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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381925/molecular-insights-into-pathogenesis-and-infection-with-aspergillus-fumigatus
#1
REVIEW
Ciamak Ghazaei
The virulence of fungi is dependent on multiple factors, including the immune status of patients and biological features of fungi. In particular, the virulence of Aspergillus fumigatus is due to the complex interaction among various molecules involved in thermotolerance (such as ribosomal biogenesis proteins, α-mannosyltransferase and heat shock proteins), pigment production (DHN-melanin), immune evasion (like melanin and hydrophobin) and nutrient uptake (such as siderophores and zinc transporters). Other molecules also play important roles in the virulence of A...
March 2017: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363963/improved-xylose-metabolism-by-a-cyc8-mutant-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#2
Jeroen G Nijland, Hyun Yong Shin, Leonie G M Boender, Paul P de Waal, Paul Klaassen, Arnold J M Driessen
Engineering Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the utilization of pentose sugars is an important goal for the production of second-generation bioethanol and biochemicals. However, S. cerevisiae lacks specific pentose transporters and, in the presence of glucose, pentoses enter the cell inefficiently via endogenous hexose (HXT) transporters. By means of in vivo engineering, we have evolved a quadruple hexokinase deletion mutant of S. cerevisiae into a strain that efficiently utilizes D-xylose in the presence of high D-glucose concentrations...
March 31, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333108/the-biology-of-pichia-membranifaciens-killer-toxins
#3
REVIEW
Ignacio Belda, Javier Ruiz, Alejandro Alonso, Domingo Marquina, Antonio Santos
The killer phenomenon is defined as the ability of some yeast to secrete toxins that are lethal to other sensitive yeasts and filamentous fungi. Since the discovery of strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae capable of secreting killer toxins, much information has been gained regarding killer toxins and this fact has substantially contributed knowledge on fundamental aspects of cell biology and yeast genetics. The killer phenomenon has been studied in Pichia membranifaciens for several years, during which two toxins have been described...
March 23, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145118/use-of-winemaking-supplements-to-modify-the-composition-and-sensory-properties-of-shiraz-wine
#4
Sijing Li, Keren A Bindon, Susan Elaine Putnam Bastian, Vladimir Jiranek, Kerry L Wilkinson
Wine quality can be significantly impacted by tannin and polysaccharide composition, which can in turn be influenced by grape maturity and winemaking practices. This study explored the impact of three commercial wine additives, a maceration enzyme, an oenotannin and a mannoprotein, on the composition and sensory properties of red wine; in particular, in mimicking the mouthfeel associated with wines made from riper grapes. Shiraz grapes were harvested at 24 °Brix and 28 °Brix and the former vinified with commercial additives introduced either individually or in combination...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128557/influence-of-production-method-on-the-chemical-composition-foaming-properties-and-quality-of-australian-carbonated-and-sparkling-white-wines
#5
Julie Culbert, Jacqui M McRae, Bruna Condé, Leigh M Schmidtke, Emily Nicholson, Paul A Smith, Kate Howell, Paul Kenneth Boss, Kerry L Wilkinson
The chemical composition (protein, polysaccharide, amino acid and fatty acid/ethyl ester content), foaming properties and quality of fifty Australian sparkling white wines, representing the four key production methods, i.e. Méthode Traditionelle (n=20), transfer (n=10), Charmat (n=10) and carbonation (n=10), were studied. Méthode Traditionelle wines were typically rated highest in quality and were higher in alcohol and protein content, but lower in residual sugar and total phenolics, than other sparkling wines...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111099/talaromyces-marneffei-mp1p-is-a-virulence-factor-that-binds-and-sequesters-a-key-proinflammatory-lipid-to-dampen-host-innate-immune-response
#6
Kong-Hung Sze, Wai-Hei Lam, Hongmin Zhang, Yi-Hong Ke, Man-Kit Tse, Patrick C Y Woo, Susanna K P Lau, Candy C Y Lau, Jian-Piao Cai, Edward T K Tung, Raymond K C Lo, Simin Xu, Richard Y T Kao, Quan Hao, Kwok-Yung Yuen
Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei is one of the leading causes of systemic mycosis in immunosuppressed or AIDS patients in Southeast Asia. How this intracellular pathogen evades the host immune defense remains unclear. We provide evidence that T. marneffei depletes levels of a key proinflammatory lipid mediator arachidonic acid (AA) to evade the host innate immune defense. Mechanistically, an abundant secretory mannoprotein Mp1p, shown previously to be a virulence factor, does so by binding AA with high affinity via a long hydrophobic central cavity found in the LBD2 domain...
