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Veronika Caisová, Andra Vieru, Zuzana Kumžáková, Simona Glaserová, Hana Husníková, Nikol Vácová, Gabriela Krejčová, Lucie Paďouková, Ivana Jochmanová, Katherine I Wolf, Jindřich Chmelař, Jan Kopecký, Jan Ženka
BACKGROUND: Using killed microorganisms or their parts to stimulate immunity for cancer treatment dates back to the end of 19(th) century. Since then, it undergone considerable development. Our novel approach binds ligands to the tumor cell surface, which stimulates tumor phagocytosis. The therapeutic effect is further amplified by simultaneous application of agonists of Toll-like receptors. We searched for ligands that induce both a strong therapeutic effect and are safe for humans. METHODS: B16-F10 murine melanoma model was used...
December 7, 2016: BMC Cancer
Anne Troldborg, Annette Hansen, Søren W K Hansen, Jens Christian Jensenius, Kristian Stengaard-Pedersen, Steffen Thiel
Since the discovery of the lectin pathway of complement activation, numerous clinical cohorts have been examined for one or more of the proteins, with the intention of uncovering the functions of the proteins or with the aim of discovering new biomarkers or diagnostic tools. To unveil the abnormal, it is pivotal to know the normal. Our aim was to describe the concentrations of the eleven known proteins of the lectin pathway in serum and plasma and to uncover possible gender differences, age and diurnal variations, which must be taken into account for investigations in different cohorts...
December 7, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Vasso Apostolopoulos, George Deraos, Minos-Timotheos Matsoukas, Stephanie Day, Lily Stojanovska, Theodore Tselios, Maria-Eleni Androutsou, John Matsoukas
Amino acid mutations to agonist peptide epitopes of myelin proteins have been used to modulate immune responses and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, animal model of multiple sclerosis). Such amino acid alteration are termed, altered peptide ligands (APL). We have shown that the agonist myelin basic protein (MBP) 87-99 epitope (MBP87-99) with crucial T cell receptor (TCR) substitutions at positions 91 and 96 (K(91),P(96) (TCR contact residues) to R(91),A(96); [R(91),A(96)]MBP87-99) results in altered T cell responses and inhibits EAE symptoms...
November 19, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Ashim Mannan, Deji Akinyooye, Fahad Hossain
Alignment data in patient-specific instrumented (PSI) knee arthroplasty have been examined in several meta-analyses, with demonstration of comparative but not improved restitution of a neutral mechanical axis and favorable outcomes in femoral implant axial alignment. To date, no comprehensive synthesis of data has been conducted specifically for functional outcomes. Relevant databases were searched according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines during the period 2000 to 2015 of Levels 1 and 2 studies comparing functional outcomes of patient-specific instrumentation (PSI) versus conventional instrumentation...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Knee Surgery
Andrea Y Weiße, Ahmad A Mannan, Diego A Oyarzún
How do cells transmit biochemical signals accurately? It turns out, pushing and pulling can go a long way.
November 23, 2016: Cell Systems
Surona Visagie, Arne H Eide, Hasheem Mannan, Marguerite Schneider, Leslie Swartz, Gubela Mji, Alister Munthali, Mustafa Khogali, Gert van Rooy, Karl-Gerhard Hem, Malcolm MacLachlan
: Purpose statement: The article explores assistive technology sources, services and outcomes in South Africa, Namibia, Malawi and Sudan. METHODS: A survey was done in purposively selected sites of the study countries. Cluster sampling followed by random sampling served to identify 400-500 households (HHs) with members with disabilities per country. A HH questionnaire and individual questionnaire was completed. Country level analysis was limited to descriptive statistics...
November 24, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
Suprovath Kumar Sarker, Md Tarikul Islam, Grace Eckhoff, Mohammad Amir Hossain, Syeda Kashfi Qadri, A K M Muraduzzaman, Golam Sarower Bhuyan, Mohammod Shahidullah, Mohammad Abdul Mannan, Sarabon Tahura, Manzoor Hussain, Shahida Akhter, Nazmun Nahar, Tahmina Shirin, Firdausi Qadri, Kaiissar Mannoor
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a common X-linked human enzyme defect of red blood cells (RBCs). Individuals with this gene defect appear normal until exposed to oxidative stress which induces hemolysis. Consumption of certain foods such as fava beans, legumes; infection with bacteria or virus; and use of certain drugs such as primaquine, sulfa drugs etc. may result in lysis of RBCs in G6PD deficient individuals. The genetic defect that causes G6PD deficiency has been identified mostly as single base missense mutations...
