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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535031/tunichrome-inspired-gold-enrichment-dispersion-matrix-and-its-application-in-water-treatment-a-proof-of-concept-investigation
#1
Amarendra Dhar Dwivedi, Rega Permana, Jitendra Pal Singh, Hakwon Yoon, Keun Hwa Chae, Yoon-Seok Chang, Dong Soo Hwang
Tunicate, a filter-feeder in seawater, is able to accumulate high amount of metals using intracellular polymer matrices. The woven pyrogallol structures of tunichrome, a small peptide contained in tunicate's blood cells, is believed to be responsible for selective metal sequestration in tunicates from seawater. However, the intriguing tunichrome matrix is difficult to harvest from the tunicate nor to synthesize massively due to the extreme oxidation sensitivity of the pyrogallol moiety which limits the study scope...
May 23, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533453/selection-of-the-intrinsic-polarization-properties-of-animal-optical-materials-creates-enhanced-structural-reflectivity-and-camouflage
#2
Kathryn D Feller, Thomas M Jordan, David Wilby, Nicholas W Roberts
Many animals use structural coloration to create bright and conspicuous visual signals. Selection of the size and shape of the optical structures animals use defines both the colour and intensity of the light reflected. The material used to create these reflectors is also important; however, animals are restricted to a limited number of materials: commonly chitin, guanine and the protein, reflectin. In this work we highlight that a particular set of material properties can also be under selection in order to increase the optical functionality of structural reflectors...
July 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532012/an-overview-of-carboxymethyl-derivatives-of-chitosan-their-use-as-biomaterials-and-drug-delivery-systems
#3
REVIEW
Bruno Fonseca-Santos, Marlus Chorilli
Chitin is one of the most abundant natural polymers in the world and is used for the production of chitosan by deacetylation. Chitosan is nontoxic and biodegradable and, therefore, can be used as a biomaterial and for the construction of drug delivery systems. Nevertheless, the poor solubility of chitosan in neutral or alkalinized media has restricted its applications in the pharmaceutical and biomedical fields. Chitosan can be easily carboxymethylated to improve its solubility in aqueous media while its biodegradability and biocompatibility are preserved...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529501/microbial-degradation-of-lobster-shells-to-extract-chitin-derivatives-for-plant-disease-management
#4
Gayathri Ilangumaran, Glenn Stratton, Sridhar Ravichandran, Pushp S Shukla, Philippe Potin, Samuel Asiedu, Balakrishnan Prithiviraj
Biodegradation of lobster shells by chitinolytic microorganisms are an environment safe approach to utilize lobster processing wastes for chitin derivation. In this study, we report degradation activities of two microbes, "S223" and "S224" isolated from soil samples that had the highest rate of deproteinization, demineralization and chitinolysis among ten microorganisms screened. Isolates S223 and S224 had 27.3 and 103.8 protease units mg(-1) protein and 12.3 and 11.2 μg ml(-1) of calcium in their samples, respectively, after 1 week of incubation with raw lobster shells...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527827/in%C3%A2-vitro-bioconversion-of-chitin-to-pyruvate-with-thermophilic-enzymes
#5
Kohsuke Honda, Keisuke Kimura, Pham Huynh Ninh, Hironori Taniguchi, Kenji Okano, Hisao Ohtake
Chitin is the second most abundant organic compound on the planet and thus has been regarded as an alternative resource to petroleum feedstocks. One of the key challenges in the biological conversion of biomass-derived polysaccharides, such as cellulose and chitin, is to close the gap between optimum temperatures for enzymatic saccharification and microbial fermentation and to implement them in a single bioreactor. To address this issue, in the present study, we aimed to perform an in vitro, one-pot bioconversion of chitin to pyruvate, which is a precursor of a wide range of useful metabolites...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526403/crystal-defects-induced-by-chitin-and-chitinolytic-enzymes-in-the-prismatic-layer-of-pinctada-fucata
#6
Hiroyuki Kintsu, Taiga Okumura, Lumi Negishi, Shinsuke Ifuku, Toshihiro Kogure, Shohei Sakuda, Michio Suzuki
Biomineralization, in which organisms create biogenic hard tissues, with hardness or flexibility enhanced by organic-inorganic interaction is an interesting and attractive focus for application of biomimetic functional materials. Calcites in the prismatic layer of Pinctada fucata are tougher than abiotic calcites due to small crystal defects. However, the molecular mechanism of the defect formation remains unclear. Here, chitin and two chitinolytic enzymes, chitinase and chitobiase, were identified as organic matrices related to for the formation of small crystal defects in the prismatic layer...
