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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786635/mechanical-behavior-optimization-of-chitosan-extracted-from-shrimp-shells-as-a-sustainable-material-for-shopping-bags
#1
Giacomo D'Angelo, Amal Elhussieny, Marwa Faisal, I S Fahim, Nicola M Everitt
The use of biodegradable materials for shopping bag production, and other products made from plastics, has recently been an object of intense research-with the aim of reducing the environmental burdens given by conventional materials. Chitosan is a potential material because of its biocompatibility, degradability, and non-toxicity. It is a semi-natural biopolymeric material produced by the deacetylation of chitin, which is the second most abundant natural biopolymer (after cellulose). Chitin is found in the exoskeleton of insects, marine crustaceans, and the cell walls of certain fungi and algae...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782987/chitin-silk-fibroin-tio-2-bio-nanocomposite-as-a-biocompatible-wound-dressing-bandage-with-strong-antimicrobial-activity
#2
Mojtaba Ghanbari Mehrabani, Ramin Karimian, Rasul Rakhshaei, Farzaneh Pakdel, Hosein Eslami, Vahid Fakhrzadeh, Mahdi Rahimi, Roya Salehi, Hossein Samadi Kafil
Interconnected microporous biodegradable and biocompatible chitin/silk fibroin/TiO2 nanocomposite wound dressing with high antibacterial, blood clotting and mechanical strength properties were synthesized using freeze-drying method. The prepared nanocomposite dressings were characterized using SEM, FTIR, and XRD analysis. The prepared nanocomposite dressings showed high porosity above 90% with well-defined interconnected porous construction. Swelling and water uptake of the dressing were 93%, which is great for wound dressing applications...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782982/process-optimization-purification-and-characterization-of-a-novel-acidic-thermostable-chitinase-from-humicola-grisea
#3
Manish Kumar, Amandeep Brar, V Vivekanand, Nidhi Pareek
An extracellular acidic and thermostable chitinase (HgChi) from thermophilic Humicola grisea was purified and characterized. Enhancement in chitinase production (Qp  = 2.9662 Ul-1  h-1 ) was achieved through derivation of optimum fermentation conditions via central composite design. H. grisea observed to produce various isoforms of chitinase, among which the major expressed form has molecular mass of about 50 kDa. Purified chitinases exhibited optimal activity at pH 3.0 and 70 °C. Chitinase showed notable stability at increasing temperatures...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782978/a-potent-chitinase-from-bacillus-subtilis-for-the-efficient-bioconversion-of-chitin-containing-wastes
#4
Di Wang, Anjie Li, Hongyu Han, Tian Liu, Qing Yang
Bioconversion of chitin-containing waste to N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (GlcNAc) is of economic interest. Highly efficient chitinases are thus desirable. Bacillus subtilis is a well-known microorganism for industrial protein production and biocontrol, however its chitinolytic enzyme has not been studied in detail. In this study, BsChi from B. subtilis was recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli and characterized as a potent chitinase for degrading crystalline chitin substrates such as α-chitin, β-chitin and crab shells...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782536/fungal-type-carbohydrate-binding-modules-from-the-coccolithophore-emiliania-huxleyi-show-binding-affinity-to-cellulose-and-chitin
#5
Bart J M Rooijakkers, Martina S Ikonen, Markus B Linder
Six fungal-type cellulose binding domains were found in the genome of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi and cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Sequence comparison indicate high similarity to fungal cellulose binding domains, raising the question of why these domains exist in coccolithophores. The proteins were tested for binding with cellulose and chitin as ligands, which resulted in the identification of two functional carbohydrate binding modules: EHUX2 and EHUX4. Compared to benchmark fungal cellulose binding domain Cel7A-CBM1 from Trichoderma reesei, these proteins showed slightly lower binding to birch and bacterial cellulose, but were more efficient chitin binders...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780666/chitin-distribution-in-the-oithona-digestive-and-reproductive-systems-revealed-by-fluorescence-microscopy
