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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805791/low-circulating-mannan-binding-lectin-levels-correlate-with-increased-frequency-and-severity-of-febrile-episodes-in-myeloma-patients-who-undergo-asct-and-do-not-receive-antibiotic-prophylaxis
#1
E Eleutherakis-Papaiakovou, M-A Dimopoulos, E Kastritis, D Christoulas, M Roussou, M Migkou, M Gavriatopoulou, D Fotiou, I Panagiotidis, D C Ziogas, N Kanellias, C Papadimitriou, E Terpos
Patients with multiple myeloma (MM) who undergo autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) are susceptible to severe infections. Low levels of circulating mannan-binding lectin (MBL) are associated with increased risk of infection. In this prospective study, we evaluated 100 patients who underwent ASCT regarding the effect of MBL on the incidence and severity of febrile episodes. Seventeen patients had MBL levels <500 ng/mL (11 received antibiotic prophylaxis and 6 did not). Although there was no statistical difference regarding the development of febrile episodes between patients with low and normal MBL, among 17 patients with low MBL levels, six out of eleven patients who received antibiotic prophylaxis developed a febrile episode compared with six out of six patients who did not receive antibiotic prophylaxis and developed a febrile episode...
August 14, 2017: Bone Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801230/a-mitochondrial-proteomics-view-of-complex-i-deficiency-in-candida-albicans
#2
Xiaodong She, Pengyi Zhang, Ying Gao, Lulu Zhang, Qiong Wang, Hui Chen, Richard Calderone, Weida Liu, Dongmei Li
Proteomic analyses were carried out on isolated mitochondrial samples of C. albicans from gene-deleted mutants (nuo1Δ, nuo2Δ and goa1Δ) as well as the parental strain in order to better understand the contribution of these three fungal-specific mitochondrial ETC complex I (CI) subunits to cellular activities. Herein, we identify 2333 putative proteins from four strains, in which a total of 663 proteins (28.5%) are putatively located in mitochondria. Comparison of protein abundances between mutants and the parental strain reveal 146 differentially-expressed proteins, of which 78 are decreased and 68 are increased in at least one mutant...
August 8, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799153/-fungi-in-the-gut-the-gut-mycobiome
#3
Herbert Hof
Many different fungi, including yeasts and molds, can be found in the intestinal tract of humans constituting the gut mycobiome. In case the bacterial flora is altered, the fungal flora may react inversely. By a so-called fungal diet, however, the composition of the mycobiome can hardly be influenced. Whereas some fungi are only transiently present in the gut after oral uptake, others, such as Candida, Saccharomyces, Rhodotorula, Trichosporon, Geotrichum, amongst others, are members of the residential, autochthonous gut flora...
August 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798999/influence-of-immunostimulant-polysaccharides-nucleic-acids-and-bacillus-strains-on-the-innate-immune-and-acute-stress-response-in-turbots-scophthalmus-maximus-fed-soy-bean-and-wheat-based-diets
#4
V I Fuchs, J Schmidt, M J Slater, B H Buck, D Steinhagen
Immunostimulants are widely applied in aquaculture practice and may have beneficial effects on the immune system and physical functions allowing higher tolerance to stress. In the current study, the impact of four (i-iv) dietary active ingredients on the immune and stress response of turbot was examined in two experiments (I and II). A basal low fish meal (FM; 32%) diet was formulated and supplemented with (i) yeast β-glucan and mannan oligosaccharide (GM), (ii) alginic acid (AC), (iii) yeast nucleotides and RNA (NR), or (iv) Bacillus strains (BS)...
August 10, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770233/airway-epithelial-repair-by-a-prebiotic-mannan-derived-from-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#5
Christie F Michael, Christopher M Waters, Kim S LeMessurier, Amali E Samarasinghe, Chi Y Song, Kafait U Malik, D Betty Lew
In asthmatic airways, repeated epithelial damage and repair occur. No current therapy directly targets this process. We aimed to determine the effects of mannan derived from S. cerevisiae (SC-MN) on airway epithelial wound repair, in vitro. The presence of functional mannose receptors in bronchial epithelial cells was shown by endocytosis of colloidal gold-Man BSA via clathrin-coated pits in 16HBE cells. In primary normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBEC), SC-MN significantly facilitated wound closure...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763198/fundamental-design-principles-for-transcription-factor-based-metabolite-biosensors
#6
Ahmad A Mannan, Di Liu, Fuzhong Zhang, Diego A Oyarzún
Metabolite biosensors are central to current efforts toward precision engineering of metabolism. Although most research has focused on building new biosensors, their tunability remains poorly understood and is fundamental for their broad applicability. Here we asked how genetic modifications shape the dose-response curve of biosensors based on metabolite-responsive transcription factors. Using the lac system in Escherichia coli as a model system, we built promoter libraries with variable operator sites that reveal interdependencies between biosensor dynamic range and response threshold...