May 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525867/evaluation-of-alternative-environmentally-friendly-matrix-solid-phase-dispersion-solid-supports-for-the-simultaneous-extraction-of-15-pesticides-of-different-chemical-classes-from-drinking-water-treatment-sludge
#7
Karina Lotz Soares, Maristela Barnes Rodrigues Cerqueira, Sergiane Souza Caldas, Ednei Gilberto Primel
This study describes the development, optimization and validation of a method for the extraction of 15 pesticides of different chemical classes in drinking water treatment sludge (DWTS) by vortex-assisted Matrix Solid Phase Dispersion (MSPD) with determination by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. It focused on the application of alternative and different solid supports to the extraction step of the MSPD. The main parameters that influenced the extraction were studied in order to obtain better recovery responses...
May 12, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521637/the-receptor-like-cytoplasmic-kinase-bsr1-mediates-chitin-induced-defense-signaling-in-rice-cells
#8
Yasukazu Kanda, Naoki Yokotani, Satoru Maeda, Yoko Nishizawa, Takashi Kamakura, Masaki Mori
Broad-Spectrum Resistance 1 (BSR1) encodes a rice receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase, and enhances disease resistance when overexpressed. Rice plants overexpressing BSR1 are highly resistant to diverse pathogens, including rice blast fungus. However, the mechanism responsible for this resistance has not been fully characterized. To analyze the BSR1 function, BSR1-knockout (BSR1-KO) plants were generated using a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system...
May 18, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520760/transcriptome-profiling-of-ontogeny-in-the-acridid-grasshopper-chorthippus-biguttulus
#9
Emma L Berdan, Jonas Finck, Paul R Johnston, Isabelle Waurick, Camila J Mazzoni, Frieder Mayer
Acridid grasshoppers (Orthoptera:Acrididae) are widely used model organisms for developmental, evolutionary, and neurobiological research. Although there has been recent influx of orthopteran transcriptomic resources, many use pooled ontogenetic stages obscuring information about changes in gene expression during development. Here we developed a de novo transcriptome spanning 7 stages in the life cycle of the acridid grasshopper Chorthippus biguttulus. Samples from different stages encompassing embryonic development through adults were used for transcriptomic profiling, revealing patterns of differential gene expression that highlight processes in the different life stages...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513921/chitin-induced-and-chitin-elicitor-receptor-kinase1-cerk1-phosphorylation-dependent-endocytosis-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-lysin-motif-containing-receptor-like-kinase5-lyk5
#10
Jan Erwig, Hassan Ghareeb, Michaela Kopischke, Ronja Hacke, Alexandra Matei, Elena Petutschnig, Volker Lipka
To detect potential pathogens, plants perceive the fungal polysaccharide chitin through receptor complexes containing lysin motif receptor-like kinases (LysM-RLKs). To investigate the ligand-induced spatial dynamics of chitin receptor components, we studied the subcellular behaviour of two Arabidopsis thaliana LysM-RLKs involved in chitin signalling, CHITIN ELICITOR RECEPTOR KINASE1 (CERK1) and LYSIN MOTIF-CONTAINING RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE5. We performed standard and quantitative confocal laser scanning microscopy on stably transformed A...
May 17, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513846/a-calmodulin-like-protein-regulates-plasmodesmal-closure-during-bacterial-immune-responses
#11
Bo Xu, Cécilia Cheval, Anuphon Laohavisit, Bradleigh Hocking, David Chiasson, Tjelvar S G Olsson, Ken Shirasu, Christine Faulkner, Matthew Gilliham
Plants sense microbial signatures via activation of pattern recognition receptors (PPRs), which trigger a range of cellular defences. One response is the closure of plasmodesmata, which reduces symplastic connectivity and the capacity for direct molecular exchange between host cells. Plasmodesmal flux is regulated by a variety of environmental cues but the downstream signalling pathways are poorly defined, especially the way in which calcium regulates plasmodesmal closure. Here, we identify that closure of plasmodesmata in response to bacterial flagellin, but not fungal chitin, is mediated by a plasmodesmal-localized Ca(2+) -binding protein Calmodulin-like 41 (CML41)...