#6
Kevin Sugier, Benoit Vacherie, Astrid Cornils, Patrick Wincker, Jean-Louis Jamet, Mohammed-Amin Madoui
Among copepods, which are the most abundant animals on Earth, the genus Oithona is described as one of the most numerous and plays a major role in the marine food chain and biogeochemical cycles, particularly through the excretion of chitin-coated fecal pellets. Despite the morphology of several Oithona species is well known, knowledge of its internal anatomy and chitin distribution is still limited. To answer this problem, Oithona nana and O. similis individuals were stained by Wheat Germ Agglutinin-Fluorescein IsoThioCyanate (WGA-FITC) and DiAmidino-2-PhenylIndole (DAPI) for fluorescence microscopy observations...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780462/fluorescent-dyes-and-probes-for-super-resolution-microscopy-of-microtubules-and-tracheoles-in-living-cells-and-tissues
#7
Gražvydas Lukinavičius, Gyuzel Y Mitronova, Sebastian Schnorrenberg, Alexey N Butkevich, Hannah Barthel, Vladimir N Belov, Stefan W Hell
We introduce fluorogenic tubulin probes based on the recently reported fluorescent dyes (510R, 580CP, GeR and SiR) and chemotherapy agents - taxanes (docetaxel, cabazitaxel and larotaxel). The cytotoxicity of the final probe, its staining performance and specificity strongly depend on both components. We found correlation between the aggregation efficiency (related to the spirolactonization of fluorophore) and cytotoxicity. Probe optimization allowed us to reach 29 ± 11 nm resolution in stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy images of the microtubule network in living human fibroblasts...
April 7, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775283/magnetic-glycol-chitin-based-hydrogel-nanocomposite-for-combined-thermal-and-d-amino-acid-assisted-biofilm-disruption
#8
Eric C Abenojar, Sameera Wickramasinghe, Minseon Ju, Sarika Uppaluri, Alison Klika, Jaiben George, Wael Barsoum, Salvatore J Frangiamore, Carlos A Higuera-Rueda, Anna Cristina S Samia
Bacterial biofilms are highly antibiotic resistant microbial cell associations that lead to chronic infections. Unlike free-floating planktonic bacterial cells, the biofilms are encapsulated in a hardly penetrable extracellular polymeric matrix and, thus, demand innovative approaches for treatment. Recent advancements on the development of gel-nanocomposite systems with tailored therapeutic properties provide promising routes to develop novel antimicrobial agents that can be designed to disrupt and completely eradicate preformed biofilms...
May 18, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775232/mannosylinositol-phosphorylceramides-and-ergosterol-coodinately-maintain-cell-wall-integrity-in-the-yeast-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#9
Seiya Tanaka, Motohiro Tani
In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, complex sphingolipids have three types of polar head group, and breakdown of the normal composition causes several cellular dysfunctions. Previously we found that loss of biosynthesis of mannosylinositol phosphorylceramide (MIPC) causes a defect in cell wall integrity. In this study, we screened for multicopy suppressor genes that rescue the defect in cell wall integrity in cells lacking MIPC synthases (Sur1 and Csh1), and found that the defect is partly suppressed by upregulation of ergosterol biosynthesis...
May 18, 2018: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774238/chitinase-genes-chia-s-provide-genomic-footprints-of-a-post-cretaceous-dietary-radiation-in-placental-mammals
#10
Christopher A Emerling, Frédéric Delsuc, Michael W Nachman
The end-Cretaceous extinction led to a massive faunal turnover, with placental mammals radiating in the wake of nonavian dinosaurs. Fossils indicate that Cretaceous stem placentals were generally insectivorous, whereas their earliest Cenozoic descendants occupied a variety of dietary niches. It is hypothesized that this dietary radiation resulted from the opening of niche space, following the extinction of dinosaurian carnivores and herbivores. We provide the first genomic evidence for the occurrence and timing of this dietary radiation in placental mammals...