January 16, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101612/abolishment-of-n-glycan-mannosylphosphorylation-in-glyco-engineered-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-by-double-disruption-of-mnn4-and-mnn14-genes
#7
Yeong Hun Kim, Ji-Yeon Kang, Jin Young Gil, Sang-Yoon Kim, Keun Koo Shin, Hyun Ah Kang, Jeong-Yoon Kim, Ohsuk Kwon, Doo-Byoung Oh
Mannosylphosphorylated glycans are found only in fungi, including yeast, and the elimination of mannosylphosphates from glycans is a prerequisite for yeast glyco-engineering to produce human-compatible glycoproteins. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, MNN4 and MNN6 genes are known to play roles in mannosylphosphorylation, but disruption of these genes does not completely remove the mannosylphosphates in N-glycans. This study was performed to find unknown key gene(s) involved in N-glycan mannosylphosphorylation in S...
April 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842800/anti-candida-albicans-natural-products-sources-of-new-antifungal-drugs-a-review
#8
REVIEW
A Zida, S Bamba, A Yacouba, R Ouedraogo-Traore, R T Guiguemdé
INTRODUCTION: Candida albicans is the most prevalent fungal pathogen in humans. Due to the development of drug resistance, there is today a need for new antifungal agents for the efficient management of C. albicans infections. Therefore, we reviewed antifungal activity, mechanisms of action, possible synergism with antifungal drugs of all natural substances experimented to be efficient against C. albicans for future. METHODS: An extensive and systematic review of the literature was undertaken and all relevant abstracts and full-text articles analyzed and included in the review...
November 11, 2016: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769287/effects-of-rho1-a-small-gtpase-on-the-production-of-recombinant-glycoproteins-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#9
Sha Xu, Ge-Yuan Zhang, Huijie Zhang, Toshihiko Kitajima, Hideki Nakanishi, Xiao-Dong Gao
BACKGROUND: To humanize yeast N-glycosylation pathways, genes involved in yeast specific hyper-mannosylation must be disrupted followed by the introduction of genes catalyzing the synthesis, transport, and addition of human sugars. However, deletion of these genes, for instance, OCH1, which initiates hyper-mannosylation, could cause severe defects in cell growth, morphogenesis and response to environmental challenges. RESULTS: In this study, overexpression of RHO1, which encodes the Rho1p small GTPase, is confirmed to partially recover the growth defect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Δalg3Δoch1 double mutant strain...
October 21, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672386/release-of-mannoproteins-during-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-autolysis-induced-by-pulsed-electric-field
#10
Juan M Martínez, Guillermo Cebrián, Ignacio Álvarez, Javier Raso
The potential of the application of pulsed electric fields (PEF) to induce accelerate autolysis of a commercial strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for winemaking use was evaluated. The influence of PEF treatments of different intensity (5-25 kV/cm for 30-240 μs) on cell viability, cytoplasmic membrane permeabilization and release of mannoproteins and compounds absorbing at 260 and 280 nm has been investigated. After 8 days of incubation at 25°C the Abs600 of the suspension containing the control cells was kept constant while the Abs600 of the suspension containing the cells treated by PEF decreased...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27632412/characterization-of-n-acetylglucosamine-biosynthesis-in-pneumocystis-species-a-new-potential-target-for-therapy
#11
Theodore J Kottom, Deanne M Hebrink, Paige E Jenson, Jorge H Ramirez-Prado, Andrew H Limper
N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) serves as an essential structural sugar on the cell surface of organisms. For example, GlcNAc is a major component of bacterial peptidoglycan, it is an important building block of fungal cell walls, including a major constituent of chitin and mannoproteins, and it is also required for extracellular matrix generation by animal cells. Herein, we provide evidence for a uridine diphospho (UDP)-GlcNAc pathway in Pneumocystis species. Using an in silico search of the Pneumocystis jirovecii and P...
