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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935100/a-critical-review-on-the-prospect-of-polyaniline-grafted-biodegradable-nanocomposite
#1
REVIEW
Mohammad Shahadat, Mohammad Zain Khan, Parveen Fatemeh Rupani, Asha Embrandiri, Saima Sultana, Shaikh Ziauddin Ahammad, S Wazed Ali, T R Sreekrishnan
Among the various electrically conducting polymers, polyaniline (PANI) has gained attentions due to its unique properties and doping chemistry. A number of electrically conducting biodegradable polymers has been synthesized by incorporating a biodegradable content of cellulose, chitin, chitosan, etc. in the matrix of PANI. The hybrid materials are also employed as photocatalysts, antibacterial agents, sensors, fuel cells and as materials in biomedical applications. Furthermore, these biodegradable and biocompatible conducting polymers are employed in tissue engineering, dental implants and targeted drug delivery...
September 6, 2017: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933754/the-positive-correlation-of-the-enhanced-immune-response-to-pcv2-subunit-vaccine-by-conjugation-of-chitosan-oligosaccharide-with-the-deacetylation-degree
#2
Guiqiang Zhang, Gong Cheng, Peiyuan Jia, Siming Jiao, Cui Feng, Tao Hu, Hongtao Liu, Yuguang Du
Chitosan oligosaccharides (COS), the degraded products of chitosan, have been demonstrated to have versatile biological functions. In primary studies, it has displayed significant adjuvant effects when mixed with other vaccines. In this study, chitosan oligosaccharides with different deacetylation degrees were prepared and conjugated to porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) subunit vaccine to enhance its immunogenicity. The vaccine conjugates were designed by the covalent linkage of COSs to PCV2 molecules and administered to BALB/c mice three times at two-week intervals...
July 26, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927596/on-chemistry-of-%C3%AE-chitin
#3
Murat Kaya, Muhammad Mujtaba, Hermann Ehrlich, Asier M Salaberria, Talat Baran, Chris T Amemiya, Roberta Galli, Lalehan Akyuz, Idris Sargin, Jalel Labidi
The biological material, chitin, is present in nature in three allomorphic forms: α, β and γ. Whereas most studies have dealt with α- and β-chitin, only few investigations have focused on γ-chitin, whose structural and physicochemical properties have not been well delineated. In this study, chitin obtained for the first time from the cocoon of the moth (Orgyia dubia) was subjected to extensive physicochemical analyses and examined, in parallel, with α-chitin from exoskeleton of a freshwater crab and β-chitin from cuttlebone of the common cuttlefish...
November 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923565/chitin-and-chitosan-preparation-from-shrimp-shells-penaeus-monodon-and-its-human-ovarian-cancer-cell-line-pa-1
#4
Haripriya Srinivasan, Kanayairam Velayutham, Ramanibai Ravichandran
In the present study, chitin and chitosan preparation from shrimp shells Penaeus mondon and its ovarian cancer cell line (PA-1). FTIR spectrum sharp absorption peak at 1655cm(-1) is assigned to ketone C=O (α) unsaturated with chitosan. X-ray diffraction showed the presence of chitin and chitosan were strongest peak at 18.91° (β) and 29.75° (α) characters. SEM observations of chitin and chitosan surface morphologies of P. monodon showed that microfibril and porous structures. Anticancer activity of chitin and chitosan against human ovarian cancer cell line showed that chitosan an exhibited notable higher activity than chitin...
