of cortical thinning and loss. An aspirate of the right distal femoral lesion yielded mildly cloudy serosanguineous fluid...
May 21, 2018: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782025/injections-of-lipopolysaccharide-into-mice-to-mimic-entrance-of-microbial-derived-products-after-intestinal-barrier-breach
#17
Katarina Raduolovic, Rachel Mak'Anyengo, Berna Kaya, Anna Steinert, Jan Hendrik Niess
The intestinal epithelial barrier separates the host from the microbiota that is normally tolerated or ignored. The breach of this barrier results in the entrance of bacteria or bacteria-derived products into the host, accessing the host circulation and inner organs leading to the uncontrolled inflammation as observed in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), that are characterized by an increased intestinal epithelial permeability. To mimic the entrance of bacterial-derived compounds into the host, an endotoxemia model has been adopted in which lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a component of the outer cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria, were injected into mice...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781612/the-role-of-melatonin-in-affecting-cell-wall-disassembly-and-chilling-tolerance-in-cold-stored-peach-fruit
#18
Shifeng Cao, Kun Bian, Liyu Shi, Hsiao-Hang Chung, Wei Chen, Zhenfeng Yang
Melatonin reportedly increased chilling tolerance in postharvest peach fruit during cold storage but information on its effect on cell wall disassembly in chilling injured peaches is limited. In this study, we investigated the role of cell wall depolymerization in chilling tolerance induction in melatonin-treated peaches. Treatment with melatonin at 100 µM alleviated chilling symptom (mealiness) characterized by decrease in fruit firmness and increase in juice extractability in treated peaches during storage...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780735/the-expression-and-functional-significance-of-vascular-endothelial-cadherin-cd44-and-vimentin-in-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#19
Soussan Irani, Arash Dehghan
Objectives: Ninety percent of head and neck cancers are squamous cell carcinoma which develops in the oral cavity. Metastasis is the main causative factor for death in 90% of all cancer-related deaths and begins with the invasion of tumor cells through the walls of small blood vessels or lymph vessels. A growing body of evidence has shown that vasculogenic mimicry (VM) facilitates tumor growth and cancer metastasis. The current study aimed to present the role of vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin, CD44, and vimentin in inducing VM and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and to identify the cancer stem cell (CSC) niche in different grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC)...
March 2018: Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780576/merkel-cell-carcinoma-extended-lymphadenectomy-and-reconstruction-with-biosynthetic-prosthesis
#20
Enrico Coppola Bottazzi, Adele Noviello, Nicola Moles, Antonio Miro, Augusto Striano, Mario Baiamonte, Francesco Esposito, Francesco Crafa
Introduction: Merkel cell carcinomas (MCC) is an aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma originating from the Merkel cell in the dermo-epidermal junction. Only 10% of MCC occur on the skin of the trunk. Case report: We report a case of Merkel's abdominal carcinomas treated with extensive inguinal lymphadenectomy and reconstruction of the abdominal wall and inguinal canal using prosthesis GORE® BIO-A® . Discussion: Immunohistochemical analysis by tumor-specific markers is crucial for diagnosis and permits differentiation from other tumors of the skin...
May 2018: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
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