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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203237/activation-of-the-wnt-pathway-by-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-a-wnt-wnt-situation
#1
REVIEW
Tomás Villaseñor, Edgardo Madrid-Paulino, Rafael Maldonado-Bravo, Antonio Urbán-Aragón, Leonor Pérez-Martínez, Gustavo Pedraza-Alva
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), an intracellular pathogenic Gram-positive bacterium, is the cause of tuberculosis (TB), a major worldwide human infectious disease. The innate immune system is the first host defense against M. tuberculosis. The recognition of this pathogen is mediated by several classes of pattern recognition receptors expressed on the host innate immune cells, including Toll-like receptors, Nod-like receptors, and C-type lectin receptors like Dectin-1, the Mannose receptor, and DC-SIGN...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177008/formation-of-%C3%AE-1-3-1-6-d-glucan-complexed-70-fullerene-and-its-photodynamic-activity-towards-macrophages
#2
Atsushi Ikeda, Motofusa Akiyama, Kouta Sugikawa, Kazuya Koumoto, Yuta Kashijima, Jiawei Li, Toshio Suzuki, Takeshi Nagasaki
[70]Fullerene was dissolved in water by complexation with β-1,3-glucan using a mechanochemical high-speed vibration milling apparatus. The photodynamic activity of β-1,3-glucan-complexed C70 was highly dependent on the expression level of dectin-1 on the cell surfaces of macrophages. The photodynamic activity increased as a result of a synergistic effect between β-1,3-glucan-complexed 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate and the C70 complex.
February 8, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167474/regulatory-effect-of-caspase-11-on-interleukin-1%C3%AE-in-the-fungal-keratitis
#3
Keke Zhu, Hongmei Mu, Baimu Pi
Caused by fungus, fungal keratitis is a kind of infections corneal disease with high rate of blindness, which patients are mainly farmers in developing countries. Interleukin, as important proinflammatory cytokines, involve in immune defense process against fungal infection of cornea. The expression of interleukin in the pathogenesis of fungal keratitis, especially the main source of its cells, is not clear and the cell signaling pathways which regulate the synthesis and modification of interleukin is still unknown...
November 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154008/eng1-and-exg8-are-the-major-%C3%AE-glucanases-secreted-by-the-fungal-pathogen-histoplasma-capsulatum
#4
Andrew L Garfoot, Kacey L Dearing, Andrew D VanSchoiack, Vicki H Wysocki, Chad A Rappleye
Fungal cell walls contain β-glucan polysaccharides which stimulate immune responses when recognized by host immune cells. The fungal pathogen Histoplasma capsulatum minimizes detection of β-glucan by host cells through at least two mechanisms: concealment of β-glucans beneath α-glucans and enzymatic removal of any exposed β-glucan polysaccharides by the secreted glucanase Eng1. Histoplasma yeasts also secrete the putative glucanase Exg8, which may serve a similar role as Eng1 in removing exposed β-glucans from the yeast cell surface...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123029/newly-formed-endothelial-cells-regulate-myeloid-cell-activity-following-spinal-cord-injury-via-expression-of-cd200-ligand
#5
Merav Cohen, Hila Ben-Yehuda, Ziv Porat, Catarina Raposo, Siamon Gordon, Michal Schwartz
: The central nervous system (CNS) is endowed with several immune-related mechanisms that contribute to its protection and maintenance in homeostasis and under pathology. Here, we discovered an additional mechanism that controls inflammatory responses within the CNS milieu under injurious conditions, involving CD200 ligand (CD200L) expressed by newly formed endothelial cells. We observed that CD200L is constitutively expressed in the mouse healthy CNS by endothelial cells of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier and of the spinal cord meninges, but not by the endothelium of the blood-spinal cord barrier...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106835/highly-expression-of-cd11b-and-cd32-on-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-from-patients-with-adult-onset-still-s-disease
