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Andres Matoso, Binny Khandakar, Songyang Yuan, Tony Wu, Li J Wang, Kara A Lombardo, Shamlal Mangray, Abul Ala Syed Rifat Mannan, Evgeny Yakirevich
Gender confirmation surgery (GCS) is increasingly common in persons with gender dysphoria. We describe changes seen in gonads from individuals seeking male to female physical adaptation. We studied 99 orchiectomies from 50 persons. The average age was 33years (range: 21-63). Eighty six of 99 (86.8%) testes were normal in size with an average size of 3.87cm (range: 3.0-5.5). Thirteen of 99 (13.1%) testes were hypotrophic and measured up to 2.5cm. Seminiferous tubules were reduced in diameter compared to controls (0...
March 16, 2018: Human Pathology
Xin You, Zhen Qin, Yan-Xiao Li, Qiao-Juan Yan, Bin Li, Zheng-Qiang Jiang
Mannan is one of the major constituent groups of hemicellulose, which is a renewable resource from higher plants. β-Mannanases are enzymes capable of degrading lignocellulosic biomass. Here, an endo-β-mannanase from Rhizopus microsporus (RmMan134A) was cloned and expressed. The recombinant RmMan134A showed maximal activity at pH 5.0 and 50 °C, and exhibited high specific activity towards locust bean gum (2337 U/mg). To gain insight into the substrate-binding mechanism of RmMan134A, four complex structures (RmMan134A-M3, RmMan134A-M4, RmMan134A-M5 and RmMan134A-M6) were further solved...
March 14, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Anas H Abu-Humaidan, Malin Elvén, Andreas Sonesson, Peter Garred, Ole E Sørensen
The complement system is an ancient part of the innate immune system important for both tissue homeostasis and host defense. However, bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus (SA) possess elaborative mechanisms for evading both the complement system and other parts of the immune system. One of these evasive mechanisms-important in causing chronic and therapy resistant infections-is the intracellular persistence in non-immune cells. The objective of our study was to investigate whether persistent intracellular SA infection of epidermal keratinocytes resulted in complement activation...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Mariusz Z Ratajczak, Daniel Pedziwiatr, Monika Cymer, Magda Kucia, Jolanta Kucharska-Mazur, Jerzy Samochowiec
Evidence has accumulated that the occurrence of psychiatric disorders is related to chronic inflammation. In support of this linkage, changes in the levels of circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the peripheral blood (PB) of psychiatric patients as well as correlations between chronic inflammatory processes and psychiatric disorders have been described. Furthermore, an inflammatory process known as "sterile inflammation" when initiated directly in brain tissue may trigger the onset of psychoses...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Jurairat Rungruangsaphakun, Suttipun Keawsompong
Copra meal is a good source of galactomannan and it s mannooligosaccharides have prebiotic properties. However, limited data are available concerning the ideal requirements for mannan hydrolysis. Thus, optimum hydrolysis conditions for the production of oligosaccharides from copra meal hydrolysate were investigated using response surface methodology. Model validation provided good agreement between experimental results and predicted responses. Maximum oligosaccharide of 14.41 ± 0.09 mg/ml (20 ml) was obtained at an enzyme concentration of 16...
March 2018: 3 Biotech
Dipak K Mitra, Luke C Mullany, Meagan Harrison, Ishtiaq Mannan, Rashed Shah, Nazma Begum, Mamun Ibne Moin, Shams El Arifeen, Abdullah H Baqui
BACKGROUND: Infections cause about one fifth of the estimated 2.7 million annual neonatal deaths worldwide. Population-based data on burden and risk factors of neonatal infections are lacking in developing countries, which are required for the appropriate design of effective preventive and therapeutic interventions in resource-poor settings. METHODS: We used data from a community-based cluster-randomized trial conducted to evaluate the impact of two umbilical cord cleansing regimens with chlorhexidine solution on neonatal mortality and morbidity in a rural area of Sylhet District in Bangladesh...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
V Jazi, A D Foroozandeh, M Toghyani, B Dastar, R Rezaie Koochaksaraie, M Toghyani
This study compared the efficacy of Pediococcus acidilactici, mannan-oligosaccharide, butyric acid, and their combination on growth performance and intestinal health in broiler chickens challenged with S. Typhimurium. Ross 308 male broilers (n = 420) were randomly assigned to one of the 6 treatments, resulting in 5 replicate pens of 14 chicks per treatment. The treatments included a negative control [(NC), no additive, not challenged]; positive control [(PC), no additive, but challenged with S. Typhimurium at d 3 posthatch], and 4 groups whereby birds were challenged with S...
