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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331577/a-novel-encystation-specific-protein-kinase-regulates-chitin-synthesis-in-entamoeba-invadens
#1
Sintu Kumar Samanta, Sneha Susan Varghese, Deepak Krishnan, Mithu Baidya, Digant Nayak, Sumanta Mukherjee, Sudip K Ghosh
Phosphorylation is an important post-translational modification of proteins and is involved in the regulation of a variety of cellular events. The proteome of Entamoeba invadens, the reptilian counterpart of Entamoeba histolytica consists of an overwhelming number of putative protein kinases, and some may have a role to play in Entamoeba encystation. In this study, we have identified a novel protein kinase named as EiCSpk (Entamoeba invadenscyst specific protein kinase) which expressed almost exclusively during encystation...
January 10, 2018: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327651/a-new-application-for-the-quantification-of-apoplastic-redox-radicals-of-plant-roots-using-pre-fluorescent-probe
#2
Yosuke Ito, Masamichi Yazawa, Syunsuke Kikuchi, Mitsuru Abo
New application of fluorescence probe to detect apoplastic redox radicals from plant roots were sought. This probe can detect radicals selectively. Calibration curve for radicals was obtained using nitrogen monoxide as radical standard produced by NOC7. Apoplastic radicals released constitutively were quantified and the release rate was 60 μmol L-1 h-1. Oxidative burst triggered by chitin was distinguished from constitutive radical release.
January 12, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327645/identification-and-characterization-of-chitinolytic-bacteria-isolated-from-a-freshwater-lake
#3
Dinh Minh Tran, Hayuki Sugimoto, Dzung Anh Nguyen, Takeshi Watanabe, Kazushi Suzuki
To develop a novel type of biocontrol agent, we focus on bacteria that are characterized by both chitinase activity and biofilm development. Chitinolytic bacteria were isolated from sediments and chitin flakes immersed in the water of a sand dune lake, Sakata, in Niigata, Japan. Thirty-one isolates from more than 5100 isolated strains were examined chitinase activity and biofilm formation. Phylogenetic analysis of these isolates based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that most isolates belonged to the family Aeromonadaceae, followed by Paenibacillaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Neisseriaceae...
January 12, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325988/arboriscoccus-pini-gen-nov-sp-nov-an-endophyte-from-a-pine-tree-of-the-class-alphaproteobacteria-emended-description-of-geminicoccus-roseus-and-proposal-of-geminicoccaceae-fam-nov
#4
Diogo N Proença, William B Whitman, Neha Varghese, Nicole Shapiro, Tanja Woyke, Nikos C Kyrpides, Paula V Morais
Bacterial strain B29T1T was isolated from the endophytic microbial community of a Pinus pinaster tree trunk and characterized. Strain B29T1T stained Gram-negative and formed diplococci that grew optimally at 26-30°C and at pH 6.0-7.0. The G+C content of the DNA was 61.6mol%. The respiratory quinone was ubiquinone 10 (UK-10), and the major fatty acids were C16:0, cyclo-C19:0ω8c and C18:0 12-methyl, representing 64% of the total fatty acids. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences placed strain B29T1T within the order Rhodospirillales in a distinct lineage that also included the genus Geminicoccus...
December 22, 2017: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324336/new-1-5-and-2-5-disubstituted-tetrazoles-dependent-activity-towards-surface-barrier-of-candida-albicans
#5
Monika Staniszewska, Małgorzata Gizińska, Ewa Mikulak, Klaudia Adamus, Mirosława Koronkiewicz, Edyta Łukowska-Chojnacka
A series of novel tetrazole derivatives was synthetized using N-alkylation or Michael-type addition reactions, and screened for their fungistatic potential against Candida albicans (the lack of endpoint = 100%). Among them, the selected compounds 2d, 4b, and 6a differing in substituents at the tetrazole ring were non-toxic to Galleria mellonella larvae in vivo and exerted slight toxicity against Caco-2 in vitro (CC50 at 256 μg/mL). An antagonistic effect of tetrazole derivatives 2d, 4b, and 6a respectively in combination with Fluconazole was shown using the checker board and colorimetric methods (fractional inhibitory concentration indexes FICIs >1)...