#6
Hyoun-Ah Kim, Bunsoon Choi, Chang-Hee Suh, Mi Hwa Han, Ju-Yang Jung, Hasan M Sayeed, Ye Won Kim, Seonghyang Sohn
BACKGROUND: We investigated the potential role of several pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs; CD11b, CD11c, CD32, CD206, CD209, and dectin-1) in adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD). METHODS: The study included 13 untreated AOSD patients, 19 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients (as a disease control), and 19 healthy controls (HCs). The PRRs were quantified in peripheral blood using flow cytometry. The serum levels of interleukin-17 (IL-17), IL-18, and IL-23 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
January 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031265/the-carbohydrate-lectin-receptor-dectin-1-mediates-the-immune-response-to-exserohilum-rostratum
#7
Jennifer L Reedy, Paige E Negoro, Marianela Feliu, Allison K Lord, Nida S Khan, Dan P Lukason, Nathan P Wiederhold, Jenny M Tam, Michael K Mansour, Thomas F Patterson, Jatin M Vyas
Dematiaceous molds are found ubiquitously in the environment and cause a wide spectrum of human disease, including infections associated with high rates of mortality. Despite this, the mechanism of the innate immune response has been less well studied, although it is key in the clearance of fungal pathogens. Here, we focus on Exserohilum rostratum, a dematiaceous mold that caused 753 infections during a multistate outbreak due to injection of contaminated methylprednisolone. We show that macrophages are incapable of phagocytosing Exserohilum Despite a lack of phagocytosis, macrophage production of tumor necrosis factor alpha is triggered by hyphae but not spores and depends upon Dectin-1, a C-type lectin receptor...
March 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027502/bioactive-polysaccharide-based-ph-sensitive-polymers-for-cytoplasmic-delivery-of-antigen-and-activation-of-antigen-specific-immunity
#8
Eiji Yuba, Ayaka Yamaguchi, Yuta Yoshizaki, Atsushi Harada, Kenji Kono
For establishment of cancer immunotherapy, antigen carriers are needed which have functions not only to deliver antigen into cytosol of dendritic cells (DCs), which induces antigen-specific cellular immune responses, but also to activate DCs. We previously reported cytoplasmic delivery of antigen using liposomes modified with pH-sensitive polymers such as carboxylated poly(glycidol)s or dextran. Modification using these polymers provides stable liposomes with pH-sensitive fusogenic/membrane-disruptive ability...
December 22, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003968/effects-of-retinoic-acid-receptor-%C3%AE-on-the-aspergillus-fumigatus-induced-innate-immunity-response-in-human-corneal-epithelial-cells
#9
Xiao-Chen Wang, Gui-Qiu Zhao, Jing Lin, Cui Li, Nan Jiang, Jie Zhang
AIM: To explore the effects of retinoic acid receptor-γ (RARγ) on innate immune responses against Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) in cultured human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs). METHODS: The HCECs were stimulated with A. fumigatus hyphae for 0, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 16h. RARγ mRNA and protein levels were tested by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blot. Then HCECs were pretreated with or without BMS961 (RARγ agonist, 1 µg/mL)...
2016: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999759/dectin-1-activated-dendritic-cells-a-potent-th9-cell-inducer-for-tumor-immunotherapy
#10
Jintong Chen, Yinghua Zhao, Xiao Chu, Yong Lu, Siqing Wang, Qing Yi
Dendritic cell (DC)-based immunotherapy has great promise for cancer treatment. We have recently demonstrated that dectin-1-activated DCs trigger potent antitumor Th9 cells in vivo. Dectin-1-activated DC-induced antitumor responses rely on the induced Th9/IL-9. These findings offer new strategies for the development of more effective DC vaccines in tumor immunotherapy.