May 17, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512016/mechanism-of-action-of-amp-jsa9-a-li-f-type-antimicrobial-peptide-produced-by-paenibacillus-polymyxa-jsa-9-against-fusarium-moniliforme
#12
Jinzhi Han, Fang Wang, Peng Gao, Zhi Ma, Shengming Zhao, Zhaoxin Lu, Fengxia Lv, Xiaomei Bie
LI-F type peptides (AMP-jsa9) are a group of cyclic lipodepsipeptides that exhibit broad antimicrobial spectrum against Gram-positive bacteria and filamentous fungi. We sought to assess the toxicity of AMP-jsa9 and the mechanism of AMP-jsa9 action against Fusarium moniliforme. AMP-jsa9 exhibited weak hemolytic activity and weak cytotoxicity at antimicrobial concentrations (32μg/ml). Confocal laser microscopy, SEM, and TEM indicated that AMP-jsa9 primarily targets the cell wall, plasma membrane, and cytoskeleton, increases membranepermeability, and enhances cytoplasm leakage (e...
May 13, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508050/butterfly-gyroid-nanostructures-as-a-time-frozen-glimpse-of-intracellular-membrane-development
#13
Bodo D Wilts, Benjamin Apeleo Zubiri, Michael A Klatt, Benjamin Butz, Michael G Fischer, Stephen T Kelly, Erdmann Spiecker, Ullrich Steiner, Gerd E Schröder-Turk
The formation of the biophotonic gyroid material in butterfly wing scales is an exceptional feat of evolutionary engineering of functional nanostructures. It is hypothesized that this nanostructure forms by chitin polymerization inside a convoluted membrane of corresponding shape in the endoplasmic reticulum. However, this dynamic formation process, including whether membrane folding and chitin expression are simultaneous or sequential processes, cannot yet be elucidated by in vivo imaging. We report an unusual hierarchical ultrastructure in the butterfly Thecla opisena that, as a solid material, allows high-resolution three-dimensional microscopy...
April 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505423/simple-inkjet-process-to-fabricate-microstructures-of-chitinous-nanocrystals-for-cell-patterning
#14
Shuntaro Suzuki, Yoshikuni Teramoto
Structural polysaccharide nanocrystals (NCs) including cellulose nanocrystal have attracted attention. In order to broaden the range of application of the NCs, we can take advantage of their original characteristics by establishing simple and reasonable processing methods. We here demonstrate a micropatterning of animal cellular adhesion by inkjet printing of aqueous dispersions of cytocompatible chitinous NCs onto cellophane films. We display how to regulate the deposition form and two-dimensional shape of the chitinous NC micromoldings using a research inkjet printer...
May 22, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505417/hierarchical-chitin-fibers-with-aligned-nanofibrillar-architectures-a-nonwoven-mat-separator-for-lithium-metal-batteries
#15
Joong-Kwon Kim, Do Hyeong Kim, Se Hun Joo, Byeongwook Choi, Aming Cha, Kwang Min Kim, Tae-Hyuk Kwon, Sang Kyu Kwak, Seok Ju Kang, Jungho Jin
Here, we introduce a regenerated fibers of chitin (Chiber), the 2(nd) most abundant biopolymer only after cellulose, and propose its utility as a nonwoven fiber separator for lithium metal batteries (LMBs) that exhibits an excellent electrolyte-uptaking capability and Li-dendrite-mitigating performance. The Chiber is produced by a centrifugal jet-spinning technique, which allows a simple and fast production of Chibers consisting of hierarchically-aligned self-assembled chitin nanofibers. Following the scrutinization on the Chiber-Li ion interaction via computational methods, we demonstrate the potential of Chiber as a nonwoven mat-type separator by monitoring it in Li-O2 and Na-O2 cells...