December 30, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322640/conserved-roles-of-osiris-genes-in-insect-development-polymorphism-and-protection
#6
Chris R Smith, Claire Morandin, Moataz Noureddine, Swati Pant
Much of the variation among insects is derived from the different ways that chitin has been molded to form rigid structures, both internal and external. In this study, we identify a highly conserved expression pattern in an insect-only gene family, the Osiris genes, that is essential for development, but also plays a significant role in phenotypic plasticity and in immunity/toxicity responses. The majority of Osiris genes exist in a highly syntenic cluster, and the cluster itself appears to have arisen very early in the evolution of insects...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319340/denaturing-gradient-gel-electrophoresis-polymerase-chain-reaction-comparison-of-chitosan-effects-on-anaerobic-cultures-of-broiler-cecal-bacteria-and-salmonella-typhimurium
#7
Michael Hume, Muhammad Umar Sohail
Enteropathogen colonization and product contamination are major poultry industry problems. The emergence of antibiotic resistance, and associated risks to human health, is limiting the use of antibiotics as first-line defense against enteropathogens in poultry. The chitin derivative, chitosan, has drawn substantial attention for its bactericidal properties. Different molecular weight (MW) chitosans can have varied effects against different bacteria in monoculture. In the current study, cecal contents from each of three market-age broilers and Salmonella Typhimurium, as indicator enteropathogen, were exposed to in vitro anaerobic culture to three chitosan preparations (0...
January 10, 2018: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318623/subcutaneous-immunotherapy-with-purified-der-p1-and-2-suppresses-type-2-immunity-in-a-murine-asthma-model
#8
Laura Hesse, Nienke van Ieperen, Corine Habraken, Arjen H Petersen, Silvia Korn, Tim Smilda, Betty Goedewaagen, Marcel H Ruiters, Adrianus C van der Graaf, Martijn C Nawijn
Allergen-specific immunotherapy can induce long-term suppression of allergic symptoms, reduce medication use and prevent exacerbations of allergic rhinitis and asthma. Current treatment is based on crude allergen extracts, which contain immunostimulatory components such as β-glucans, chitins and endotoxin. Use of purified or recombinant allergens might therefore increase efficacy of treatment. Here, we test application of purified natural group 1 and 2 allergens from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p) for subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) treatment in a house dust mite (HDM) driven mouse model of allergic asthma...
January 10, 2018: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317504/structural-analysis-of-group-ii-chitinase-chtii-catalysis-completes-the-puzzle-of-chitin-hydrolysis-in-insects
#9
Wei Chen, Mingbo Qu, Yong Zhou, Qing Yang
Chitin is a linear homopolymer of N-acetyl-β-D-glucosamines and a major structural component of insect cuticles. Chitin hydrolysis involves glycoside hydrolase family 18 (GH18) chitinases. In insects, chitin hydrolysis is essential for periodic shedding of the old cuticle ecdysis and proceeds via a pathway different from that in the well-studied bacterial chitinolytic system. Group II chitinase (ChtII) is a widespread chitinolytic enzyme in insects and contains the greatest number of catalytic domains and chitin binding domains among chitinases...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298668/functional-characterization-of-chitin-binding-lectin-from-solanum-integrifolium-containing-anti-fungal-and-insecticidal-activities
#10
Chang-Shan Chen, Chun-Yi Chen, Divya Malathy Ravinath, Agustina Bungahot, Chi-Ping Cheng, Ren-In You
BACKGROUND: Along with the rapid development of glycomic tools, the study of lectin-carbohydrate interactions has expanded, opening the way for applications in the fields of analytic, diagnostic, and drug delivery. Chitin-binding lectins (CBLs) play roles in immune defense against chitin-containing pathogens. CBLs from species of the Solanaceae family, such as tomato, potato and jimsonweed, display different binding specificities to sugar chains containing poly-N-acetyllactosamine. RESULTS: In this report, CBLs from Solanum integrifolium were isolated by ion exchange chromatography...
