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Mona Mokhtari, Michael Jackson, Alistair Brown, David Ackerley, Nigel Ritson, Robert A Keyzers, Andrew Munkacsi
Pathogenic fungi continue to develop resistance against current antifungal drugs. To explore the potential of agricultural waste products as a source of novel antifungal compounds, we obtained an unbiased GC-MS profile of 151 compounds from 16 commercial and experimental cultivars of feijoa peels. Multivariate analysis correlated 93% of the compound profile with antifungal bioactivity. Of 18 compounds that significantly correlated with antifungal activity, five had not previously been described from feijoa...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Natalya Cherno, Sophya Osolina, Oleksandra Nikitina
One of the methods for curing obesity is the inclusion of some substances with the antilipase activity in the diet and thus reducing the uptake of fat components from food. The aim of this research is to provide a stabilized form of lipase inhibitor by immobilization of enzyme on the biopolymers from Agaricus bisporus cell walls. The phenolic compounds extracted from the rapeseed were considered as the lipase inhibitor. The activity of the inhibitor was considerably reduced in the gastric juice, as well as at temperatures above 37 °C and during its storage, which determined the suitability of the inhibitor for stabilization on the matrix...
December 2017: Food Technology and Biotechnology
Kris Niño G Valdehuesa, Kristine Rose M Ramos, Llewelyn S Moron, Imchang Lee, Grace M Nisola, Won-Keun Lee, Wook-Jin Chung
The continued research in the isolation of novel bacterial strains is inspired by the fact that native microorganisms possess certain desired phenotypes necessary for recombinant microorganisms in the biotech industry. Most studies have focused on the isolation and characterization of strains from marine ecosystems as they present a higher microbial diversity than other sources. In this study, a marine bacterium, W5C, was isolated from red seaweed collected from Yeosu, South Korea. The isolate can utilize several natural polysaccharides such as agar, alginate, carrageenan, and chitin...
March 13, 2018: Current Microbiology
Sebastian Gnat, Aneta Nowakiewicz, Dominik Lagowski, Aleksandra Troscianczyk, Przemyslaw Zieba
Dermatophyte infections are extremely frequent worldwide, and their epidemiological features and distribution make them one of the most frequent infections all over the world. We identified and analysed multiform T. mentagrophytes strains isolated from a silver fox (Vulpes vulpes) kept on a breeding farm. Identification of dermatophyte strains was carried out traditionally by correlating both the clinical manifestations of the infection with a micro- and macroscopic examination. To confirm the species affiliation fully, molecular differentiation methods were used...
March 8, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Xiliang Qi, Xiaokang Li, Huiming Guo, Ning Guo, Hongmei Cheng
The soil-borne ascomycete fungus Verticillium dahliae causes vascular wilt disease and can seriously diminish the yield and quality of important crops. Functional analysis of growth- and pathogenicity-related genes is essential for revealing the pathogenic molecular mechanism of V. dahliae . Phospholipase is an important virulence factor in fungi that hydrolyzes phospholipids into fatty acid and other lipophilic substances and is involved in hyphal development. Thus far, only a few V. dahliae phospholipases have been identified, and their involvement in V...
March 13, 2018: Genes
Mou Tang, Wenting Zhou, Yi Liu, Jiabao Yan, Zhiwei Gong
N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), the monomeric constituent of chitin, is rarely studied for lipid production by oleaginous species. This study demonstrated that Cryptococcus curvatus had a great capacity to convert GlcNAc into lipid with high yield using a two-stage production process. Optimal inoculum age and inoculation size strongly improved the two-stage lipid production efficiency. More interestingly, this process rendered superior lipid production under non-sterile condition. The acetate liberated from GlcNAc was consumed timely, while the NH4 + released was rarely assimilated...
March 5, 2018: Bioresource Technology
T C M Brock, J D M Belgers, M-C Boerwinkel, L Jollie, M H S Kraak, M J Papo, J A Vonk, I Roessink
This paper deals with species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) for the lipophilic insecticide lufenuron and benthic arthropods based on sediment-spiked laboratory toxicity tests. This compound that inhibits chitin synthesis and moulting of arthropods persists in sediment. Using field-collected sediment, toxicity tests were conducted with three macro-crustaceans and six insects. The Hazardous Concentration to 5% of the tested species, the HC5 (and 95% confidence limit), derived from an SSD constructed with 10d-LC50's was 2...
