keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Chitin

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335413/chitin-oligosaccharide-cos-reduces-antibiotics-dose-and-prevents-antibiotics-caused-side-effects-in-adolescent-idiopathic-scoliosis-ais-patients-with-spinal-fusion-surgery
#1
Yang Qu, Jinyu Xu, Haohan Zhou, Rongpeng Dong, Mingyang Kang, Jianwu Zhao
Antibiotics are always considered for surgical site infection (SSI) in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) surgery. However, the use of antibiotics often causes the antibiotic resistance of pathogens and side effects. Thus, it is necessary to explore natural products as drug candidates. Chitin Oligosaccharide (COS) has anti-inflammation and anti-bacteria functions. The effects of COS on surgical infection in AIS surgery were investigated. A total of 312 AIS patients were evenly and randomly assigned into control group (CG, each patient took one-gram alternative Azithromycin/Erythromycin/Cloxacillin/Aztreonam/Ceftazidime or combined daily), experiment group (EG, each patient took 20 mg COS and half-dose antibiotics daily), and placebo group (PG, each patient took 20 mg placebo and half-dose antibiotics daily)...
March 14, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335317/cytotoxicity-of-silver-nanoparticle-and-chitin-nanofiber-sheet-composites-caused-by-oxidative-stress
#2
Jun Kinoda, Masayuki Ishihara, Hidemi Hattori, Shingo Nakamura, Koichi Fukuda, Hidetaka Yokoe
Size-controlled spherical silver nanoparticles (<10 nm) and chitin-nanofiber sheet composites (Ag NPs/CNFS) have previously been reported to have strong antimicrobial activity in vitro. Although Ag NPs/CNFS have strong antimicrobial activity, their cytotoxicity has not been investigated. This study was performed to evaluate the effects of Ag NPs/CNFS on cytotoxicity for fibroblasts in vitro and healing delay of wound repair in vivo, focused on oxidative stress. Cytotoxic activities of Ag NPs/CNFS were investigated using a fibroblast cell proliferation assay, nitric oxide/nitrogen dioxide (NO/NO₂) measurement of the cell lysates in vitro, inhibitory effects of Ag NPs/CNFS on healing-impaired wound repair using diabetic mice in vivo, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) immunohistochemical staining of the skin sections, and generation of carbonyl protein in the wound was performed to evaluate cytotoxicity with oxidative stress...
October 20, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333077/an-overview-of-the-protective-effects-of-chitosan-and-acetylated-chitosan-oligosaccharides-against-neuronal-disorders
#3
REVIEW
Cui Hao, Wei Wang, Shuyao Wang, Lijuan Zhang, Yunliang Guo
Chitin is the second most abundant biopolymer on Earth and is mainly comprised of a marine invertebrate, consisting of repeating β-1,4 linked N-acetylated glucosamine units, whereas its N-deacetylated product, chitosan, has broad medical applications. Interestingly, chitosan oligosaccharides have therapeutic effects on different types of neuronal disorders, including, but not limited to, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and nerve crush injury. A common link among neuronal disorders is observed at a sub-cellular level, such as atypical protein assemblies and induced neuronal death...
March 23, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330749/identification-purification-and-expression-patterns-of-chitinase-from-psychrotolerant-pedobacter-sp-pr-m6-and-antifungal-activity-in-vitro
#4
Yong-Su Song, Dong-Jun Seo, Woo-Jin Jung
In this study, a novel psychrotolerant chitinolytic bacterium Pedobacter sp. PR-M6 that displayed strong chitinolytic activity on 0.5% colloidal chitin was isolated from the soil of a decayed mushroom. Chitinase activity of PR-M6 at 25 °C (C25) after 6 days of incubation with colloidal chitin increased rapidly to a maximum level (31.3 U/mg proteins). Three chitinase isozymes (chiII, chiIII, and chiIV) from the crude enzyme at 25 °C (C25) incubation were expressed on SDS-PAGE gels at 25 °C. After purification by chitin-affinity chromatography, six chitinase isozymes (chiI, chiII, chiIII, chiIV, chiV, and chiVI) from C25-fractions were expressed on SDS-PAGE gels at 25 °C...