2016: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994015/newly-formed-endothelial-cells-regulate-myeloid-cell-activity-following-spinal-cord-injury-via-expression-of-cd200-ligand
#11
Merav Cohen, Hila Ben-Yehuda, Ziv Porat, Catarina Raposo, Siamon Gordon, Michal Schwartz
: The central nervous system (CNS) is endowed with several immune-related mechanisms that contribute to its protection and maintenance in homeostasis and under pathology. Here, we discovered an additional mechanism that controls inflammatory responses within the CNS milieu under injurious conditions, involving CD200 ligand (CD200L) expressed by newly-formed endothelial cells. We observed that CD200L is constitutively expressed in the mouse healthy CNS by endothelial cells of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier and of the spinal cord meninges, but not by the endothelium of the blood-spinal cord barrier...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993972/differential-macrophage-polarization-from-pneumocystis-in-immunocompetent-and-immunosuppressed-hosts-potential-adjunctive-therapy-during-pneumonia
#12
Vijayalakshmi Nandakumar, Deanne Hebrink, Paige Jenson, Theodore Kottom, Andrew H Limper
We explored differential polarization of macrophages during infection using a rat model of Pneumocystis pneumonia. We observed enhanced pulmonary M1 macrophage polarization in immunosuppressed (IS) hosts, but an M2 predominant response in immunocompetent (IC) hosts following Pneumocystis carinii challenge. Increased inflammation and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) levels characterized the M1 response. However, macrophage ability to produce nitric oxide was defective. In contrast, the lungs of IC animals revealed a prominent M2 gene signature, and these macrophages effectively elicited an oxidative burst associated with clearance of Pneumocystis In addition, during P...
March 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989425/curdlan-induces-selective-mast-cell-degranulation-without-concomitant-release-of-ltc4-il-6-or-ccl2
#13
Valéria C Barbosa-Lorenzi, Simon Peyda, Annika Scheynius, Gunnar Nilsson, Carolina Lunderius-Andersson
Mast cells are sentinel cells with a tissue-specific localization in the interface between the host and the external environment. Their quick and selective response upon encountering pathogens is part of the innate host response and typically initiates the following adaptive immune response. Among several pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) involved in the recognition of pathogens by mast cells, the C-type lectin receptor Dectin-1 has been associated with the recognition of fungi. Our previous studies have shown that mast cells are the predominant cell type expressing Dectin-1 in human skin, and they also recognize and respond to Malassezia sympodialis by producing cytokines connected to the innate host response and upregulating the expression of Dectin-1...
December 6, 2016: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926862/vav-proteins-are-key-regulators-of-card9-signaling-for-innate-antifungal-immunity
#14
Susanne Roth, Hanna Bergmann, Martin Jaeger, Assa Yeroslaviz, Konstantin Neumann, Paul-Albert Koenig, Clarissa Prazeres da Costa, Lesley Vanes, Vinod Kumar, Melissa Johnson, Mauricio Menacho-Márquez, Bianca Habermann, Victor L Tybulewicz, Mihai Netea, Xosé R Bustelo, Jürgen Ruland
Fungal infections are major causes of morbidity and mortality, especially in immunocompromised individuals. The innate immune system senses fungal pathogens through Syk-coupled C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), which signal through the conserved immune adaptor Card9. Although Card9 is essential for antifungal defense, the mechanisms that couple CLR-proximal events to Card9 control are not well defined. Here, we identify Vav proteins as key activators of the Card9 pathway. Vav1, Vav2, and Vav3 cooperate downstream of Dectin-1, Dectin-2, and Mincle to engage Card9 for NF-κB control and proinflammatory gene transcription...
December 6, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920777/physical-interaction-of-t-cells-with-dendritic-cells-is-not-required-for-the-immunomodulatory-effects-of-the-edible-mushroom-agaricus-subrufescens
#15
Ruud H P Wilbers, Lotte B Westerhof, Jan van de Velde, Geert Smant, Debbie R van Raaij, Anton S M Sonnenberg, Jaap Bakker, Arjen Schots
Mushrooms are well known for their immunomodulating capacities. However, little is known about how mushroom-stimulated dendritic cells (DCs) affect T cells. Therefore, we investigated the effect of mushroom compounds derived from seven edible mushroom species on DCs, their fate in DCs, and the effect of the mushroom-stimulated DCs on T cells. Each mushroom species stimulated DCs in a different manner as was revealed from the DC's cytokine response. Assessing DC maturation revealed that only one mushroom species, Agaricus subrufescens, induced complete DC maturation...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912071/classical-and-alternative-macrophages-have-impaired-function-during-acute-and-chronic-hiv-1-infection
#16
Leonardo J Galvão-Lima, Milena S Espíndola, Luana S Soares, Fabiana A Zambuzi, Maira Cacemiro, Caroline Fontanari, Valdes R Bollela, Fabiani G Frantz
OBJECTIVES: Three decades after HIV recognition and its association with AIDS development, many advances have emerged - especially related to prevention and treatment. Undoubtedly, the development of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) dramatically changed the future of the syndrome that we know today. In the present study, we evaluate the impact of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy on macrophage function and its relevance to HIV pathogenesis. METHODS: PBMCs were isolated from blood samples and monocytes (CD14+ cells) were purified...