September 15, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922558/biomechanical-properties-and-healing-effects-of-chitin-patch-in-a-rat-full-thickness-abdominal-wall-defect-model
#5
Jing Qiao, Zhiwen Jiang, Xuyue Liang, Yan Yang, Wanshun Liu, Baoqin Han
Hernia repair is usually accompanied with the implantation of a synthetic mesh, which frequently results in a foreign body response and serious complications. In the present study, a novel biodegradable chitin-based hernia patch was prepared and characterized. Biomechanical properties and biodegradability of the chitin patch were quantified in vitro and in vivo. In repair of the rat abdominal wall full-thickness defect model, the chitin patch induced more abundant new blood vessels with milder tissue inflammation and fibrosis compared with polypropylene mesh...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920565/regulatory-functions-of-trehalose-6-phosphate-synthase-in-the-chitin-biosynthesis-pathway-in-tribolium-castaneum-coleoptera-tenebrionidae-revealed-by-rna-interference
#6
Q W Chen, S Jin, L Zhang, Q D Shen, P Wei, Z M Wei, S G Wang, B Tang
RNA interference (RNAi) is a very effective technique for studying gene function and may be an efficient method for controlling pests. Trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS), which plays a key role in the synthesis of trehalose and insect development, was cloned in Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (TcTPS) and the putative functions were studied using RNAi via the injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) corresponding to conserved TPS and trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase domains. Expression analyses show that TcTPS is expressed higher in the fat body, while quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction results show that the expression of four trehalase isoforms was significantly suppressed by dsTPS injection...
September 18, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920396/-inhibition-of-chitin-oligosaccharide-on-dyslipidemia-and-the-potential-molecular-mechanism-exploration
#7
Fanqi Yi, Junping Zheng, Qiongyu Li, Siming Jiao, Yuguang Du, Yun Ye, Hongtao Liu
The inhibitory effect of NACOS on dyslipidemia and potential molecular mechanisms by in vitro and in vivo experiments were investigated. For in vitro study, four experimental groups were designed by using HepG2 cells, including the control group, palmitic acid (PA) treatment alone group, NACOS treatment alone group and NACOS + PA treatment group. For in vivo study, male C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups (n=5) at random including the normal control group (NCD), high fat diet (HFD) group, NACOS treatment alone group, NACOS+HFD group, which were treated for 20 weeks...
April 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918945/hof1-and-chs4-interact-via-f-bar-domain-and-sel1-like-repeats-to-control-extracellular-matrix-deposition-during-cytokinesis
#8
Younghoon Oh, Jennifer H Schreiter, Hiroki Okada, Carsten Wloka, Satoshi Okada, Di Yan, Xudong Duan, Erfei Bi
Localized extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling is thought to stabilize the cleavage furrow and maintain cell shape during cytokinesis [1-14]. This remodeling is spatiotemporally coordinated with a cytoskeletal structure pertaining to a kingdom of life, for example the FtsZ ring in bacteria [15], the phragmoplast in plants [16], and the actomyosin ring in fungi and animals [17, 18]. Although the cytoskeletal structures have been analyzed extensively, the mechanisms of ECM remodeling remain poorly understood...
September 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917921/effect-of-oxidized-chitin-nanocrystals-isolated-by-ammonium-persulfate-method-on-the-properties-of-carboxymethyl-cellulose-based-films
#9
Ahmed A Oun, Jong-Whan Rhim
Oxidized chitin nanocrystals (ChNCs) were isolated from crab shell chitin using ammonium persulfate (APS) method. The oxidized ChNCs were in needle shape with a diameter of 15nm, the length of 400-500nm, and crystallinity index of 93.5%. Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)-based films reinforced with the ChNCs (0, 1, 5, and 10wt.%) were flexible and transparent. The mechanical strength of the CMC film increased significantly (p<0.05) after blending with the ChNCs. The tensile strength (TS) and elastic modulus (EM) increased by 88% and 243% when 10wt...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916816/striking-diflubenzuron-resistance-in-culex-pipiens-the-prime-vector-of-west-nile-virus
#10
Linda Grigoraki, Arianna Puggioli, Konstantinos Mavridis, Vassilis Douris, Mario Montanari, Romeo Bellini, John Vontas