May 15, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505132/preparation-and-characterization-of-chitosan-obtained-from-shells-of-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei-boone
#16
Rayane Santa Cruz Martins de Queiroz Antonino, Bianca Rosa Paschoal Lia Fook, Vítor Alexandre de Oliveira Lima, Raid Ícaro de Farias Rached, Eunice Paloma Nascimento Lima, Rodrigo José da Silva Lima, Carlos Andrés Peniche Covas, Marcus Vinícius Lia Fook
The main source of commercial chitosan is the extensive deacetylation of its parent polymer chitin. It is present in green algae, the cell walls or fungi and in the exoskeleton of crustaceans. A novel procedure for preparing chitosan from shrimp shells was developed. The procedure involves two 10-minutes bleaching steps with ethanol after the usual demineralization and deproteinization processes. Before deacetylation, chitin was immersed in 12.5 M NaOH, cooled down and kept frozen for 24 h. The obtained chitosan was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and viscosimetry...
May 15, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504460/the-cyclin-dependent-kinase-subunit-cks1-is-required-for-infection-associated-development-of-the-rice-blast-fungus-magnaporthe-oryzae
#17
Xiaofeng Yue, Yawei Que, Shuzhen Deng, Lin Xu, Miriam Oses-Ruiz, Nicholas J Talbot, Youliang Peng, Zhengyi Wang
Cell cycle regulation is pivotal for proper cell division and cellular differentiation in eukaryotic cells. The central regulators that govern eukaryotic cell cycle progression are cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and their partners. Here, we report that Magnaporthe oryzae CKS1 encodes a cyclin-dependent kinase subunit, which plays a significant role in regulation of plant infection. We demonstrate that CKS1 is a functional homolog of CKS1/SUC1 and can physically interact with the CDK protein Cdc28, and Som1, a downstream regulator of the cyclic AMP-dependent Protein Kinase A pathway...
May 15, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504170/preparation-of-multifunctional-chitin-nanowhiskers-zno-ag-nps-and-their-effect-on-the-properties-of-carboxymethyl-cellulose-based-nanocomposite-film
#18
Ahmed A Oun, Jong-Whan Rhim
Chitin nanowhiskers (ChNW) were isolated and used for the synthesis of hybrid ChNW/ZnO-Ag NPs. The hybrid nanoparticles were used for the preparation of multifunctional carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) films. A ChNW was needle shape with the width of 8-40nm, the length of 150-260nm, and crystallinity index of 93.6%. The ZnO-Ag NPs were spherical with the diameter of 10.5-16.2nm. STEM, EDX, XRD, and UV-vis analyses confirmed the formation of ZnO-Ag NPs on the surface of ChNW. The thermal stability of ChNW was increased by incorporation of ZnO-Ag NPs...
August 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501914/skermanella-mucosa-sp-nov-isolated-from-crude-oil-contaminated-soil
#19
Y Subhash, Da-Eun Yoon, Sang-Seob Lee
A novel Gram-stain negative, small rod-shaped bacterium (strain 8-14-6(T)) was isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated desert soil collected from Kuwait. Strain 8-14-6(T) grew at 5-37 °C, pH 6.0-8.8 and 0-2% (w/v) of NaCl concentration. Casein, starch, Tween 20 and Tween 80 were hydrolyzed while urea, chitin, DNA and carboxymethyl-cellulose were not hydrolyzed by strain 8-14-6(T). The major cellular fatty acids were identified as C18:1ω6c/C18:1ω7c, C16:0 and iso-C16:1I/C14:03-OH. Strain 8-14-6(T) produced diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, an unidentified phospholipids, two unidentified lipids and five unidentified amino lipids as polar lipids...
May 13, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498340/nutritional-potential-of-selected-insect-species-reared-on-the-island-of-sumatra
#20
Anna Adámková, Jiří Mlček, Lenka Kouřimská, Marie Borkovcová, Tomáš Bušina, Martin Adámek, Martina Bednářová, Jan Krajsa
Inhabitants of the Indonesian island of Sumatra are faced with the problem of insufficient food supplies and the consequent risk of undernourishment and health issues. Edible insects as a traditional and readily available food source could be part of the solution. The nutritional value of insects depends on many factors, e.g., species, developmental stage, sex, diet, and climatic conditions. However, edible insects bred in Sumatra for human consumption have never before been assessed with regard to their nutritional value...
May 12, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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