2016: PloS One
N V Goncharova, M V Khrapova, A B Pupyshev, E Ts Korolenko, Z Nešéáková, T A Korolenko
We studied biological effects of mannan, a polysaccharide immunomodulator from C. albicans, that interacts with mannose receptor in vivo. It is shown that preliminary administration of mannan (5 times in a dose of 50 mg/kg or 2 times in a dose of 100 mg/kg) to mice with acute lipemia induced by lipase inhibitor poloxamer 407 (300 mg/kg) reduces the serum concentrations of atherogenic LDL, cholesterol, and triglycerides. Administration of mannan to intact mice and animals with acute lipemia reduces triglyceride concentration and causes labilization of lysosomal membranes in the liver...
November 23, 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Viktoria Bågenholm, Sumitha K Reddy, Hanene Bouraoui, Johan Morrill, Evelina Kulcinskaja, Constance M Bahr, Oskar Aurelius, Theresa Rogers, Yao Xiao, Derek T Logan, Eric C Martens, Nicole M Koropatkin, Henrik Stålbrand
A recently identified polysaccharide utilisation locus (PUL) from Bacteroides ovatus ATCC8483 is transcriptionally upregulated during growth on galacto- and glucomannans. It encodes two putative glycoside hydrolase family 26 (GH26) β-mannanases, BoMan26A and BoMan26B, and a GH36 α-galactosidase, BoGal36A. The PUL also includes two glycan binding proteins, confirmed by β-mannan affinity electrophoresis. When this PUL was deleted, B. ovatus was no longer able to grow on locust bean galactomannan. BoMan26A primarily formed mannobiose from mannan polysaccharides...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Adamara M Nascimento, Daniele Maria-Ferreira, Evana Figueiredo J de Souza, Lauro M de Souza, Guilherme L Sassaki, Marcello Iacomini, Maria Fernanda de P Werner, Thales R Cipriani
Croton cajucara Benth. is a tree from the Amazon Forest, where it is known as sacaca. Its leaves and barks are used in medicinal preparations to treat different diseases, including gastric ulcers. The crude polysaccharide fraction (CCP), obtained from the hot aqueous extract of C. cajucara leaves, was able to promote gastroprotection on an ethanol induced gastric ulcer model. Therefore, a bioguided fractionation was performed to isolate the active polysaccharide fraction. After freezing-thawing, ultrafiltration and dialyses at 100, 50, and 25kDa cut-off membranes, fraction 25R was obtained...
November 15, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Sayyad Mannan, Mohammad Zaffar, Asima Pradhan, Sumit Basu
The microfibril angle (MFA) giving the orientation of cellulose chains in hard sclerenchymatous bamboo fibers is one of the most important parameters determining the overall strength of the bamboo culm. In this work, Mueller matrix imaging polarimetry is implemented for determining MFA measured over a transverse section of group of fibers and parenchyma cells in bamboo of Dendrocalamus strictus species. The method, based on the Stokes-Mueller formalism, decouples the birefringence exhibited by crystalline cellulose from the clumped polarization parameters using 16 images taken with different polarization states at subcellular resolution...
November 10, 2016: Applied Optics
Sahar Hasim, David P Allison, Scott T Retterer, Alex Hopke, Robert T Wheeler, Mitchel J Doktycz, Todd B Reynolds
Candida albicans is among the most common human fungal pathogens, causing a broad range of infections including life threatening systemic infections. The cell wall of C. albicans is the interface between the fungus and the innate immune system. The cell wall is composed of an outer layer enriched in mannosylated glycoproteins (mannan) and an inner layer enriched in ß- (1, 3)-glucan and chitin. Detection of C. albicans by Dectin-1, a C-type signaling lectin specific for ß- (1, 3)-glucan, is important for the innate immune system to recognize systemic fungal infections...
November 14, 2016: Infection and Immunity
Xianhai Zhao, Tingting Tong, HuiLing Li, Haojun Lu, Junli Ren, Aiping Zhang, Xiaomei Deng, Xiaoyang Chen, Ai-Min Wu
In this study, hemicelluloses were isolated from the apical, middle and basal segments of N. cadamba using a 2N KOH extraction procedure. Chemical composition and structural characterization of the three hemicellulosic fractions obtained were comparatively investigated by a combination of HPLC, GPC, FTIR, (1)H,(13)C, HSQC NMR and TGA techniques. According to the sugar analysis and spectral results, (4-O-methyl) glucuronoxylan was the primary hemicellulose identified in the samples with trace levels of mannan also present...