Culex pipiens mosquitoes cause severe nuisance and transmit human diseases including West Nile. Vector control by insecticides is the main tool to prevent these diseases and diflubenzuron is one of the most effective mosquito larvicides used in many places. Here, high levels of resistance were identified in Cx. pipiens from Italy, with a Resistance Ratio of 128 fold. The phenotype was associated with mutations at amino acid I1043 (I1043M and I1043L) of the Chitin synthase gene, which showed significantly higher frequency in bioassay survivors...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916334/special-issue-11th-apccs-2016-chemistry-environmental-biotechnology-and-biomedical-aspects-of-chitin-and-chitosan
#11
EDITORIAL
R Jayakumar, S Meenakshi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911186/isolation-of-proteolytic-bacteria-from-mealworm-tenebrio-molitor-exoskeletons-to-produce-chitinous-material
#12
Fernanda Kerche Paes da Silva, Dieter W Brück, Wolfram M Brück
The use of insects as a source of protein is becoming an important factor for feeding an increasing population. After protein extraction for food use, the insect exoskeleton may offer the possibility for the production of added value products. Here, the aim was to isolate bacteria from the surface of farmed mealworms (Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus, 1758) for the production of chitinous material from insect exoskeletons using microbial fermentation. Isolates were screened for proteases and acid production that may aid deproteination and demineralisation of insects through fermentation to produce chitin...
September 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905084/plasmonic-cell-nanocoating-a-new-concept-for-rapid-microbial-screening
#13
Ke Xu, Minh-Phuong N Bui, Aiqin Fang, Abdennour Abbas
Nanocoating of single microbial cells with gold nanostructures can confer optical, electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties to microorganisms, thus enabling new avenues for their control, study, application, and detection. Cell nanocoating is often performed using layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition. LbL is time-consuming and relies on nonspecific electrostatic interactions, which limit potential applications for microbial diagnostics. Here, we show that, by taking advantage of surface molecules densely present in the microbial outer layers, cell nanocoating with gold nanoparticles can be achieved within seconds using surface molecules, including disulfide- bond-containing (Dsbc) proteins and chitin...
September 13, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901896/paludicola-psychrotolerans-gen-nov-sp-nov-a-novel-psychrotolerant-chitinolytic-anaerobe-of-the-family-ruminococcaceae
#14
Yan Li, Ling-Li Zhang, Lan Liu, Yong-Qiang Tian, Xiao-Feng Liu, Wen-Jun Li, Yu-Mei Dai
A psychrotolerant chitinolytic bacterium, designated NC1253T, was isolated from Zoige wetland on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. This strain was a Gram-stain-positive, spore-forming and rod-shaped anaerobe. NC1253T grew at 4-35 °C, at pH 6.0-8.5 and could grow on chitin as the only carbon resource. Phylogenetic analysis, based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence, showed that strain NC1253T represented a novel bacterial genus within the family Ruminococcaceae. Strain NC1253T has less than 91.0 % similarity with other type strains, such as Harryflintia acetispora V20-281aT (90...
September 13, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898751/treatment-of-model-solutions-and-wastewater-containing-selected-hazardous-metal-ions-using-a-chitin-lignin-hybrid-material-as-an-effective-sorbent
#15
Przemysław Bartczak, Łukasz Klapiszewski, Marcin Wysokowski, Izabela Majchrzak, Weronika Czernicka, Adam Piasecki, Hermann Ehrlich, Teofil Jesionowski
A chitin/lignin material with defined physicochemical and morphological properties was used as an effective adsorbent of environmentally toxic metals from model systems. Particularly significant is its use in the neutralization of real industrial wastes. The ions Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+) and Pb(2+) were adsorbed on the functional sorbent, confirming the high sorption capacity of the newly obtained product, primarily due to the presence on its surface of numerous active functional groups from the component biopolymers...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893686/expression-and-degradation-patterns-of-chitinase-purified-from-xuehuali-pyrus-bretschneiderilia-pollen
#16
Yong-Su Song, Sang-Hyun Lee, Jeong-An Cho, Chaeyeong Moon, Dong-Jun Seo, Woo-Jin Jung
The present study investigated the expression pattern of chitinase in Xuehuali (Pyrus bretschneiderilia) pollen, as well as its subsequent degradation. The chitinase was purified and collected using chitin affinity column chromatography with regenerated chitin. After purification, four additional chitinase isozymes (chiA, chiB, chiC, and chiD) and chitinase (Chi II) were clearly expressed on SDS-PAGE gels that contained 0.01% glycol chitin. The chitinase reaction products were examined using GlcNAc, (GlcNAc)2, (GlcNAc)3, (GlcNAc)4, (GlcNAc)5, and (GlcNAc)6 as substrates at 2 and 24h after reaction via TLC and HPLC...