March 6, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Joaquín Antonio González, Jonathan Germán Bafico, María Emilia Villanueva, Sergio Alejandro Giorgieri, Guillermo Javier Copello
A novel nanostructured material was successfully developed by combining a chitin matrix with graphene oxide nanosheets (Chi:nGO) and then used for the continuous flow adsorption of ciprofloxacin. The spectroscopic characterization indicated that none covalent interaction between both components would be occurring and the introduction of nGO did not interfere in chitin nanostructure rearrangement during gelling and later drying. SEM images and Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry results showed a wide pore size distribution ranging from nano to micrometers...
May 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Rui Xu, Jie Mao, Na Peng, Xiaogang Luo, Chunyu Chang
Numerous adsorbents have been reported for efficient removal of dye from water, but the high cost raw materials and complicated fabrication process limit their practical applications. Herein, novel nanocomposite microspheres were fabricated from chitin and clay by a simple thermally induced sol-gel transition. Clay nanosheets were uniformly embedded in a nanofiber weaved chitin microsphere matrix, leading to their hierarchical architecture. Benefiting from this unique structure, microspheres could efficiently remove methylene blue (MB) through a spontaneous physic-sorption process which fit well with pseudo-second-order and Langmuir isotherm models...
May 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Renée Katrin Bechmann, Emily Lyng, Stig Westerlund, Shaw Bamber, Mark Berry, Maj Arnberg, Alfhild Kringstad, Piero Calosi, Paul J Seear
Increasing use of fish feed containing the chitin synthesis inhibiting anti-parasitic drug diflubenzuron (DFB) in salmon aquaculture has raised concerns over its impact on coastal ecosystems. Larvae of Northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) were exposed to DFB medicated feed under Control conditions (7.0 °C, pH 8.0) and under Ocean Acidification and Warming conditions (OAW, 9.5 °C and pH 7.6). Two weeks' exposure to DFB medicated feed caused significantly increased mortality. The effect of OAW and DFB on mortality of shrimp larvae was additive; 10% mortality in Control, 35% in OAW, 66% in DFB and 92% in OAW + DFB...
February 28, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Shengli Wang, Liang Shi, Yanru Hu, Rui Liu, Ang Ren, Jing Zhu, Mingwen Zhao
The transcription factor Skn7 is a highly conserved fungal protein that participates in a variety of processes, including oxidative stress adaptation, fungicide sensitivity, cell wall biosynthesis, cell cycle, and sporulation. In this study, a homologous gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Skn7 was cloned from Ganoderma lucidum. RNA interference (RNAi) was used to study the functions of Skn7, and the two knockdown strains Skn7i-5 and Skn7i-7 were obtained in G. lucidum. The knockdown of GlSkn7 resulted in hypersensitivity to oxidative and cell wall stresses...
March 7, 2018: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Archana Singh, Deepti Jain, Chetna Tyagi, Sujata Singh, Sumit Kumar, Indrakant K Singh
Plants are endowed with an innate immune system, which enables them to protect themselves from pest and pathogen. The participation of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins is one of the most crucial events of inducible plant defense response. Herein, we report the characterization of CaHaPR-4, a Helicoverpa-inducible class II PR-4 protein from chickpea. Bioinformatic analysis of CaHaPR-4 protein indicated the presence of a signal peptide, barwin domain but it lacks the chitin-binding site/hevein domain. The recombinant CaHaPR-4 is bestowed with RNase and bivalent ion-dependent DNase activity...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Donglin Yang, Lixia Pan, Zhongzhu Chen, Huihui Du, Bo Luo, Jie Luo, Guoqing Pan
Microsporidia are highly specialized obligate intracellular, spore forming divergent fungi with a wide variety host range that includes most vertebrates and invertebrates. The resistant spores are surrounded by a rigid cell wall which consists of three layers: the electron-lucent chitin and protein inner endospore, the outer-electron-dense and mainly proteinaceous exospore and plasma membrane. Interestingly, microsporidia owns a special invasion organelle, called polar tube, coiled within the interior of the spore wall and attached to anchoring disk at the anterior end of spore...
March 6, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Leila M Lopes-Bezerra, Louise A Walker, Gustavo Niño-Vega, Héctor M Mora-Montes, Gabriela W P Neves, Hector Villalobos-Duno, Laura Barreto, Karina Garcia, Bernardo Franco, José A Martínez-Álvarez, Carol A Munro, Neil A R Gow
Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous mycosis caused by pathogenic species of the Sporothrix genus. A new emerging species, Sporothrix brasiliensis, is related to cat-transmitted sporotrichosis and has severe clinical manifestations. The cell wall of pathogenic fungi is a unique structure and impacts directly on the host immune response. We reveal and compare the cell wall structures of Sporothrix schenckii and S. brasiliensis using high-pressure freezing electron microscopy to study the cell wall organization of both species...
