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Yeong Hun Kim, Ji-Yeon Kang, Jin Young Gil, Sang-Yoon Kim, Keun Koo Shin, Hyun Ah Kang, Jeong-Yoon Kim, Ohsuk Kwon, Doo-Byoung Oh
Mannosylphosphorylated glycans are found only in fungi, including yeast, and the elimination of mannosylphosphates from glycans is a prerequisite for yeast glyco-engineering to produce human-compatible glycoproteins. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, MNN4 and MNN6 genes are known to play roles in mannosylphosphorylation, but disruption of these genes does not completely remove the mannosylphosphates in N-glycans. This study was performed to find unknown key gene(s) involved in N-glycan mannosylphosphorylation in S...
January 18, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
A Zida, S Bamba, A Yacouba, R Ouedraogo-Traore, R T Guiguemdé
INTRODUCTION: Candida albicans is the most prevalent fungal pathogen in humans. Due to the development of drug resistance, there is today a need for new antifungal agents for the efficient management of C. albicans infections. Therefore, we reviewed antifungal activity, mechanisms of action, possible synergism with antifungal drugs of all natural substances experimented to be efficient against C. albicans for future. METHODS: An extensive and systematic review of the literature was undertaken and all relevant abstracts and full-text articles analyzed and included in the review...
November 11, 2016: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
Sha Xu, Ge-Yuan Zhang, Huijie Zhang, Toshihiko Kitajima, Hideki Nakanishi, Xiao-Dong Gao
BACKGROUND: To humanize yeast N-glycosylation pathways, genes involved in yeast specific hyper-mannosylation must be disrupted followed by the introduction of genes catalyzing the synthesis, transport, and addition of human sugars. However, deletion of these genes, for instance, OCH1, which initiates hyper-mannosylation, could cause severe defects in cell growth, morphogenesis and response to environmental challenges. RESULTS: In this study, overexpression of RHO1, which encodes the Rho1p small GTPase, is confirmed to partially recover the growth defect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Δalg3Δoch1 double mutant strain...
October 21, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
Juan M Martínez, Guillermo Cebrián, Ignacio Álvarez, Javier Raso
The potential of the application of pulsed electric fields (PEF) to induce accelerate autolysis of a commercial strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for winemaking use was evaluated. The influence of PEF treatments of different intensity (5-25 kV/cm for 30-240 μs) on cell viability, cytoplasmic membrane permeabilization and release of mannoproteins and compounds absorbing at 260 and 280 nm has been investigated. After 8 days of incubation at 25°C the Abs600 of the suspension containing the control cells was kept constant while the Abs600 of the suspension containing the cells treated by PEF decreased...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Theodore J Kottom, Deanne M Hebrink, Paige E Jenson, Jorge H Ramirez-Prado, Andrew H Limper
N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), serves as an essential structural sugar on the cell surface of organisms. For example, GlcNAc is a major component of bacterial peptidoglycan, it is an important building block of fungal cell walls, including a major constituent of chitin and mannoproteins, and it also required for extracellular matrix generation by animal cells. Herein, we provide evidence for a uridine diphospho-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) pathway in Pneumocystis species. Using in silico search of the P...
September 15, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Patrick C Y Woo, Susanna K P Lau, Candy C Y Lau, Edward T K Tung, Ken T K Chong, Fengjuan Yang, Hongmin Zhang, Raymond K C Lo, Jian-Pao Cai, Rex K H Au-Yeung, Wing-Fung Ng, Herman Tse, Samson S Y Wong, Simin Xu, Wai Hei Lam, Man-Kit Tse, Kong Hung Sze, Richard Y Kao, Neil E Reiner, Quan Hao, Kwok-Yung Yuen
BACKGROUND: Talaromyces marneffei is an opportunistic dimorphic fungus prevalent in Southeast Asia. We previously demonstrated that Mp1p is an immunogenic surface and secretory mannoprotein of T. marneffei. Since Mp1p is a surface protein that can generate protective immunity, we hypothesized that Mp1p and/or its homologs are virulence factors. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined the pathogenic roles of Mp1p and its homologs in a mouse model. All mice died 21 and 30 days after challenge with wild-type T...
August 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Laura Pérez-Través, Amparo Querol, Roberto Pérez-Torrado
Several wine quality aspects are influenced by yeast mannoproteins on account of aroma compounds retention, lactic-acid bacterial growth stimulation, protection against protein haze and astringency reduction. Thus selecting a yeast strain that produces high levels of mannoproteins is important for the winemaking industry. In this work, we observed increased levels of mannoproteins in S. cerevisiae×S. kudriavzevii hybrids, compared to the S. cerevisiae strain, in wine fermentations. Furthermore, the expression of a key gene related to mannoproteins biosynthesis, PMT1, increased in the S...