February 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27560160/mp1p-is-a-virulence-factor-in-talaromyces-penicillium-marneffei
#12
Patrick C Y Woo, Susanna K P Lau, Candy C Y Lau, Edward T K Tung, Ken T K Chong, Fengjuan Yang, Hongmin Zhang, Raymond K C Lo, Jian-Pao Cai, Rex K H Au-Yeung, Wing-Fung Ng, Herman Tse, Samson S Y Wong, Simin Xu, Wai Hei Lam, Man-Kit Tse, Kong Hung Sze, Richard Y Kao, Neil E Reiner, Quan Hao, Kwok-Yung Yuen
BACKGROUND: Talaromyces marneffei is an opportunistic dimorphic fungus prevalent in Southeast Asia. We previously demonstrated that Mp1p is an immunogenic surface and secretory mannoprotein of T. marneffei. Since Mp1p is a surface protein that can generate protective immunity, we hypothesized that Mp1p and/or its homologs are virulence factors. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined the pathogenic roles of Mp1p and its homologs in a mouse model. All mice died 21 and 30 days after challenge with wild-type T...
August 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27543813/increased-mannoprotein-content-in-wines-produced-by-saccharomyces-kudriavzevii%C3%A3-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-hybrids
#13
Laura Pérez-Través, Amparo Querol, Roberto Pérez-Torrado
Several wine quality aspects are influenced by yeast mannoproteins on account of aroma compounds retention, lactic-acid bacterial growth stimulation, protection against protein haze and astringency reduction. Thus selecting a yeast strain that produces high levels of mannoproteins is important for the winemaking industry. In this work, we observed increased levels of mannoproteins in S. cerevisiae×S. kudriavzevii hybrids, compared to the S. cerevisiae strain, in wine fermentations. Furthermore, the expression of a key gene related to mannoproteins biosynthesis, PMT1, increased in the S...
November 21, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27510749/anhydrobiosis-in-yeast-cell-wall-mannoproteins-are-important-for-yeast-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-resistance-to-dehydration
#14
Diana Borovikova, Renata Teparić, Vladimir Mrša, Alexander Rapoport
The state of anhydrobiosis is linked with the reversible delay of metabolism as a result of strong dehydration of cells, and is widely distributed in nature. A number of factors responsible for the maintenance of organisms' viability in these conditions have been revealed. This study was directed to understanding how changes in cell wall structure may influence the resistance of yeasts to dehydration-rehydration. Mutants lacking various cell wall mannoproteins were tested to address this issue. It was revealed that mutants lacking proteins belonging to two structurally and functionally unrelated groups (proteins non-covalently attached to the cell wall, and Pir proteins) possessed significantly lower cell resistance to dehydration-rehydration than the mother wild-type strain...
August 2016: Yeast
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27455180/use-of-scw4-gene-primers-in-pcr-methods-for-the-identification-of-six-medically-important-aspergillus-species
#15
Silvia Arancia, Silvia Sandini, Elena De Carolis, Antonietta Vella, Maurizio Sanguinetti, Sandro Norelli, Flavia De Bernardis
Aspergillus species are the cause of invasive mold infections in immunocompromised patients: Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus and A. terreus account for most cases of invasive aspergillosis (IA). As certain species are associated with higher mortality and vary in their resistance to antifungal therapy, diagnosis requires increasingly rapid molecular methods that enable sensitive detection and species discrimination. We have developed PCR and Multiplex PCR assays for the detection of six medically important Aspergillus spp...