August 9, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763100/fungal-derived-cues-promote-ocular-autoimmunity-through-a-dectin-2-card9-mediated-mechanism
#7
Brieanna R Brown, Ellen J Lee, Paige E Snow, Emily E Vance, Yoichiro Iwakura, Naohito Ohno, Noriko Miura, Xin Lin, Gordon D Brown, Christine A Wells, Justine R Smith, Rachel R Caspi, Holly L Rosenzweig
Uveitis (intraocular inflammation) is a leading cause of vision loss. Although its etiology is largely speculative, it is thought to arise from complex genetic-environmental interactions that break immune tolerance to generate eye-specific autoreactive T cells. Experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU), induced by immunization with the ocular antigen, interphotoceptor retinoid binding protein (IRBP), in combination with mycobacteria-containing CFA, has many clinical and histopathological features of human posterior uveitis...
August 1, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751823/global-autorecognition-and-activation-of-complement-by-mannan-binding-lectin-in-a-mouse-model-of-type-1-diabetes
#8
Esben Axelgaard, Jakob Appel Østergaard, Saranda Haxha, Steffen Thiel, Troels Krarup Hansen
Increasing evidence links mannan-binding lectin (MBL) to late vascular complications of diabetes. MBL is a complement-activating pattern recognition molecule of the innate immune system that can mediate an inflammation response through activation of the lectin pathway. In two recent animal studies, we have shown that autoreactivity of MBL is increased in the kidney in diabetic nephropathy. We hypothesize that long-term exposure to uncontrolled high blood glucose in diabetes may mediate formation of neoepitopes in several tissues and that MBL is able to recognize these structures and thus activate the lectin pathway...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747785/discovery-of-monoclonal-antibodies-cross-reactive-to-novel-subserotypes-of-k-pneumoniae-o3
#9
Luis M Guachalla, Katarina Stojkovic, Katharina Hartl, Marta Kaszowska, Yadhu Kumar, Benjamin Wahl, Tobias Paprotka, Eszter Nagy, Jolanta Lukasiewicz, Gábor Nagy, Valéria Szijártó
Klebsiella pneumoniae is responsible for nosocomial infections causing significant morbidity and mortality. Treatment of newly emerging multi-drug resistant strains is hampered due to severely limited antibiotic choices. Passive immunization targeting LPS O-antigens has been proposed as an alternative therapeutic option, given the limited variability of Klebsiella O-antigens. Here we report that the O3 serogroup, previously considered to have uniform O-antigen built of mannan, represents three different subtypes differing in the number of mannose residues within the O-antigen repeating units...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744751/functional-importance-of-pp2a-regulatory-subunit-loss-in-breast-cancer
#10
Lauren F Watt, Nikita Panicker, Abdul Mannan, Ben Copeland, Richard G S Kahl, Matthew D Dun, Barbara Young, Severine Roselli, Nicole M Verrills
PURPOSE: Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a family of serine/threonine phosphatases that regulate multiple cellular signalling pathways involved in proliferation, survival and apoptosis. PP2A inhibition occurs in many cancers and is considered a tumour suppressor. Deletion/downregulation of PP2A genes has been observed in breast tumours, but the functional role of PP2A subunit loss in breast cancer has not been investigated. METHODS: PP2A subunit expression was examined by immunohistochemistry in human breast tumours, and by qPCR and immunoblotting in breast cancer cell lines...
July 25, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726110/supplementation-of-selenium-vitamin-e-chromium-and-betaine-above-recommended-levels-improves-lactating-performance-of-sows-over-summer
#11
Fan Liu, Jeremy James Cottrell, Cherie Louise Collins, David James Henman, Kirrily Sharon Beatrice O'Halloran, Frank Rowland Dunshea
Heat stress (HS) exacerbates the body weight loss of lactating sows and reduces litter weight gain. Selenium (Se), vitamin E (VE), chromium (Cr) and betaine have been shown to ameliorate symptoms of HS, and yeast nucleotides and mannan oligosaccharides have been reported to improve lactational performance and immune response in pigs. Therefore, a combination of these nutrients may improve lactational performance of sows in summer. The effects of two nutritionally enhanced diets on lactational performance of sows in summer were investigated in two experiments...