March 19, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330157/biosynthesis-and-characterization-of-a-thermostable-alkali-tolerant-chitinase-from-bacillus-pumilus-jubch08-displaying-antagonism-against-phytopathogenic-fusarium-oxysporum
#5
Sourav Bhattacharya, Arijit Das, Saikat Samadder, Subbaramiah Sundara Rajan
The present investigation highlights the process parameters influencing the submerged fermentation of chitinase by Bacillus pumilus JUBCH08, purification and characterization of the enzyme and determination of antagonistic activity of the bacterium against Fusarium oxysporum. Medium supplemented with 0.5 % chitin and peptone, at initial pH 8.0, when incubated at 35 °C for 72 h favored highest chitinase production. The enzyme was purified 25.1-fold to homogeneity. The chitinase was found to be thermostable and alkali-tolerant with maximum activity at pH 8...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328103/characterization-of-maize-chitinase-a-a-tough-allergenic-molecule
#6
Mariateresa Volpicella, Claudia Leoni, Immacolata Fanizza, Marco Distaso, Guido Leoni, Laura Farioli, Todd Naumann, Elide Pastorello, Luigi Ruggiero Ceci
BACKGROUND: Food allergies are recognized as an increasing health concern. They are caused by specific proteins called food allergens. Proteins commonly identified as food allergens tend to have one of about 30 different biochemical activities. This leads to the assumption that food allergens must have specific structural features which causes their allergenicity. But these structural features are not completely understood. Uncovering the structural basis of allergenicity would allow improved diagnosis and therapy of allergies and would provide insights for safer food production...
March 22, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327272/effects-of-electrospun-scaffolds-of-di-o-butyrylchitin-and-poly-%C3%AE%C2%B5-caprolactone-on-wound-healing
#7
Jacek Drobnik, Izabella Krucinska, Agnieszka Komisarczyk, Stanislaw Sporny, Alicja Szczepanowska, Joanna Ciosek
BACKGROUND: We sought to determine the usefulness of electrospun dibutyrylchitin (DBC) or poly (ε-Caprolactone [PCL]), in wound treatment. We investigated the mechanisms of action of these polymers on wound healing. METHODS: We synthesized DBC, a newly identified ester derivative of chitin, using a patented method comprising the substitution of butyryl groups at positions C-3 and C-6 in chitin molecules. We confirmed the double substitution by the butyric groups using infrared spectrometry...
April 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Surgery. Journal Canadien de Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325326/recent-developments-in-antibacterial-and-antifungal-chitosan-and-its-derivatives
#8
REVIEW
Arno Verlee, Stein Mincke, Christian V Stevens
Chitosan is the deacetylated form of chitin, a biopolymer that can be obtained from various waste streams and shows antimicrobial activity against different fungi, gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Although chitosan has been studied for years, many aspects remain unclear. This review gives an overview of the antimicrobial activity of chitosan and novel chitosan derivatives of the last 15 years. The most important parameters (molecular weight, degree of deacetylation, etc.) are discussed along with a status update on the mode of action of chitosan...
May 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325311/improved-fluorescent-labeling-of-chitin-oligomers-chitinolytic-properties-of-acidic-mammalian-chitinase-under-somatic-tissue-ph-conditions
#9
Satoshi Wakita, Masahiro Kimura, Naoki Kato, Akinori Kashimura, Shunsuke Kobayashi, Naoto Kanayama, Misa Ohno, Shotaro Honda, Masayoshi Sakaguchi, Yasusato Sugahara, Peter O Bauer, Fumitaka Oyama
Acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase) has been implicated in various pathophysiological conditions including asthma, allergic inflammation and food processing. AMCase is most active at pH 2.0, and its activity gradually decreases to up to pH 8. Here we analyzed chitin degradation by AMCase in weak acidic to neutral conditions by fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis established originally for oligosaccharides analysis. We found that specific fragments with slower-than-expected mobility as defined by chitin oligosaccharide markers were generated at pH 5...