May 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773403/synthesis-of-chitin-glucan-aldehyde-quercetin-conjugate-and-evaluation-of-anticancer-and-antioxidant-activities
#11
Anu Singh, P K Dutta, Hridyesh Kumar, Amit Kumar Kureel, Ambak Kumar Rai
In the present study, we have synthesized chitin-glucan-aldehyde-quercetin (chi-glu-ald-que) conjugate via condensation reaction. Synthesis of chitin-glucan-aldehyde (chi-glu-ald) complex was facilitated by the oxidation of chitin-glucan (chi-glu) complex. Formation of conjugate was confirmed by Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1 H NMR) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Morphological studies showed that after grafting of quercetin, several changes on surface were depicted and a more crystalline nature was observed...
August 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773383/superabsorbent-nanocomposite-from-sugarcane-bagasse-chitin-and-clay-synthesis-characterization-and-swelling-behaviour
#12
Maya Sharma, Anjali Bajpai
A nanocomposite comprising crosslinked hybrid polymer network was prepared using chitin and sugarcane bagasse in presence of montmorillonite clay. Chitin and sugarcane bagasse were micro-fibrillated by ultrasonication of their suspension in an ionic liquid 2-hydroxy ethylammonium formate. Optimum reaction conditions were established by variation of amounts of initiator, monomer and crosslinker, and microwave irradiation to obtain nanocomposite with swelling degree above 1000% in 24 h. Slow and steady swelling was observed and the sample swelled to about 15,000% to form a hydrogel in 15 days...
August 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773374/electrospinning-and-wound-healing-activity-of-%C3%AE-chitin-extracted-from-cuttlefish-bone
#13
Hyeong-Seop Jung, Min Hee Kim, Ji Youn Shin, Se Ra Park, Ju-Young Jung, Won Ho Park
A nanofibrous β-chitin web was fabricated via electrospinning for use as a novel wound dressing material. β-chitin was extracted from cuttlefish bone using deproteinization and demineralization. First, cuttlefish bone was alkali-treated to remove the proteins and was then treated with the acid for demineralization. The extracted β-chitin was dissolved in formic acid as solvent to evaluate its electrospinnability, and the electrospinnability increased remarkably when β-chitin was blended with poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) than without...
August 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767335/regulation-of-enzyme-activities-in-carnivorous-pitcher-plants-of-the-genus-nepenthes
#14
Michaela Saganová, Boris Bokor, Tibor Stolárik, Andrej Pavlovič
Nepenthes regulates enzyme activities by sensing stimuli from the insect prey. Protein is the best inductor mimicking the presence of an insect prey. Carnivorous plants of the genus Nepenthes have evolved passive pitcher traps for prey capture. In this study, we investigated the ability of chemical signals from a prey (chitin, protein, and ammonium) to induce transcription and synthesis of digestive enzymes in Nepenthes × Mixta. We used real-time PCR and specific antibodies generated against the aspartic proteases nepenthesins, and type III and type IV chitinases to investigate the induction of digestive enzyme synthesis in response to different chemical stimuli from the prey...
May 16, 2018: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763805/design-synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-novel-quinazoline-2-4-diones-conjugated-with-different-amino-acids-as-potential-chitin-synthase-inhibitors
#15
Nada A Noureldin, Hend Kothayer, El-Sayed M Lashine, Mohamed M Baraka, Yanrong Huang, Bing Li, Qinggang Ji
A series of (2-(1-methyl-2,4-dioxo-1,2-dihydroquinazolin-3(4H)-yl) acetamido) acids) (6 a-m), (7) has been designed to inhibit the action of fungus chitin synthase enzyme (CHS). The synthesis of the designed compounds was carried out in four steps starting from the reaction between 1-methylquinazoline-2,4(1H,3H)-dione and ethyl chloroacetate to yield the ethyl acetate derivative. This ester was hydrolyzed to the corresponding carboxylic acid derivative that was then utilized to couple several amino acids getting the final designed compounds...