January 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898740/kluyveromyces-marxianus-and-saccharomyces-boulardii-induce-distinct-levels-of-dendritic-cell-cytokine-secretion-and-significantly-different-t-cell-responses-in-vitro
#17
Ida M Smith, Adam Baker, Jeffrey E Christensen, Teun Boekhout, Hanne Frøkiær, Nils Arneborg, Lene Jespersen
Interactions between members of the intestinal microbiota and the mucosal immune system can significantly impact human health, and in this context, fungi and food-related yeasts are known to influence intestinal inflammation through direct interactions with specialized immune cells in vivo. The aim of the present study was to characterize the immune modulating properties of the food-related yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus in terms of adaptive immune responses indicating inflammation versus tolerance and to explore the mechanisms behind the observed responses...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889356/role-of-ptx3-in-corneal-epithelial-innate-immunity-against-aspergillus-fumigatus-infection
#18
Jie Zhang, Guiqiu Zhao, Jing Lin, Chengye Che, Cui Li, Nan Jiang, Liting Hu, Qian Wang
Pentraxin3 (PTX3), a member of long pentraxin family, plays a non-redundant role in human humoral innate immunity. However, whether PTX3 is expressed by corneal epithelial cells and its role during corneal fungi infection has not yet been investigated. To identify the presence of PTX3 in cornea, the possible mechanisms involved in its expression, and also the effects on corneal anti-fungi innate immune response, clinic human corneal tissues and cultured human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) were resorted. PTX3 mRNA and protein were detected in corneal samples and cultured HCECs, which was significantly up-regulated after exposing to Aspergillus fumigatus (A...
November 23, 2016: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872213/autocrine-type-i-ifn-signaling-in-dendritic-cells-stimulated-with-fungal-%C3%AE-glucans-or-lipopolysaccharide-promotes-cd8-t-cell-activation
#19
Nargess Hassanzadeh-Kiabi, Alberto Yáñez, Ivy Dang, Gislâine A Martins, David M Underhill, Helen S Goodridge
Type I IFNs are key mediators of immune defense against viruses and bacteria. Type I IFNs were also previously implicated in protection against fungal infection, but their roles in antifungal immunity have not been thoroughly investigated. A recent study demonstrated that bacterial and fungal β-glucans stimulate IFN-β production by dendritic cells (DCs) following detection by the Dectin-1 receptor, but the effects of β-glucan-induced type I IFNs have not been defined. We investigated whether type I IFNs regulate CD8 T cell activation by fungal β-glucan particle-stimulated DCs...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852745/dectin-1-plays-an-important-role-in-house-dust-mite-induced-allergic-airway-inflammation-through-the-activation-of-cd11b-dendritic-cells
#20
Takashi Ito, Koichi Hirose, Ayako Norimoto, Tomohiro Tamachi, Masaya Yokota, Aiko Saku, Hiroaki Takatori, Shinobu Saijo, Yoichiro Iwakura, Hiroshi Nakajima
It is well known that sensitization against fungi is closely associated with severity of asthma. Dectin-1 (gene symbol Clec7a), a C-type lectin receptor, recognizes the fungal cell wall component β-glucan, as well as some component(s) in house dust mite (HDM) extract. However, the roles of Dectin-1 in HDM-induced allergic airway inflammation remain unclear. In this study, we used Dectin-1-deficient (Clec7a(-/-)) mice to examine whether Dectin-1 is involved in HDM-induced allergic airway inflammation. We found that HDM-induced eosinophil and neutrophil recruitment into the airways was significantly attenuated in Clec7a(-/-) mice compared with that in wild-type mice...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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