May 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322960/sericin-binded-deprotenized-natural-rubber-film-containing-chitin-whiskers-as-elasto-gel-dressing
#10
Anyarat Watthanaphanit, Ratana Rujiravanit
Here, we aims to demonstrate a simple concept in biomaterials design by using natural resources solely as raw materials to fabricate elastic wound care dressing. Elasto-gel films comprise of silk sericin (SRC), natural rubber (NR), and chitin whisker (CTW) were developed. A glue-like protein SRC found in silk cocoons is beneficial for the treatment of wounds due to its superior skin moisturizing ability. However, the pure SRC film is generally difficult to be fabricated because of its weak structural feature...
March 17, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319379/immobilization-of-%C3%AE-galactosidases-from-lactobacillus-on-chitin-using-chitin-binding-domain
#11
Mai Lan Mai Pham, Tatjana Leister, Hoang Anh Nguyen, Bien-Cuong Do, Tuan-Anh Pham, Dietmar Haltrich, Montarop Yamabhai, Thu-Ha Nguyen, Tien-Thanh Nguyen
Two β-galactosidases from Lactobacillus including a heterodimeric, LacLM type enzyme from L. reuteri L103 and a homodimeric LacZ type β-galactosidase from L. bulgaricus DSM 20081 were studied for immobilization on chitin using a carbohydrate-binding domain (chitin-binding domain, ChBD) from a chitinolytic enzyme. Three recombinant enzymes, namely LacLM-ChBD, ChBD-LacLM and LacZ-ChBD, were constructed and successfully expressed in L. plantarum WCFS1. Depending on the structure of the enzymes, either homodimeric or heterodimeric, as well as the positioning of the chitin-binding domain in relation to the catalytic domains, i...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316424/ovicidal-effect-of-chitinase-and-protease-enzymes-produced-by-soil-fungi-on-the-camel-tick-hyalomma-dromedarii-eggs-acari-ixodidae
#12
Salwa M Habeeb, Heba M Ashry, Moataza M Saad
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of chitinase and protease enzymes produced by environmentally safe soil Fungi; Aspergillus sp. NRC 4/5H; Mucor sp. NRC 5; Trichoderma sp. NRC 4/56; Aspergillus sojae; Mucor ranosisinus; Aspergillus oryzae on embryo development of the camel tick Hyalomma dromedarii eggs. The experiment was carried out on the 7 day aged eggs. Concentrations of the chitinase and protease crude enzymes [1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5 (v/v)] were prepared from six stock solutions whose concentrations were 5 units/ml each...
March 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315439/interaction-of-chitin-chitosan-with-salivary-and-other-epithelial-cells-an-overview
#13
REVIEW
Sharvari Vijaykumar Patil, Lalitha S Y Nanduri
Chitin and its deacetylated form, chitosan, have been widely used for tissue engineering of both epithelial and mesenchymal tissues. Epithelial cells characterised by their sheet-like tight cellular arrangement and polarised nature, constitute a major component in various organs and play a variety of roles including protection, secretion and maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Regeneration of damaged epithelial tissues has been studied using biomaterials such as chitin, chitosan, hyaluronan, gelatin and alginate...
March 14, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315437/homology-modeling-molecular-docking-and-molecular-dynamics-studies-of-the-catalytic-domain-of-chitin-deacetylase-from-cryptococcus-laurentii-strain-ry1
#14
Soumyadev Sarkar, Suchetana Gupta, Writachit Chakraborty, Sanjib Senapati, Ratan Gachhui
This study provides structural insights into chitin deacetylase, over-expressing under nitrogen limiting condition in Cryptococcus laurentii strain RY1. The enzyme converts chitin, the second most abundant natural biopolymer, to chitosan, which offers tremendous applications in diverse fields. To elucidate the structure-function relationship of this biologically and industrially important enzyme, a homology model of the catalytic domain was constructed. The stability of the structure was assessed by molecular dynamics simulation studies...
March 14, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314907/structural-characterization-of-a-putative-chitin-synthase-gene-in-phytophthora-spp-and-analysis-of-its-transcriptional-activity-during-pathogenesis-on-potato-and-soybean-plants
#15
Lauren Hinkel, Manuel D Ospina-Giraldo
Although chitin is a major component of the fungal cell wall, in oomycetes (fungal-like organisms), this compound has only been found in very little amounts, mostly in the cell wall of members of the genera Achlya and Saprolegnia. In the oomycetes Phytophthora infestans and P. sojae the presence of chitin has not been demonstrated; however, the gene putatively encoding chitin synthase (CHS), the enzyme that synthesizes chitin, is present in their genomes. The evolutionary significance of the CHS gene in P. infestans and P...