July 19, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722476/evaluation-of-resazurin-microtiter-plate-assay-and-hplc-photodiode-array-analysis-of-the-roots-of-asparagus-adscendens
#12
Kashif Maqbool Khan, Lutfun Nahar, Abdul Mannan, Muhammad Arfan, Ghazanfar Ali Khan, Glyn Hobbs, Satyajit D Sarker
Asparagus adscendens Roxb. (Asparagaceae), is native to the Himalayas. The present study, for the first time, was undertaken to explore the antimicrobial potential, to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the methanol extract of the roots of A. adscendens and its solid-phase extraction (SPE) fractions using resazurin microtitre assay against Gram-positive and negative bacterial-registered strains and to carry out HPLC-photodiode array analysis of the SPE fractions. The methanol extract and all SPE exhibited considerable level of antibacterial potential against Gram-positive bacteria (MIC: 2...
July 19, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719181/differential-ligand-binding-specificities-of-the-pulmonary-collectins-are-determined-by-the-conformational-freedom-of-a-surface-loop
#13
Michael J Rynkiewicz, Huixing Wu, Tanya R Cafarella, Nikolaos M Nikolaidis, James F Head, Barbara A Seaton, Francis X McCormack
Lung surfactant proteins (SPs) play critical roles in surfactant function and innate immunity. SP-A and SP-D, members of the collectin family of C-type lectins, exhibit distinct ligand specificities, effects on surfactant structure, and host defense functions despite extensive structural homology. SP-A binds to dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), the major surfactant lipid component, but not phosphatidylinositol (PI), whereas SP-D shows the opposite preference. Additionally, SP-A and SP-D recognize widely divergent pathogen-associated molecular patterns...
July 31, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718830/exploring-relationships-between-recurrent-binge-eating-and-illicit-substance-use-in-a-non-clinical-sample-of-women-over-two-years
#14
Henry Kewen Lu, Haider Mannan, Phillipa Hay
(1) Background: With the new edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5), numerous parallels have been drawn between recurrent binge eating (RBE) and substance use disorders, with many authors examining RBE or binge eating disorder (BED) as a "food addiction". The present study aims to clarify the relationship between recurrent binge eating (RBE) and illicit substance use (ISU) through investigating the temporal association between the two problems. (2) Methods: This study was embedded within a larger longitudinal study of non-clinical adult women recruited from Australian tertiary institutions...
July 18, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716924/insights-into-the-red-algae-and-eukaryotic-evolution-from-the-genome-of-porphyra-umbilicalis-bangiophyceae-rhodophyta
#15
Susan H Brawley, Nicolas A Blouin, Elizabeth Ficko-Blean, Glen L Wheeler, Martin Lohr, Holly V Goodson, Jerry W Jenkins, Crysten E Blaby-Haas, Katherine E Helliwell, Cheong Xin Chan, Tara N Marriage, Debashish Bhattacharya, Anita S Klein, Yacine Badis, Juliet Brodie, Yuanyu Cao, Jonas Collén, Simon M Dittami, Claire M M Gachon, Beverley R Green, Steven J Karpowicz, Jay W Kim, Ulrich Johan Kudahl, Senjie Lin, Gurvan Michel, Maria Mittag, Bradley J S C Olson, Jasmyn L Pangilinan, Yi Peng, Huan Qiu, Shengqiang Shu, John T Singer, Alison G Smith, Brittany N Sprecher, Volker Wagner, Wenfei Wang, Zhi-Yong Wang, Juying Yan, Charles Yarish, Simone Zäuner-Riek, Yunyun Zhuang, Yong Zou, Erika A Lindquist, Jane Grimwood, Kerrie W Barry, Daniel S Rokhsar, Jeremy Schmutz, John W Stiller, Arthur R Grossman, Simon E Prochnik
Porphyra umbilicalis (laver) belongs to an ancient group of red algae (Bangiophyceae), is harvested for human food, and thrives in the harsh conditions of the upper intertidal zone. Here we present the 87.7-Mbp haploid Porphyra genome (65.8% G + C content, 13,125 gene loci) and elucidate traits that inform our understanding of the biology of red algae as one of the few multicellular eukaryotic lineages. Novel features of the Porphyra genome shared by other red algae relate to the cytoskeleton, calcium signaling, the cell cycle, and stress-tolerance mechanisms including photoprotection...