November 21, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Diana Borovikova, Renata Teparić, Vladimir Mrša, Alexander Rapoport
The state of anhydrobiosis is linked with the reversible delay of metabolism as a result of strong dehydration of cells, and is widely distributed in nature. A number of factors responsible for the maintenance of organisms' viability in these conditions have been revealed. This study was directed to understanding how changes in cell wall structure may influence the resistance of yeasts to dehydration-rehydration. Mutants lacking various cell wall mannoproteins were tested to address this issue. It was revealed that mutants lacking proteins belonging to two structurally and functionally unrelated groups (proteins non-covalently attached to the cell wall, and Pir proteins) possessed significantly lower cell resistance to dehydration-rehydration than the mother wild-type strain...
August 2016: Yeast
Silvia Arancia, Silvia Sandini, Elena De Carolis, Antonietta Vella, Maurizio Sanguinetti, Sandro Norelli, Flavia De Bernardis
Aspergillus species are the cause of invasive mold infections in immunocompromised patients: Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus and A. terreus account for most cases of invasive aspergillosis (IA). As certain species are associated with higher mortality and vary in their resistance to antifungal therapy, diagnosis requires increasingly rapid molecular methods that enable sensitive detection and species discrimination. We have developed PCR and Multiplex PCR assays for the detection of six medically important Aspergillus spp...
October 2016: New Microbiologica
Charles Diako, Kenneth McMahon, Scott Mattinson, Marc Evans, Carolyn Ross
The objective of this study was to assess the influence of the interaction among alcohol, tannins, and mannoproteins on the aroma, flavor, taste, and mouthfeel characteristics of selected commercial Merlot wines. Merlot wines (n = 61) were characterized for wine chemistry parameters, including pH, titratable acidity, alcohol, glucose, fructose, tannin profile, total proteins, and mannoprotein content. Agglomerative clustering of these physicochemical characteristics revealed 6 groups of wines. Two wines were selected from each group (n = 12) and profiled by a trained sensory evaluation panel...
August 2016: Journal of Food Science
Rocío Velázquez, Emiliano Zamora, Manuel Álvarez, María L Álvarez, Manuel Ramírez
The quality of traditional sparkling-wine depends on the aging process in the presence of dead yeast cells. These cells undergo a slow autolysis process thereby releasing some compounds, mostly colloidal polymers such as polysaccharides and mannoproteins, which influence the wine's foam properties and mouthfeel. Saccharomyces cerevisiae killer yeasts were tested to increase cell death and autolysis during mixed-yeast-inoculated second fermentation and aging. These yeasts killed sensitive strains in killer plate assays done under conditions of low pH and temperature similar to those used in sparkling-wine making, although some strains showed a different killer behaviour during the second fermentation...
October 2016: Food Microbiology
Marina Rautenbach, Anscha M Troskie, Johan A Vosloo, Margitta E Dathe
The tyrocidines and analogues are cyclic decapeptides produced by Brevibacillus parabrevis with a conserved sequence of cyclo(D-Phe(1)-Pro(2)-X(3)-x(4)-Asn(5)-Gln(6)-X(7)-Val(8)-X(9)-Leu(10)) with Trp(3,4)/Phe(3,4) in the aromatic dipeptide unit, Lys(9)/Orn(9) as their cationic residue and Tyr (tyrocidines), Trp (tryptocidines) or Phe (phenicidines) in position 7. Previous studies indicated they have a broad antifungal spectrum with the peptides containing a Tyr residue in position 7 being more active than those with a Phe or Trp residue in this position...
November 2016: Biochimie
Leticia Martínez-Lapuente, Rafael Apolinar-Valiente, Zenaida Guadalupe, Belén Ayestarán, Silvia Pérez-Magariño, Pascale Williams, Thierry Doco
This paper studied how grape maturity affected complex carbohydrate composition during red sparkling wine making and wine aging. Grape ripening stage (premature and mature grapes) showed a significant impact on the content, composition, and evolution of polysaccharides and oligosaccharides of sparkling wines. Polysaccharides rich in arabinose and galactose, mannoproteins, rhamnogalacturonans II, and oligosaccharides in base wines increased with maturity. For both maturity stages, polysaccharides rich in arabinose and galactose, and the glucuronic acid glycosyl residue of the oligosaccharides were the major carbohydrates detected in all vinification stages...