January 3, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289724/disruption-of-the-cell-wall-integrity-gene-ecm33-results-in-improved-fermentation-performance-by-wine-yeast
#11
Jin Zhang, Maria A Astorga, Jennifer M Gardner, Michelle E Walker, Paul R Grbin, Vladimir Jiranek
Limiting assimilable nitrogen restricts yeast's ability to successfully complete fermentation. In the absence of a commercially available deletion collection in a wine yeast background, a screening approach was applied to a transposon library in a wine yeast derivative to identify clones with superior fermentation performance. Eight candidate genes, when disrupted by Ty insertion, were identified as enabling yeast to efficiently complete a model oenological fermentation with limited nitrogen availability. Analogous single gene disruptions were subsequently constructed in the haploid wine yeast strain, C911D and the performance of these during fermentation was analysed...
December 28, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289634/pilot-production-of-the-recombinant-peptide-toxin-of-heteractis-crispa-as-a-potential-analgesic-by-intein-mediated-technology
#12
Roman S Esipov, Dmitry A Makarov, Vasily N Stepanenko, Maria A Kostromina, Tatyana I Muravyova, Yaroslav A Andreev, Igor A Dyachenko, Sergey A Kozlov, Evgeny V Grishin
APHC3 is an analgesic polypeptide that was found in the sea anemone (Heteractis crispa), and contains 56 amino acid residues. This polypeptide is of interest for the development of medications for diseases, associated with inflammatory or neuropathological processes, as well as its use as an analgesic. This work presents an innovative biotechnological method for APHC3 production. We have constructed a recombinant plasmid intended for biosynthesizing the fusion protein consisting of a chitin-binding domain, DnaB mini-intein from Synechocystis sp...
December 28, 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283261/engineering-biocompatible-hydrogels-from-bicomponent-natural-nanofibers-for-anti-cancer-drug-delivery
#13
Junfei Xu, Shan Liu, Guangxue Chen, Ting Chen, Tao Song, Jing Wu, Congcan Shi, Minghui He, Junfei Tian
Natural hydrogels have attracted extensive research interests and recently showed promising potential for many biomedical applications. In this paper, we report a series of biocompatible hydrogels based on the self-assembly of positively-charged partially deacetylated α-chitin nanofibers (α-DECHN) and negatively-charged TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers (TOCNF) for anti-cancer drug delivery. We studied the formation mechanisms of the α-DECHN/TOCNF hydrogels with different mixing proportions and comprehensively investigated their morphological, mechanical and swelling properties...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275209/barley-adh-1-modulates-susceptibility-to-bgh-and-is-involved-in-chitin-induced-systemic-resistance
#14
Christoph L Käsbauer, Indira Priyadarshini Pathuri, Götz Hensel, Jochen Kumlehn, Ralph Hückelhoven, Reinhard K Proels
The plant primary energy metabolism is profoundly reorganized under biotic stress conditions and there is increasing evidence for a role of the fermentative pathway in biotic interactions. Previously we showed via transient gene silencing or overexpression a function of barley alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (HvADH-1) in the interaction of barley with the parasitic fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei (Bgh). Here we extend our studies on stable transgenic barley events over- or under-expressing HvADH-1 to analyse ADH-1 functions at the level of whole plants...
December 18, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274789/a-cuticle-protein-from-the-pacific-white-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei-involved-in-wssv-infection
#15
Feifei Yang, Shihao Li, Fuhua Li, Jianhai Xiang
White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major viral pathogen in global shrimp farming, causing huge economic damage. Through penetrating the outer surface of the target tissues, WSSV enters into the cells of the target tissue to complete the replication process in the host. In the present study, a cuticle protein gene from Litopenaeus vannamei, designated as LvAMP13.4, was identified and proved to be involved in WSSV invasion. The deduced amino acid sequence of LvAMP13.4 contained a signal peptide and a conserved chitin-binding domain type 4 (ChBD4)...