March 5, 2018: Poultry Science
Cecilia Hagert, Outi Sareila, Tiina Kelkka, Kutty Selva Nandakumar, Mattias Collin, Bingze Xu, Simon Guérard, Johan Bäcklund, Sirpa Jalkanen, Rikard Holmdahl
OBJECTIVE: To develop a new chronic RA model which is driven by the innate immune system. METHOD: The injection of a cocktail of four monoclonal antibodies against collagen type II followed by intra-peritoneal injections of mannan (from Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on days 5 and 60 led to the development of chronic arthritis in B10.Q mice. The role of the innate versus the adaptive immune system in this arthritis model was investigated using genetically modified mouse strains...
March 7, 2018: Arthritis & Rheumatology
D Betty Lew, Kim S LeMessurier, Maneesha Palipane, Yanyan Lin, Amali E Samarasinghe
Severe asthma with fungal sensitization predominates in the population suffering from allergic asthma, to which there is no cure. While corticosteroids are the mainstay in current treatment, other means of controlling inflammation may be beneficial. Herein, we hypothesized that mannan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae would dampen the characteristics of fungal allergic asthma by altering the pulmonary immune responses. Using wild-type and transgenic mice expressing the human mannose receptor on smooth muscle cells, we explored the outcome of mannan administration during allergen exposure on the pathogenesis of fungal asthma through measurement of cardinal features of disease such as inflammation, goblet cell number, and airway hyperresponsiveness...
2018: BioMed Research International
Pearl Z Fernandes, Marija Petricevic, Lukasz Sobala, Gideon J Davies, Spencer John Williams
Endo-α-1,2-mannosidases and -mannanases, members of glycoside hydrolase family 99 (GH99), cleave α-Glc/Man-1,3-α-Man-OR structures within mammalian N-linked glycans and fungal α-mannan, respectively. They are proposed to act through a two-step mechanism involving a 1,2-anhydrosugar 'epoxide' intermediate, involving two conserved catalytic residues. In the first step Glu333 acts as general base to deprotonate the 2-hydroxyl group adjacent to the fissile glycosidic bond, while Glu336 provides general acid assistance to departure of the aglycon...
March 5, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
A N Sharma, S Kumar, A K Tyagi
A study of 120 days was undertaken to ascertain the effect of mannan-oligosaccharides (MOS) and Lactobacillus acidophilus supplementation on growth performance, nutrient utilization and faecal characteristics in Murrah buffalo calves. Twenty Murrah buffalo calves of 5-7 days old and 31 ± 2.0 kg of body weight (BW) were randomly assigned into four groups. Group I served as the control (CON) in which only basal diet (concentrate mixture and green fodder) was provided, without any supplementation. Mannan-oligosaccharides at 4 g/calf/day were supplemented as prebiotic to Group II (PRE), whereas Group III (PRO) received Lactobacillus acidophilus in the form of fermented milk as probiotic at 200 ml/calf/day having 108  CFU/ml and Group IV (SYN) was supplemented with both MOS and Lactobacillus acidophilus as synbiotic at similar dose...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Kashif Maqbool Khan, Lutfun Nahar, Abdul Mannan, Muhammad Arfan, Ghazanfar Ali Khan, Afaf Al-Groshi, Andrew Evans, Nicola M Dempster, Fyaz M D Ismail, Satyajit D Sarker
Background: Asparagus adscendens Roxb. (Asparagaceae), is native to the Himalayas. This plant has been used in the prevention and effective treatment of various forms of cancers. Objective: This paper reports, for the first time, on the cytotoxicity of the methanol (MeOH) extract of the roots of A. adscendens and its solid-phase extraction (SPE) fractions against four human carcinoma cell lines and LC-ESI-QTOF-MS analysis of the SPE fractions. Materials and Methods: Finely powdered roots of A...
January 2018: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Mubashshir Rasheed, Anamika Battu, Rupinder Kaur
A family of 11 cell surface-associated aspartyl proteases (CgYps1-11), also referred as yapsins, is a key virulence factor in the pathogenic yeast Candida glabrata. However, the mechanism by which CgYapsins modulate immune response and facilitate survival in the mammalian host, remains to be identified. Here, using RNA-Seq analysis, we report that genes involved in cell wall metabolism are differentially regulated in the Cgyps1-11Δ mutant. Consistently, the mutant contained lower β-glucan and mannan levels and exhibited increased chitin content in the cell wall...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Nazli Namazi, Bagher Larijani, Leila Azadbakht
BACKGROUND: Previous trials have reported beneficial effects of isolated and complex fiber supplements in obesity treatment. However, recommending fiber supplements in obese subjects remains controversial. To the best of our knowledge, no systematic review has updated the data on the effects of fiber supplements on obesity since 2010 and the need exists for a systematic review on this topic. Accordingly, a systematic review was undertaken to summarize the efficacy of different types of fiber supplements as a complementary treatment for weight management...