March 9, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Chien Thang Doan, Thi Ngoc Tran, Van Bon Nguyen, Anh Dzung Nguyen, San-Lang Wang
Chitosanases and proteases have received much attention due to their wide range of applications. Four kinds of chitinous materials, squid pens, shrimp heads, demineralized shrimp shells and demineralized crab shells, were used as the sole carbon and nitrogen (C/N) source to produce chitosanases, proteases and α-glucosidase inhibitors (αGI) by four different strains of Paenibacillus . Chitosanase productivity was highest in the culture supernatants using squid pens as the sole C/N source. The maximum chitosanase activity of fermented squid pens (0...
March 8, 2018: Marine Drugs
Tomoyuki Odaka, Hiroaki Suetake, Tomoki Maeda, Toshiaki Miyadai
Recently, mammalian basophils have been highlighted as having roles in allergy and antiparasitic immunity; however, there is little information about the functions and evolutionary origin of basophils, because they are the least abundant leukocyte in most vertebrates. In this study, we characterized the teleost basophils that are abundant in the peripheral blood of fugu ( Takifugu rubripes ). Fugu basophils have two distinct granules: reddish-purple and dark violet ones. Teleost fish do not have IgG and IgE, but we found that fugu IgM bound on the surface of the basophils, and the cross-linked IgM induced degranulation of both types of granules...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Djane Clarys Baia-da-Silva, Luis Carlos Salazar Alvarez, Omaira Vera Lizcano, Fabio Trindade Maranhão Costa, Stefanie Costa Pinto Lopes, Alessandra Silva Orfanó, Denner Oliveira Pascoal, Rafael Nacif-Pimenta, Iria Cabral Rodriguez, Maria das Graças Vale Barbosa Guerra, Marcus Vinicius Guimarães Lacerda, Nagila Francinete Costa Secundino, Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro, Paulo Filemon Paolucci Pimenta
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax is predominant in the Amazon region, and enhanced knowledge of its development inside a natural vector, Anopheles aquasalis, is critical for future strategies aimed at blocking parasite development. The peritrophic matrix (PM), a chitinous layer produced by the mosquito midgut in response to blood ingestion, is a protective barrier against pathogens. Plasmodium can only complete its life-cycle, and consequently be transmitted to a new host, after successfully passing this barrier...
March 6, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Zhen Qin, Qiming Chen, Si Lin, Sa Luo, Yongjun Qiu, Liming Zhao
Chitooligosaccharide is widely used as a functional food additive and a valuable pharmacological agent. The transformation of chitinous biomass into valuable bioactive chitooligosaccharides is one of the most exciting applications of chitosanase. A novel glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 46 chitosanase (GsCsn46A) from rhizobacterium Gynuella sunshinyii was cloned and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. GsCsn46A showed maximal activity at pH 5.5 and 30 °C. GsCsn46A featured remarkable cold-adapted property, which controllably hydrolyzed chitosan to three types of chitooligosaccharides at the mild reaction condition (reaction condition: pH 5...
July 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Ruijin Wang, Yi Guo, Hengjiang Liu, Yuning Chen, Yazhuo Shang, Honglai Liu
The effect of chitin nanoparticles on surface behavior of lipid systems containing dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG) is studied by surface pressure (π)-area (A) isotherms, polarization-modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS), Brewster angle microscopy (BAM). The variation of surface behavior of DPPC/DPPG monolayers is induced mainly by electrostatic interactions between nanoparticles and head groups of phospholipids. At lower surface pressure, nanoparticles can penetrate into the monolayers and the positive charges carried by nanoparticles benefits the enrichment of phospholipid molecules at surface, which not only increases the mean molecular area but also hinders the formation of phospholipid liquid-condensed (LC) phase...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Bastien Bissaro, Ingvild Isaksen, Gustav Vaaje-Kolstad, Vincent G H Eijsink, Åsmund K Røhr
Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are major players in biomass conversion, both in Nature and in the biorefining industry. How the mono-copper LPMO active site is positioned relative to the crystalline substrate surface to catalyze powerful, but potentially self-destructive, oxidative chemistry is one of the major questions in the field. We have adopted a multi-disciplinary approach, combining biochemical, spectroscopic and molecular modeling methods to study chitin binding by the well-studied LPMO from Serratia marcescens SmAA10A (or CBP21)...
March 2, 2018: Biochemistry
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