May 4, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763674/septin-associated-protein-kinase-gin4-affects-localization-and-phosphorylation-of-chs4-the-regulatory-subunit-of-the-baker-s-yeast-chitin-synthase-iii-complex
#16
Simon Gohlke, Daniela Heine, Hans-Peter Schmitz, Hans Merzendorfer
Chitin is mainly formed by the chitin synthase III complex (CSIII) in yeast cells. This complex is considered to be composed of the catalytic subunit Chs3 and the regulatory subunit Chs4, both of which are phosphoproteins and transported to the plasma membrane by different trafficking routes. During cytokinesis, Chs3 associates with Chs4 and other proteins at the septin ring, which results in an active CSIII complex. In this study, we focused on the role of Chs4 as a regulatory subunit of the CSIII complex...
May 12, 2018: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763421/discovery-of-chitin-in-skeletons-of-non-verongiid-red-sea-demosponges
#17
Hermann Ehrlich, Lamiaa A Shaala, Diaa T A Youssef, Sonia Żółtowska-Aksamitowska, Mikhail Tsurkan, Roberta Galli, Heike Meissner, Marcin Wysokowski, Iaroslav Petrenko, Konstantin R Tabachnick, Viatcheslav N Ivanenko, Nicole Bechmann, Yvonne Joseph, Teofil Jesionowski
Marine demosponges (Porifera: Demospongiae) are recognized as first metazoans which have developed over millions of years of evolution effective survival strategies based on unique metabolic pathways to produce both biologically active secondary metabolites and biopolymer-based stiff skeletons with 3D architecture. Up to date, among marine demosponges, only representatives of the Verongiida order have been known to synthetize biologically active substances as well as skeletons made of structural polysaccharide chitin...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763365/effect-of-cross-linked-chitosan-iron-iii-on-vascular-calcification-in-uremic-rats
#18
Barbara Bruna Abreu de Castro, Wander Barros do Carmo, Paulo Giovani de Albuquerque Suassuna, Moises Carminatti, Julia Bianchi Brito, Wagner Vasques Dominguez, Ivone Braga de Oliveira, Vanda Jorgetti, Melani Ribeiro Custodio, Helady Sanders-Pinheiro
Cross-linked chitosan iron (III) is a chitin-derived polymer with a chelating effect on phosphorus, but it is untested in vascular calcification. We evaluated this compound's ability to reduce hyperphosphatemia and its effect on vascular calcification in uremic rats using an adenine-based, phosphorus-rich diet for seven weeks. We used a control group to characterize the uremia. Uremic rats were divided according the treatment into chronic kidney disease, CKD-Ch-Fe(III)CL (CKD-Ch), CKD-calcium carbonate, or CKD-sevelamer groups...
May 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760968/analysis-of-hepatitis-c-infection-using-raman-spectroscopy-and-proximity-based-classification-in-the-transformed-domain
#19
Anabia Sohail, Saranjam Khan, Rahat Ullah, Shahzad Ahmad Qureshi, Muhammad Bilal, Asifullah Khan
This work presents a diagnostic system for the hepatitis C infection using Raman spectroscopy and proximity based classification. The proposed method exploits transformed Raman spectra using the proximity based machine learning technique and is denoted as RS-PCA-Prox. First, Raman spectral data is baseline corrected by subtracting noise and low intensity background. After this, a feature transformation of Raman spectra is adopted, not only to reduce the feature's dimensionality but also to learn different deviations in Raman shifts...
May 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758537/biopolymers-conjugated-with-magnetite-as-support-materials-for-trypsin-immobilization-and-protein-digestion
#20
Jakub Zdarta, Katarzyna Antecka, Artur Jędrzak, Karol Synoradzki, Magdalena Łuczak, Teofil Jesionowski
In the presented study synthesized magnetic nanoparticles were used as an inorganic precursor for the preparation of novel magnetite-lignin and magnetite-chitin hybrid supports for enzyme immobilization. Effective synthesis of the hybrids was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction analysis. The materials exhibited good thermal stability and surface areas of 4.3 and 5.6 m2 /g respectively. The magnetite-lignin + trypsin and magnetite-chitin + trypsin systems were found to have good storage stability and reusability...
May 8, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
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