January 20, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Siriporn Chaikaew, Apinun Kanpiengjai, Jenjira Intatep, Kridsada Unban, Goro Takata, Chartchai Khanongnuch
The present study demonstrates the effectiveness of x-ray radiation in strain improvement for defective lipase production by Bacillus sp. MR10 for further application in the fermentative production of manno-oligosaccharides (MOS) from agricultural by-product, defatted copra meal (DCM). The mutants obtained were screened based on their defective lipase activity together with their β-mannanase production performance. Among ten selected mutants, the strain M7 was the highest promising mutant regarding the smallest lipase activity (0...
November 7, 2016: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
Weidong Zhang, Martin van Eijk, Hongbo Guo, Albert van Dijk, Onno B Bleijerveld, M Hélène Verheije, Guanbo Wang, Henk P Haagsman, Edwin J A Veldhuizen
Mannose binding lectin (MBL) is a serum collagenous C-type lectin that plays an important role in the innate immune protection against pathogens. Previously, human and mouse studies have demonstrated that MBL binds a broad range of pathogens that results in their neutralization through agglutination, enhanced phagocytosis, and/or complement activation via the lectin pathway. The role of MBL in chicken is not well understood although the MBL concentration in serum seems to correlate with protection against infections...
October 29, 2016: Immunobiology
Jacqueline Marshall, Yannick Rossez, Geoffrey Mainda, David L Gally, Tim Daniell, Nicola Holden
Type 1 fimbriae (T1F) are well characterised cell surface organelles expressed by Escherichia coli and required for adherence to mannosylated host tissue. They satisfy molecular Koch's postulates as a virulence determinant and a host-adapted role has been reinforced by reports that T1F expression is repressed at sub-mammalian temperatures. Analysis of a group of 136 environmental and animal E. coli isolates that express T1F at 37 °C showed that 28% are also capable of expression at 20 °C, in a phase variable manner...
November 2, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Mohsen Pourabedin, Qiaoling Chen, MingMing Yang, Xin Zhao
Salmonella Enteritidis is a pathogen, which can infect humans and chickens. This study was designed to address the impact of two potential prebiotics, mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) and xylooligosaccharides (XOS), on the caecal microbiota and expression of cytokines in chickens infected with S. Enteritidis. Newly hatched chicks were assigned to one of five groups: (1) uninfected control, (2) infected control, (3) infected + XOS, (4) infected + MOS and (5) infected + virginiamycin. The number of S. Enteritidis recovered from the caecum was significantly lower, by 1...
January 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Abul Ala Syed Rifat Mannan, Bo Shen, Fred Hsieh, Deepa T Patil
We report a unique case of systemic mastocytosis (SM) diagnosed in an ileal pouch biopsy obtained from a 44-year-old woman with ulcerative colitis. She presented with intermittent abdominal pain and watery diarrhea that did not respond to antibiotic therapy. The pouch biopsy showed expansion of the lamina propria by aggregates of CD117 and CD25-positive abnormal mast cells. A subsequent bone marrow analysis showed an increase in abnormal mast cells. Based on World Health Organization criteria, she was diagnosed with SM and responded to cromolyn sodium therapy...
August 2016: ACG Case Reports Journal
Zhiwen Chen, Thomas Q Hu, Ho Fan Jang, Edward Grant
The hemicellulose composition of a pulp significantly affects its chemical and physical properties and thus represents an important process control variable. However, complicated steps of sample preparation make standard methods for the carbohydrate analysis of pulp samples, such as high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), expensive and time-consuming. In contrast, pulp analysis by attenuated total internal reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR FT-IR) requires little sample preparation...
October 28, 2016: Applied Spectroscopy
Alastair Watson, Nina Kronqvist, C Mirella Spalluto, Mark Griffiths, Karl J Staples, Tom Wilkinson, Uffe Holmskov, Grith L Sorensen, Anna Rising, Jan Johansson, Jens Madsen, Howard Clark
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of bronchiolitis and hospitalisation of infants in developed countries. Surfactant protein A (SP-A) is an important innate immune molecule, localized in pulmonary surfactant. SP-A binds to carbohydrates on the surface of pathogens in a calcium-dependent manner to enable neutralisation, agglutination and clearance of pathogens including RSV. SP-A forms trimeric units and further oligomerises through interactions between its N-terminal domains. Whilst a recombinant trimeric fragment of the closely related molecule (surfactant protein D) has been shown to retain many of the native protein's functions, the importance of the SP-A oligomeric structure in its interaction with RSV has not been determined...
October 18, 2016: Immunobiology
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