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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220754/the-ap-2-complex-has-a-specialized-clathrin-independent-role-in-apical-endocytosis-and-polar-growth-in-fungi
#1
Olga Martzoukou, Sotiris Amillis, Amalia Zervakou, Savvas Christoforidis, George Diallinas
Filamentous fungi provide excellent systems for investigating the role of the AP-2 complex in polar growth. Using Aspergillus nidulans, we show that AP-2 has a clathrin-independent essential role in polarity maintenance and growth. This is in line with a sequence analysis showing that the AP-2 β subunit (β2) of higher fungi lacks a clathrin-binding domain, and experiments showing that AP-2 does not co-localize with clathrin. We provide genetic and cellular evidence that AP-2 interacts with endocytic markers SlaB(End4) and SagA(End3) and the lipid flippases DnfA and DnfB in the sub-apical collar region of hyphae...
February 21, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220688/the-dnaj-protein-osdja6-negatively-regulates-rice-innate-immunity-to-the-blast-fungus-magnaporthe-oryzae
#2
Xionghui Zhong, Jiuxia Yang, Yanlong Shi, Xuli Wang, Guo-Liang Wang
Rice blast, caused by Magnaporthe oryzae (synonym: Pyricularia oryzae), severely reduces rice production and grain quality. The molecular mechanism of rice resistance to M. oryzae is not fully understood. In the present study, we identified a chaperone DnaJ protein, OsDjA6, that is involved in basal resistance to M. oryzae in rice. The OsDjA6 protein is distributed in the entire rice cell. The expression of OsDjA6 is significantly induced in rice after infection with a compatible isolate. Silencing of OsDjA6 in transgenic rice enhances resistance to M...
February 21, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220451/osrlck-57-osrlck107-and-osrlck118-positively-regulate-chitin-and-pgn-induced-immunity-in-rice
#3
Zhangqun Li, Ying Ao, Dongru Feng, Jun Liu, Jinfa Wang, Hong-Bin Wang, Bing Liu
BACKGROUND: The receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase, OsRLCK176 has been reported to participate in both chitin- and PGN-induced immunity in rice. Here, we further researched the function of the homologous proteins, OsRLCK57, OsRLCK107 and OsRLCK118, in chitin- and PGN immunity in rice. FINDINGS: Silencing of OsRLCK57,OsRLCK107 and OsRLCK118 suppressed chitin- and PGN-induced immunity responses, including reactive oxygen species generation, defense gene expression. Furthermore, OsRLCK107 could interact with OsCERK1 in a MAMP induced way, which suggested a possible physiological relevance of OsRLCKs107 to OsCERK1 pathway...
December 2017: Rice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220437/chitin-induced-responses-in-the-moss-physcomitrella-patens
#4
Simon Bressendorff, Magnus Wohlfahrt Rasmussen, Morten Petersen, John Mundy
A MAP kinase pathway below a chitin receptor in the moss Physcomitrella patens induces immune responses including rapid growth inhibition, a novel fluorescence burst, and cell wall depositions. The molecular mechanisms producing these three responses are currently unknown but warrant further investigation in this simple model system. Here we describe qualitative, time-lapse, and quantitative assays to monitor and measure these responses.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220436/chitin-triggered-mapk-activation-and-ros-generation-in-rice-suspension-cultured-cells
#5
Koji Yamaguchi, Tsutomu Kawasaki
Suspension-cultured cells respond sensitively to a number of stimuli including pathogen-derived molecules. Therefore, they are used in a simple, single-cell model system in order to gain insights into immune signaling pathways in rice. Here we describe protocols for studying chitin-induced MAPK activation and ROS generation in rice suspension-cultured cells.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220425/chitin-and-stress-induced-protein-kinase-activation
#6
Chandra Kenchappa, Raquel Azevedo da Silva, Simon Bressendorff, Sabrina Stanimirovic, Jakob Olsen, Morten Petersen, John Mundy
The assays described here are pertinent to protein kinase studies in any plant. They include an immunoblot phosphorylation/activation assay and an in-gel activity assay for MAP kinases (MPKs) using the general protein kinase substrate myelin basic protein. They also include a novel in-gel peptide substrate assay for Snf1-related kinase family 2 members (SnRK2s). This kinase family-specific assay overcomes some limitations of in-gel assays and permits the identification of different types of kinase activities in total protein extracts...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220411/peptidoglycan-isolation-and-binding-studies-with-lysm-type-pattern-recognition-receptors
#7
Ute Bertsche, Andrea A Gust
In the last decade, more and more plant receptors for complex carbohydrate structures have been described. However, studies on receptor binding to glycan ligands are often hampered due to the technical challenge to obtain pure preparations of homogeneous carbohydrate ligands such as bacterial peptidoglycan (PGN) in amounts suitable for studying protein-glycan interactions. Also, most approaches rely on the availability of defined soluble ligands, which in the case of glycans can rarely be synthesized but have to be purified from the respective microorganism...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214585/preparation-and-biocompatibility-of-a-chitin-nanofiber-gelatin-composite-film
#8
Yoko Ogawa, Kazuo Azuma, Hironori Izawa, Minoru Morimoto, Kosuke Ochi, Tomohiro Osaki, Norihiko Ito, Yoshiharu Okamoto, Hiroyuki Saimoto, Shinsuke Ifuku
The development of chitin-based materials with favorable mechanical properties and biocompatibility is an important research goal owing to the wide-ranging practical applications. In this study, a composite film was prepared using chitin nanofibers and gelatin. The CNF/gelatin composite film was highly viscous and had a fine nanofiber structure. The transmittances indicated high transparency, regardless of nanofiber content. The water content of the CNF/gelatin composite film increased linearly as the gelatin content increased...