March 17, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314725/a-genome-survey-and-postharvest-transcriptome-analysis-in-lentinula-edodes
#16
Yuichi Sakamoto, Keiko Nakade, Shiho Sato, Kentaro Yoshida, Kazuhiro Miyazaki, Satoshi Natsume, Naotake Konno
Lentinula edodes is a popular cultivated edible and medicinal mushroom. Lentinula edodes is susceptible to postharvest problems such as gill browning, fruiting body softening, and lentinan degradation. We constructed a de novo assembly draft genome sequence and performed gene prediction of Lentinula edodesDe novo assembly was carried out using short reads from paired-end and mate-paired libraries and long reads by PacBio, resulting in a contig number of 1951 and an N50 of 1 Mb. Further, we predicted genes by Augustus using RNA-seq data from the whole life cycle of Lentinula edodes, resulting in 12,959 predicted genes...
March 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306209/crab-chitin-based-2d-soft-nanomaterials-for-fully-biobased-electric-devices
#17
Jun You, Mingjie Li, Beibei Ding, Xiaochen Wu, Chaoxu Li
2D nanomaterials have various size/morphology-dependent properties applicable in electronics, optics, sensing, and actuating. However, intensively studied inorganic 2D nanomaterials are frequently hindered to apply in some particular and industrial fields, owing to harsh synthesis, high-cost, cytotoxicity, and nondegradability. Endeavor has been made to search for biobased 2D nanomaterials with biocompatibility, sustainability, and biodegradability. A method of hydrophobization-induced interfacial-assembly is reported to produce an unprecedented type of nanosheets from marine chitin...
March 17, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302998/distribution-and-diversity-of-enzymes-for-polysaccharide-degradation-in-fungi
#18
Renaud Berlemont
Fungi are important polysaccharide degraders in the environment and for biotechnology. Here, the increasing number of sequenced fungal genomes allowed for systematic identification of genes and proteins involved in polysaccharide degradation in 218 fungi. Globally, 9,003 sequences for glycoside hydrolases and lytic polysaccharide mono-oxygenases targeting cellulose, xylan, and chitin, were identified. Although abundant in most lineages, the distribution of these enzymes is variable even between organisms from the same genus...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300148/evolution-of-the-chitin-synthase-gene-family-correlates-with-fungal-morphogenesis-and-adaption-to-ecological-niches
#19
Ran Liu, Chuan Xu, Qiangqiang Zhang, Shiyi Wang, Weiguo Fang
The fungal kingdom potentially has the most complex chitin synthase (CHS) gene family, but evolution of the fungal CHS gene family and its diversification to fulfill multiple functions remain to be elucidated. Here, we identified the full complement of CHSs from 231 fungal species. Using the largest dataset to date, we characterized the evolution of the fungal CHS gene family using phylogenetic and domain structure analysis. Gene duplication, domain recombination and accretion are major mechanisms underlying the diversification of the fungal CHS gene family, producing at least 7 CHS classes...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293289/novel-acinetobacter-parvus-handi-309-microbial-biomass-for-the-production-of-n-acetyl-%C3%AE-d-glucosamine-glcnac-using-swollen-chitin-substrate-in-submerged-fermentation
#20
Tae Il Kim, Kwang Seok Ki, Dong Hyun Lim, Mayakrishnan Vijayakumar, Seong Min Park, Sun Ho Choi, Ki Young Kim, Seok Ki Im, Beom Young Park
BACKGROUND: N-acetyl-β-d-glucosamine (GlcNAc)6 is extensively used as an important bio-agent and a functional food additive. The traditional chemical process for GlcNAc production has some problems such as high production cost, low yield, and acidic pollution. Therefore, to discover a novel chitinase that is suitable for bioconversion of chitin to GlcNAc would be of great value. RESULTS: Here, we describe the complete isolation and functional characterization of a novel exo-chitinase from Acinetobacter parvus HANDI 309 for the conversion of chitin...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
keyword
keyword
59661
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"