August 1, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715863/structural-elucidation-of-a-pectin-type-polysaccharide-from-hovenia-dulcis-peduncles-and-its-proliferative-activity-on-raw264-7-cells
#16
Miaomiao Wang, Yong Liu, Mingliang Qiang, Junhui Wang
In this paper, an acidic polysaccharide HDP3A was isolated from Hovenia dulcis peduncles with 45.9% of uronic acid content. Structure of HDP3A was elucidated by chemical and spectroscopic analysis. HDP3A was mainly contained of galacturonic acid, galactose, rhamnose and arabinose with a small quantity of xylose, fucose, mannose, glucose. The structural analysis indicated that HDP3A was a pectin-type polysaccharide with HG and RG-I regions and hairy regions. HG was linear homopolymer with repeating units of (1→4)-α-d-galactopyranosyl uronic (GalA) residues...
July 12, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699536/supramolecular-self-assembled-nanogels-a-new-platform-for-anticancer-drug-delivery
#17
Jaleh Varshosaz, Somayeh Taymouri, Erfaneh Ghassami
Polymer micellar nanogels are a group of core-shell polymeric micelles with swelling properties in aqueous media. Nanogel systems have proven their potential in controlled, sustained and targetable drug delivery area with no immunological responses. This review includes a comprehensive wide range of self-assembly of polymeric nanogels as delivery systems for anticancer drugs. Nanogels are nanoparticulate drug delivery systems which are specially designed for enhanced target oriented and cellular uptake of drugs with emphasis on chemotherapeutic agents studied in this review...
July 10, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682637/synthesis-and-immunological-studies-of-the-lipomannan-backbone-glycans-found-on-the-surface-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#18
Harin Leelayuwapan, Niwat Kangwanrangsan, Runglawan Chawengkirttikul, Marisa Ponpuak, Ratthaphol Charlermroj, Kanokthip Boonyarattanakalin, Somsak Ruchirawat, Siwarutt Boonyarattanakalin
Investigations into novel bacterial drug targets and vaccines are necessary to overcome tuberculosis. Lipomannan (LM), found on the surface of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), is actively involved in the pathogenesis and survival of Mtb. Here, we report for the first time a rapid synthesis and biological activities of an LM glycan backbone, α(1-6)mannans. The rapid synthesis is achieved via a regio- and stereoselective ring opening polymerization to generate multiple glycosidic bonds in one simple chemical step, allowing us to finish assembling the defined polysaccharides of 5-20 units within days rather than years...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680525/progress-in-the-diagnosis-of-invasive-fungal-disease-in-children
#19
REVIEW
Adilia Warris, Thomas Lehrnbecher
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the fungal diagnostic measures currently available for use in paediatric patients at high risk for developing invasive fungal disease (IFD) and those suspected of having an IFD. The clinical utility of each test is described based on reported performances of individual tests in specific paediatric populations. RECENT FINDINGS: Available studies in the paediatric population are scarce and are characterized by a huge heterogeneity in underlying diseases (e...
2017: Current Fungal Infection Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664835/prevalence-and-significance-of-anti-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-antibodies-in-primary-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome
#20
Alessia Alunno, Onelia Bistoni, Francesco Carubbi, Valentina Valentini, Giacomo Cafaro, Elena Bartoloni Bocci, Roberto Giacomelli, Roberto Gerli
OBJECTIVES: Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a common yeast used in the food industry. IgG and IgA antibodies against the phosphopeptidomannan of the S. cerevisiae cell wall (ASCA) are a well known marker of disease severity in Crohn's disease. Moreover, a number of studies assessed ASCA in several systemic and organ-specific autoimmune diseases postulating molecular mimicry as a possible link between ASCA and autoimmunity. However, since they have never been tested in primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS), the purpose of this study was to investigate these antibodies in a large cohort of pSS patients, compared to healthy donors (HD), and their significance as potentially helpful biomarker in a clinical setting...
June 29, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
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