September 8, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892866/removal-of-hazardous-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-from-aqueous-solutions-by-biosorbent-based-on-chitin-and-lignin
#17
Sonia Żółtowska-Aksamitowska, Przemysław Bartczak, Joanna Zembrzuska, Teofil Jesionowski
The use of chitin modified with kraft lignin as an effective sorbent of ibuprofen and acetaminophen is described for the first time. It was determined how the parameters (contact time, pH, mass of sorbent and temperature) influence the effectiveness of the adsorption process. The adsorption kinetics were calculated using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order (types 1-4) and intra-particle diffusion models, and thermodynamic parameters were determined. The experimental data better correspond to a pseudo-second-order kinetic model of type 1 in the case of both tested pharmaceuticals (r(2)=0...
September 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887418/expression-of-chitinases-in-listeria-monocytogenes-is-influenced-by-lmo0327-that-encodes-an-internalin-like-protein
#18
Dafni Katerina Paspaliari, Vicky Gaedt Kastbjerg, Hanne Ingmer, Magdalena Popowska, Marianne Halberg Larsen
The chitinolytic system of Listeria monocytogenes thus far comprises two chitinases, ChiA and ChiB, and a lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase, Lmo2467. The role of the system in the bacterium appears to be pleiotropic, as besides mediating hydrolysis of chitin, the second most ubiquitous carbohydrate in nature, the chitinases have been deemed important for colonization of unicellular moulds, as well as mammalian hosts. In order to identify additional components of the chitinolytic system, we screened a transposon mutant library for mutants exhibiting impaired chitin hydrolysis...
September 8, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885559/a-critical-review-on-health-promoting-benefits-of-edible-mushrooms-through-gut-microbiota
#19
REVIEW
Muthukumaran Jayachandran, Jianbo Xiao, Baojun Xu
Mushrooms have long been used for medicinal and food purposes for over a thousand years, but a complete elucidation of the health-promoting properties of mushrooms through regulating gut microbiota has not yet been fully exploited. Mushrooms comprise a vast, and yet largely untapped, source of powerful new pharmaceutical substances. Mushrooms have been used in health care for treating simple and common diseases, like skin diseases and pandemic diseases like AIDS. This review is aimed at accumulating the health-promoting benefits of edible mushrooms through gut microbiota...
September 8, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884772/afm-combined-to-atr-ftir-reveals-candida-cell-wall-changes-under-caspofungin-treatment
#20
Fabienne Quilès, Isabelle Accoceberry, Célia Couzigou, Grégory Francius, Thierry Noël, Sofiane El-Kirat-Chatel
Fungal pathogens from Candida genus are responsible for severe life-threatening infections and the antifungal arsenal is still limited. Caspofungin, an antifungal drug used for human therapy, acts as a blocking agent of the cell wall synthesis by inhibiting the β-1,3-glucan-synthase encoded by FKS genes. Despite its efficiency, the number of genetic mutants that are resistant to caspofungin is increasing. An important challenge to improve antifungal therapy is to understand cellular phenomenon that are associated with drug resistance...
September 21, 2017: Nanoscale
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