February 15, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213660/evidence-of-an-unidentified-extracellular-heat-stable-factor-produced-by-lysobacter-enzymogenes-oh11-that-degrade-fusarium-graminearum-ph1-hyphae
#9
Benard Omondi Odhiambo, Gaoge Xu, Guoliang Qian, Fengquan Liu
Lysobacter enzymogenes OH11 produces heat-stable antifungal factor (HSAF) and lytic enzymes possessing antifungal activity. This study bio-prospected for other potential antifungal factors besides those above. The cells and extracellular metabolites of L. enzymogenes OH11 and the mutants ΔchiA, ΔchiB, ΔchiC, Δclp, Δpks, and ΔpilA were examined for antifungal activity against Fusarium graminearum PH1, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB). Results evidenced that OH11 produces an unidentified extracellular heat-stable degrading metabolite (HSDM) that exhibit degrading activity on F...
February 17, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212295/short-chain-chitin-oligomers-promoters-of-plant-growth
#10
Alexander J Winkler, Jose Alfonso Dominguez-Nuñez, Inmaculada Aranaz, César Poza-Carrión, Katrina Ramonell, Shauna Somerville, Marta Berrocal-Lobo
Chitin is the second most abundant biopolymer in nature after cellulose, and it forms an integral part of insect exoskeletons, crustacean shells, krill and the cell walls of fungal spores, where it is present as a high-molecular-weight molecule. In this study, we showed that a chitin oligosaccharide of lower molecular weight (tetramer) induced genes in Arabidopsis that are principally related to vegetative growth, development and carbon and nitrogen metabolism. Based on plant responses to this chitin tetramer, a low-molecular-weight chitin mix (CHL) enriched to 92% with dimers (2mer), trimers (3mer) and tetramers (4mer) was produced for potential use in biotechnological processes...
February 15, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208597/determination-of-the-halogenated-skeleton-constituents-of-the-marine-demosponge-ianthella-basta
#11
Susanne Ueberlein, Susanne Machill, Peter J Schupp, Eike Brunner
Demosponges of the order Verongida such as Ianthella basta exhibit skeletons containing spongin, a collagenous protein, and chitin. Moreover, Verongida sponges are well known to produce bioactive brominated tyrosine derivatives. We recently demonstrated that brominated compounds do not only occur in the cellular matrix but also in the skeletons of the marine sponges Aplysina cavernicola and I. basta. Further investigations revealed the amino acid composition of the skeletons of A. cavernicola including the presence of several halogenated amino acids...
February 10, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204489/enzymatic-properties-of-a-gh19-chitinase-isolated-from-rice-lacking-a-major-loop-structure-involved-in-chitin-binding
#12
Jun Tanaka, Tamo Fukamizo, Takayuki Ohnuma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196414/polyelectrolyte-fiber-assembly-of-plant-derived-spider-silk-like-proteins
#13
Congyue Annie Peng, Julia A Russo, Todd A Lyda, William Richard Marcotte
Spider dragline silk is a proteinaceous material that combines superior toughness and biocompatibility, a promising bio-material. The distinct protein structure and the fiber formation process contribute to the superior toughness of dragline silk. Previously, we have produced recombinant spider silk-like proteins in transgenic tobacco that are readily purified from plant extracts. The plant-derived spidroin-like proteins consisted of native major ampullate spidroin 1 or spidroin 2 N- and C-termini flanking 8, 16, or 32 copies of their respective consensus block repeats (mini-spidroins)...
February 14, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195333/arabidopsis-e3-ubiquitin-ligase-plant-u-box13-pub13-regulates-chitin-receptor-lysin-motif-receptor-kinase5-lyk5-protein-abundance
#14
Dehua Liao, Yangrong Cao, Xun Sun, Catherine Espinoza, Cuong T Nguyen, Yan Liang, Gary Stacey
Long-chain chitooligosaccharides are fungal microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) that are recognized by LYSIN MOTIF RECEPTOR KINASE5 (LYK5), inducing the formation of a complex with CHITIN ELICITOR RECEPTOR KINASE1 (CERK1). Formation of this complex leads to activation of the CERK1 intracellular kinase domain and induction of plant innate immunity in Arabidopsis. We found that addition of chitooctaose induced LYK5 protein accumulation as a result of de novo gene expression and the inhibition of LYK5 protein degradation...