November 1, 2017: Archives of Iranian Medicine
Sudha Bhattacharya, Satish V Khadilkar, Atchayaram Nalini, Aparna Ganapathy, Ashraf U Mannan, Partha P Majumder, Alok Bhattacharya
BACKGROUND: GNE myopathy is an adult onset recessive genetic disorder that affects distal muscles sparing the quadriceps. GNE gene mutations have been identified in GNE myopathy patients all over the world. Homozygosity is a common feature in GNE myopathy patients worldwide. OBJECTIVES: The major objective of this study was to investigate the mutation spectrum of GNE myopathy in India in relation to the population diversity in the country. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We have collated GNE mutation data of Indian GNE myopathy patients from published literature and from recently identified patients...
2018: Journal of Neuromuscular Diseases
Yun Li, Hong Liu, Xilin Dai, Jingjing Li, Fujiang Ding
The effects of inulin and mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) at different doses (2.5, 4 and 10 mg/g) in singular or combined diet on growth rate, immune related genes expression, and resistance to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and Vibrio alginolyticus in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) were investigated. At the end of 28-day singular feeding experiment, the highest values of specific growth rate (SGR) and the expression of toll-like receptor1, 2 and 3 (TLR1, 2, 3), signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT), crustin, anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF) as well as prophenoloxidase (proPO) were observed in shrimp individually fed with 5 mg/g dietary inulin or MOS, respectively...
February 19, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Jaya Singh, Nishita Thota, Suhasini Singh, Shila Padhi, Puja Mohan, Shivani Deshwal, Soumit Sur, Mithua Ghosh, Amit Agarwal, Ramesh Sarin, Rosina Ahmed, Sachin Almel, Basumita Chakraborti, Vinod Raina, Praveen K DadiReddy, B K Smruti, Senthil Rajappa, Chandragouda Dodagoudar, Shyam Aggarwal, Manish Singhal, Ashish Joshi, Rajeev Kumar, Ajai Kumar, Deepak K Mishra, Neeraj Arora, Aarati Karaba, Satish Sankaran, Shanmukh Katragadda, Arunabha Ghosh, Vamsi Veeramachaneni, Ramesh Hariharan, Ashraf U Mannan
PURPOSE: Breast and/or ovarian cancers are among the most common cancers in women across the world. In the Indian population, the healthcare burden of breast and/or ovarian cancers has been steadily rising, thus stressing the need for early detection, surveillance, and disease management measures. However, the burden attributable to inherited mutations is not well characterized. METHODS: We sequenced 1010 unrelated patients and families from across India with an indication of breast and/or ovarian cancers, using the TruSight Cancer panel which includes 14 genes, strongly associated with risk of hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancers...
February 22, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Cecilia Hagert, Outi Sareila, Tiina Kelkka, Sirpa Jalkanen, Rikard Holmdahl
The injection of mannan into mice can result in the development of psoriasis (Ps) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA), whereas co-injection with antibodies toward collagen type II leads to a chronic rheumatoid-like arthritis. The critical event in all these diseases is mannan-mediated activation of macrophages, causing more severe disease if the macrophages are deficient in neutrophil cytosolic factor 1 (Ncf1), i.e., lack the capacity to make a reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst. In this study, we investigated the role of one of the receptors binding mannan; the macrophage mannose receptor (MR, CD206)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Tatiana Garcia Diaz, Antonio Ferriani Branco, Fernando Alberto Jacovaci, Clóves Cabreira Jobim, Dheyme Cristina Bolson, João Luiz Pratti Daniel
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with live yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), mannan-oligosaccharides and the combination of these additives on the inflammatory response, ruminal parameters and rumen morphology of sheep fed a high grain-based diet. Thirty-Two Dorper x Santa Ines crossbred lambs with an average weight of 24±2 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design. The animals were housed in individual stalls and fed ad libitum. Diet treatments were: Control (without additive); LY (2 g/kg DM of live yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae), MOS (2 g/kg DM of mannan-oligosaccharides) and LY+MOS (2 g/kg DM of LY + 2 g/kg DM of MOS)...
2018: PloS One
Cornelius J Clancy, M Hong Nguyen
Blood cultures are positive for Candida species in < 50% and < 20% of hematogenously disseminated and intra-abdominal candidiasis, respectively. Non-culture tests such as mannan, anti-mannan antibody, Candida albicans germ tube antibody (CAGTA), 1,3-β-d-glucan (BDG), the T2Candida nanodiagnostic panel, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are available for clinical use, but their roles in patient care are uncertain. Sensitivity/specificity of combined mannan/anti-mannan, BDG, T2Candida and PCR for candidemia are ~80%/80%, ~80%/80%, ~90%/98%, and ~90%/90%, respectively...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
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