June 22, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Donald J Tipper, Eva Szomolanyi-Tsuda
Background. U65, a self-aggregating peptide scaffold, traps fused protein antigens in yeast cells. Conversion to Yeast Cell Particle (YCP) vaccines by partial removal of surface mannoproteins exposes β-glucan, mediating efficient uptake by antigen-presenting cells (APCs). YCP vaccines are inexpensive, capable of rapid large-scale production and have potential for both parenteral and oral use. Results. YCP processing by alkaline hydrolysis exposes up to 20% of the glucan but converts scaffolded antigen and internal yeast proteins into a common aggregate, preventing selective yeast protein removal...
2016: Journal of Immunology Research
J Mekoue Nguela, C Poncet-Legrand, N Sieczkowski, A Vernhet
At present, there is a great interest in enology for yeast derived products to replace aging on lees in winemaking or as an alternative for wine fining. These are yeast protein extracts (YPE), cell walls and mannoproteins. Our aim was to further understand the mechanisms that drive interactions between these components and red wine polyphenols. To this end, interactions between grape skin tannins or wine polyphenols or tannins and a YPE, a mannoprotein fraction and a β-glucan were monitored by binding experiments, ITC and DLS...
November 1, 2016: Food Chemistry
E Román, I Correia, A Salazin, C Fradin, T Jouault, D Poulain, F-T Liu, J Pla
The Cek1 MAP kinase (MAPK) mediates vegetative growth and cell wall biogenesis in the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Alterations in the fungal cell wall caused by a defective Cek1‑mediated signaling pathway leads to increased β‑1,3‑glucan exposure influencing dectin‑1 fungal recognition by immune cells. We show here that cek1 cells also display an increased exposure of α‑1,2 and β‑1,2‑mannosides (α‑M and β‑M), a phenotype shared by strains defective in the activating MAPKK Hst7, suggesting a general defect in cell wall assembly...
July 3, 2016: Virulence
Beatriz Padilla, José V Gil, Paloma Manzanares
It is well established that non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts, considered in the past as undesired or spoilage yeasts, can enhance the analytical composition, and aroma profile of the wine. The contribution of non-Saccharomyces yeasts, including the ability to secret enzymes and produce secondary metabolites, glycerol and ethanol, release of mannoproteins or contributions to color stability, is species- and strain-specific, pointing out the key importance of a clever strain selection. The use of mixed starters of selected non-Saccharomyces yeasts with strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae represents an alternative to both spontaneous and inoculated wine fermentations, taking advantage of the potential positive role that non-Saccharomyces wine yeast species play in the organoleptic characteristics of wine...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Ignacio Belda, Eva Navascués, Domingo Marquina, Antonio Santos, Fernando Calderón, Santiago Benito
During the last decade, the use of innovative yeast cultures of both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces yeasts as alternative tools to manage the winemaking process have turned the oenology industry. Although the contribution of different yeast species to wine quality during fermentation is increasingly understood, information about their role in wine ageing over lees is really scarce. This work aims to analyse the incidence of three non-Saccharomyces yeast species of oenological interest (Torulaspora delbrueckii, Lachancea thermotolerans and Metschnikowia pulcherrima) and of a commercial mannoprotein-overproducer S...
July 2016: Yeast
Andrea Zito, Carla Bromuro, Giorgia Mandili, Paola Chiani, Alberto L Horenstein, Fabio Malavasi, Roberto Cauda, Antonio Cassone, Antonella Torosantucci
There is a real medical need of new diagnostic tools for the early recognition of invasive Candida infections. We exploited a rather simple and rapid redox methodology to construct a bispecific monoclonal antibody (bsmAb) that combines a monoclonal antibody (mAb) directed against 1,3-β-D-glucan, a well-known, pan-fungal diagnostic biomarker, with a mAb recognizing MP65, a major immunogenic mannoprotein secreted by C.albicans and other Candida species. The bsmAb (MP65/bglu mAb) was successfully produced and purified at high yields and proved to bind and reveal simultaneously, with high sensitivity, the β-glucan and MP65 antigens in both purified and native forms...
2016: PloS One
K Prakit, J D Nosanchuk, K Pruksaphon, N Vanittanakom, S Youngchim
The thermally dimorphic fungus Penicillium marneffei is a causative agent of penicilliosis marneffei, a disease considered to be an acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining illness in Southeast Asia and southern China. We have developed an inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (inh-ELISA) incorporating the yeast phase specific mannoprotein-binding monoclonal antibody 4D1 for the detection of P. marneffei infection. In our sample set, the test detected antigenemia in all 45 (100 %) patients with P...
April 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
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