October 2016: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27442722/alcohol-tannins-and-mannoprotein-and-their-interactions-influence-the-sensory-properties-of-selected-commercial-merlot-wines-a-preliminary-study
#16
Charles Diako, Kenneth McMahon, Scott Mattinson, Marc Evans, Carolyn Ross
The objective of this study was to assess the influence of the interaction among alcohol, tannins, and mannoproteins on the aroma, flavor, taste, and mouthfeel characteristics of selected commercial Merlot wines. Merlot wines (n = 61) were characterized for wine chemistry parameters, including pH, titratable acidity, alcohol, glucose, fructose, tannin profile, total proteins, and mannoprotein content. Agglomerative clustering of these physicochemical characteristics revealed 6 groups of wines. Two wines were selected from each group (n = 12) and profiled by a trained sensory evaluation panel...
August 2016: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27375256/using-mixed-inocula-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-killer-strains-to-improve-the-quality-of-traditional-sparkling-wine
#17
Rocío Velázquez, Emiliano Zamora, Manuel Álvarez, María L Álvarez, Manuel Ramírez
The quality of traditional sparkling-wine depends on the aging process in the presence of dead yeast cells. These cells undergo a slow autolysis process thereby releasing some compounds, mostly colloidal polymers such as polysaccharides and mannoproteins, which influence the wine's foam properties and mouthfeel. Saccharomyces cerevisiae killer yeasts were tested to increase cell death and autolysis during mixed-yeast-inoculated second fermentation and aging. These yeasts killed sensitive strains in killer plate assays done under conditions of low pH and temperature similar to those used in sparkling-wine making, although some strains showed a different killer behaviour during the second fermentation...
October 2016: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27328781/antifungal-membranolytic-activity-of-the-tyrocidines-against-filamentous-plant-fungi
#18
Marina Rautenbach, Anscha M Troskie, Johan A Vosloo, Margitta E Dathe
The tyrocidines and analogues are cyclic decapeptides produced by Brevibacillus parabrevis with a conserved sequence of cyclo(D-Phe(1)-Pro(2)-X(3)-x(4)-Asn(5)-Gln(6)-X(7)-Val(8)-X(9)-Leu(10)) with Trp(3,4)/Phe(3,4) in the aromatic dipeptide unit, Lys(9)/Orn(9) as their cationic residue and Tyr (tyrocidines), Trp (tryptocidines) or Phe (phenicidines) in position 7. Previous studies indicated they have a broad antifungal spectrum with the peptides containing a Tyr residue in position 7 being more active than those with a Phe or Trp residue in this position...
November 2016: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27226011/influence-of-grape-maturity-on-complex-carbohydrate-composition-of-red-sparkling-wines
#19
Leticia Martínez-Lapuente, Rafael Apolinar-Valiente, Zenaida Guadalupe, Belén Ayestarán, Silvia Pérez-Magariño, Pascale Williams, Thierry Doco
This paper studied how grape maturity affected complex carbohydrate composition during red sparkling wine making and wine aging. Grape ripening stage (premature and mature grapes) showed a significant impact on the content, composition, and evolution of polysaccharides and oligosaccharides of sparkling wines. Polysaccharides rich in arabinose and galactose, mannoproteins, rhamnogalacturonans II, and oligosaccharides in base wines increased with maturity. For both maturity stages, polysaccharides rich in arabinose and galactose, and the glucuronic acid glycosyl residue of the oligosaccharides were the major carbohydrates detected in all vinification stages...
June 22, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27213160/scaffolded-antigens-in-yeast-cell-particle-vaccines-provide-protection-against-systemic-polyoma-virus-infection
#20
Donald J Tipper, Eva Szomolanyi-Tsuda
Background. U65, a self-aggregating peptide scaffold, traps fused protein antigens in yeast cells. Conversion to Yeast Cell Particle (YCP) vaccines by partial removal of surface mannoproteins exposes β-glucan, mediating efficient uptake by antigen-presenting cells (APCs). YCP vaccines are inexpensive, capable of rapid large-scale production and have potential for both parenteral and oral use. Results. YCP processing by alkaline hydrolysis exposes up to 20% of the glucan but converts scaffolded antigen and internal yeast proteins into a common aggregate, preventing selective yeast protein removal...
2016: Journal of Immunology Research
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