February 14, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188702/control-of-chitin-nanofiber-production-by-the-lipid-producing-diatom-cyclotella-sp-through-fed-batch-addition-of-dissolved-silicon-and-nitrate-in-a-bubble-column-photobioreactor
#15
Omar Chiriboga, Gregory L Rorrer
Diatoms are single-celled algae that make cell walls of nanopatterned biogenic silica called frustules through metabolic uptake of dissolved silicon and its templated condensation into biosilica. The centric marine diatom Cyclotella sp. also produces intracellular lipids and the valued co-product chitin, an N-acetyl glucosamine biopolymer that is extruded from selected frustule pores as pure nanofibers. The goal of this study was to develop a nutrient feeding strategy to control the production of chitin nanofibers from Cyclotella with the co-production of biofuel lipids...
February 11, 2017: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187835/lethal-and-sublethal-effects-of-the-chitin-synthesis-inhibitor-chlorfluazuron-on-bradysia-odoriphaga-yang-and-zhang-diptera-sciaridae
#16
Peng Zhang, Yun-He Zhao, Qiu-Hong Wang, Wei Mu, Feng Liu
Bradysia odoriphaga Yang and Zhang is the primary insect pest that affects Chinese chive in northern China. Nevertheless, very few studies have been conducted on the use of chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSIs) for the control of B. odoriphaga. Here, lethal and sublethal effects of the CSI chlorfluazuron on B. odoriphaga were studied to explore the use for integrated pest management (IPM) of B. odoriphaga. A contact and ingestion toxicity bioassay showed that chlorfluazuron was more active against B. odoriphaga than three other CSIs, with a 72h LC50 of 0...
March 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185932/isolation-and-identification-of-chitin-from-heavy-mineralized-skeleton-of-suberea-clavata-verongida-demospongiae-porifera-marine-demosponge
#17
Hermann Ehrlich, Vasilii V Bazhenov, Cecile Debitus, Nicole de Voogd, Roberta Galli, Mikhail Tsurkan, Marcin Wysokowski, Heike Meissner, Esra Bulut, Murat Kaya, Teofil Jesionowski
Since the discovery of chitin in skeletal structures of sponges (Porifera) in 2007, studies on search of novel species which possess this structural aminopolysaccharide continue up today. The most potential source of chitin is suggested to be localized in the four families of sponges related to the order Verongida (Demospongiae) which nevertheless require further clarification. Here, we report for the first time the isolation and identification of α-chitin from the Suberea clavata demosponge (Aplysinidae: Verongida)...
February 6, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183051/expression-crosslinking-and-developing-modulus-master-curves-of-recombinant-resilin
#18
Md Shahriar K Khandaker, Daniel M Dudek, Eric P Beers, David A Dillard
Resilin is a disordered elastomeric protein found in specialized regions of insect cuticles, where low stiffness and high resilience are required. Having a wide range of functions that vary among insect species, resilin operates across a wide frequency range, from 5Hz for locomotion to 13kHz for sound production. We synthesize and crosslink a recombinant resilin from clone-1 (exon-1+exon-2) of the gene, and determine the water content (approximately 80wt%) and dynamic mechanical properties, along with estimating surface energies relevant for adhesion...
January 11, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182670/killing-of-diverse-eye-pathogens-acanthamoeba-spp-fusarium-solani-and-chlamydia-trachomatis-with-alcohols
#19
Yousuf Aqeel, Raquel Rodriguez, Aparajita Chatterjee, Robin R Ingalls, John Samuelson
BACKGROUND: Blindness is caused by eye pathogens that include a free-living protist (Acanthamoeba castellanii, A. byersi, and/or other Acanthamoeba spp.), a fungus (Fusarium solani), and a bacterium (Chlamydia trachomatis). Hand-eye contact is likely a contributor to the spread of these pathogens, and so hand washing with soap and water or alcohol-based hand sanitizers (when water is not available) might reduce their transmission. Recently we showed that ethanol and isopropanol in concentrations present in hand sanitizers kill walled cysts of Giardia and Entamoeba, causes of diarrhea and dysentery, respectively...
February 9, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180997/functional-characterization-of-a-novel-disaccharide-transporter-in-lobster-hepatopancreas
#20
Olivia Scheffler, Gregory A Ahearn
In animals, the accepted model of carbohydrate digestion and absorption involves reduction of disaccharides into the monosaccharides glucose, fructose, and galactose followed by their individual transmembrane transport into cells. In 2011, a gene for a distinct disaccharide sucrose transporter (SCRT) was found in Drosophila melanogaster and characterized in a yeast expression system. The purpose of the present investigation was to functionally identify and characterize a putative disaccharide transporter analog in the hepatopancreas of the American lobster, Homarus americanus...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
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