December 21, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261729/nucleases-as-a-barrier-to-gene-silencing-in-the-cotton-boll-weevil-anthonomus-grandis
#16
Rayssa Almeida Garcia, Leonardo Lima Pepino Macedo, Danila Cabral do Nascimento, François-Xavier Gillet, Clidia Eduarda Moreira-Pinto, Muhammad Faheem, Angelina Maria Moreschi Basso, Maria Cristina Mattar Silva, Maria Fatima Grossi-de-Sa
RNA interference (RNAi) approaches have been applied as a biotechnological tool for controlling plant insect pests via selective gene down regulation. However, the inefficiency of RNAi mechanism in insects is associated with several barriers, including dsRNA delivery and uptake by the cell, dsRNA interaction with the cellular membrane receptor and dsRNA exposure to insect gut nucleases during feeding. The cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) is a coleopteran in which RNAi-mediated gene silencing does not function efficiently through dsRNA feeding, and the factors involved in the mechanism remain unknown...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250895/soybean-seed-coat-chitinase-as-a-defense-protein-against-stored-product-pest-callosobruchus-maculatus
#17
Nadia C M Silva, Jamile G Conceição, Kayan Eudorico Ventury, Leonardo F R De Sá, Eduardo A G Oliveira, Izabela S Santos, Valdirene M Gomes, Monique N Costa, Andre T S Ferreira, Jonas Perales, Jose Xavier-Filho, Kátia V S Fernandes, Antonia E A Oliveira
BACKGROUND: Chitinases (EC 3.2.1.14) are enzymes involved in the breaking of β-1,4-glycosidic linkages of chitin. In insects, chitin is present mainly in cuticle and in peritrophic membranes and peritrophic gel. Enzymes with the potential to damage peritrophic membranes and gel, such as chitinase, have been related to plant defense systems. Identification and characterisation of seed coat chitinase as a plant defensive molecule may indicate a more effective target for manipulation strategies, which may lead to the preventive consumption of embryonic tissues by the larvae and consequently the minimization of the seed damage...
December 18, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248555/a-review-on-chitosan-and-its-nanocomposites-in-drug-delivery
#18
REVIEW
Akbar Ali, Shakeel Ahmed
Chitosan the second most abundant next to cellulose, naturally occurring amino polysaccharide, derived as a deacetylated form of chitin. Its nontoxic, biocompatible, antibacterial and biodegradable properties have led to significant research towards biomedical and pharmaceutical applications, such as drug delivery, tissue engineering, wound-healing dressing etc. The primary amine group in chitosan are responsible for its various properties such as cationic nature, controlled drug release, muco-adhesion, in situ gelation, antimicrobial, permeation enhancement etc...
December 14, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248112/cooperation-between-er-stress-and-calcineurin-signaling-contributes-to-the-maintenance-of-cell-wall-integrity-in-candida-glabrata
#19
Yutaka Tanaka, Masato Sasaki, Fumie Ito, Toshio Aoyama, Michiyo Sato-Okamoto, Azusa Takahashi-Nakaguchi, Hiroji Chibana, Nobuyuki Shibata
Candida glabrata is the second most common source of Candida infections in humans. In this pathogen, the maintenance of cell wall integrity (CWI) frequently precludes effective pharmacological treatment by antifungal agents. In numerous fungi, cell wall modulation is reported to be controlled by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, but how the latter affects CWI maintenance in C. glabrata is not clearly understood. Here, we characterized a C. glabrata strain harboring a mutation in the CNE1 gene, which encodes a molecular chaperone associated with nascent glycoprotein maturation in the ER...
January 2018: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247734/human-chitotriosidase-does-not-catabolize-hyaluronan
#20
Ben Danielson, Che-Hong Chen, Gernot Kaber, Daria Mochly-Rosen, Kevin Grimes, Robert Stern, Paul L Bollyky
Humans express an enzyme that degrades chitin, called chitotriosidase, despite the fact that we do not produce chitin. One possible explanation for this is that chitinase also degrades hyaluronan, a polysaccharide that is abundant in human tissues and shares structural attributes in common with chitinase. The objective of this study was to determine whether human chitotriosidase is capable of hydrolyzing hyaluronan. Hyaluronan of various sizes under a range of pH conditions displayed no degradation when incubated with various chitinases over a period of 5 days, while commercial hyaluronidase readily digested the hyaluronan...
December 13, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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