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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443874/dental-application-of-natural-products
#1
REVIEW
Hiroshi Sakagami, Mineko Tomomura
This review article summarizes the recent progress in dental applications of natural products. Catechin gel showed selective antimicrobial activity, whereas the alkaline extract of various plant species rich in lignin carbohydrate complex (LCC) showed much higher antiviral activity than lower molecular weight polyphenols. Mouthwash with the alkaline extract of a plant classified as OTC effectively reduced halitosis. Unexpectedly, many polyphenolic compounds purified from the natural kingdom showed much lower tumor-specificity against human oral squamous cell lines as compared with antitumor agents, although they showed apoptosis-inducing activity...
February 14, 2018: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431693/an-antigen-free-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cell-targeting-immunotherapy-to-bolster-memory-cd8-t-cells-in-nonhuman-primates
#2
Yuji Masuta, Takuya Yamamoto, Yayoi Natsume-Kitatani, Tomohiro Kanuma, Eiko Moriishi, Kouji Kobiyama, Kenji Mizuguchi, Yasuhiro Yasutomi, Ken J Ishii
The priming, boosting, and restoration of memory cytotoxic CD8+ T lymphocytes by vaccination or immunotherapy in vivo is an area of active research. Particularly, nucleic acid-based compounds have attracted attention due to their ability to elicit strong Ag-specific CTL responses as a vaccine adjuvant. Nucleic acid-based compounds have been shown to act as anticancer monotherapeutic agents even without coadministration of cancer Ag(s); however, so far they have lacked efficacy in clinical trials. We recently developed a second-generation TLR9 agonist, a humanized CpG DNA (K3) complexed with schizophyllan (SPG), K3-SPG, a nonagonistic Dectin-1 ligand...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413698/platelet-rich-plasma-induced-feedback-inhibition-of-activin-a-follistatin-signaling-a-mechanism-for-tumor-low-risk-skin-rejuvenation-in-irradiated-rats
#3
Nesreen Nabil Omar, Rasha R Rashed, Rania M El-Hazek, Walaa A El-Sabbagh, Engy R Rashed, Mona A El-Ghazaly
BACKGROUND: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a source of natural growth factors and is emerging as a treatment modality to mitigate radiotherapy- induced adverse effects. Activin A (ACTA) is a member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily, which has been shown to modulate the inflammatory response and macrophages polarization between different phenotypes. The aim of this study is to determine the value of PRP in preventing radiation-induced malignancies in light of the cross-talk between PRP and activin A type II receptors (ActR-IIA)/follistatin (FST) signaling pathways where the inflammatory responses at 2 different time points were evaluated...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401615/differential-susceptibility-of-dectin-1-isoforms-to-functional-inactivation-by-neutrophil-and-fungal-proteases
#4
James S Griffiths, Aiysha Thompson, Matthew Stott, Ankita Benny, Natalie A Lewis, Philip R Taylor, Julian Forton, Sarah Herrick, Selinda J Orr, Eamon P McGreal
Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) experience chronic or recurrent bacterial and fungal lung infections. Many patients with CF cannot effectively clear Aspergillus from their lungs. This may result in IgE sensitization and the development of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, or invasive infections, such as Aspergillus bronchitis. Lung disease in patients with CF is associated with neutrophil-dominated inflammation and elevated levels of the serine protease, neutrophil elastase (NE). Various C-type lectin-like receptors (CLRs), including Dectin-1 and Dectin-2, are involved in the immune response to Aspergillus...
January 22, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370452/n-carboxyanhydride-polymerization-of-glycopolypeptides-that-activate-antigen-presenting-cells-through-dectin-1-and-2
#5
Matthew Zhou, Corleone S Delaveris, Jessica R Kramer, Justin A Kenkel, Edgar G Engleman, Carolyn R Bertozzi
The C-type lectins Dectin-1 and Dectin-2 contribute to innate immunity against microbial pathogens by recognizing their foreign glycan structures. These receptors are promising targets for immune stimulatory adjuvants in the context of vaccine development and cancer immune therapy. However, currently available agonist ligands are heterogeneous glycoconjugates and polysaccharides from natural sources. Here, we designed and synthesized the first chemically-defined ligands for Dectin-1 and -2. They comprised glycopolypeptides bearing mono-, di-, and trisaccharides and were built via polymerization of glycosylated N-carboxyanhydrides...
January 25, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329391/oxidative-burst-and-dectin-1-triggered-phagocytosis-affected-by-norepinephrine-and-endocannabinoids-implications-for-fungal-clearance-under-stress
#6
Judith-Irina Buchheim, Spencer Hoskyns, Dominique Moser, Bing Han, Elisabeth Deindl, Marion Hörl, Katharina Biere, Matthias Feuerecker, Gustav Schelling, Alexander Chouker
A prolonged stress burden is known to hamper the efficiency of both the innate and adaptive immune systems and to attenuate the stress responses by the catecholaminergic and endocannabinoid (EC) systems. Key mechanisms of innate immunity are the eradication of pathogens through phagocytosis and the respiratory burst. We tested the concentration-dependent, spontaneous and stimulated (via TNFα and fMLP) release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by human PMNs in vitro in response to norepinephrine (NE) and AM1241, a pharmacological ligand for the endocannabinoid receptor CB2...
January 10, 2018: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313961/impaired-phagocytosis-directs-human-monocyte-activation-in-response-to-fungal-derived-%C3%AE-glucan-particles
#7
Giorgio Camilli, Elif Eren, David L Williams, Vishukumar Aimanianda, Etienne Meunier, Jessica Quintin
Recognition of the fungal cell wall carbohydrate β-glucan by the host receptor Dectin-1 elicits broad immunomodulatory responses, such as phagocytosis and activation of oxidative burst. These responses are essential for engulfing and killing fungal pathogens. Phagocytic monocytes are key mediators of these early host inflammatory responses to infection. Remarkably, whether phagocytosis of fungal β-glucan leads to an inflammatory response in human monocytes remains to be established. Here, we show that phagocytosis of heat-killed Candida albicans is essential to trigger inflammation and cytokine release...
January 5, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306433/insights-into-glucan-polysaccharide-recognition-using-glucooligosaccharide-microarrays-with-oxime-linked-neoglycolipid-probes
#8
Yan Liu, Angelina S Palma, Ten Feizi, Wengang Chai
Glucans are polysaccharides of increasing biomedical interest because of their involvement in mechanisms of pathogen recognition, modulation of the immune system and anticancer, and health-promoting activities. Most of these biological activities occur through specific interactions with glucan-recognizing proteins. However, detailed molecular studies of glucan recognition remain a challenge mainly due to the inherent sequence heterogeneity and polydispersity of glucan polysaccharides, and associated difficulties in their purification and sequence characterization...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295913/o-mannosylation-of-proteins-enables-histoplasma-yeast-survival-at-mammalian-body-temperatures
#9
Andrew L Garfoot, Kristie D Goughenour, Marcel Wüthrich, Murugesan V S Rajaram, Larry S Schlesinger, Bruce S Klein, Chad A Rappleye
The ability to grow at mammalian body temperatures is critical for pathogen infection of humans. For the thermally dimorphic fungal pathogen Histoplasma capsulatum, elevated temperature is required for differentiation of mycelia or conidia into yeast cells, a step critical for invasion and replication within phagocytic immune cells. Posttranslational glycosylation of extracellular proteins characterizes factors produced by the pathogenic yeast cells but not those of avirulent mycelia, correlating glycosylation with infection...
January 2, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281921/circadian-clearance-of-a-fungal-pathogen-from-the-lung-is-not-based-on-cell-intrinsic-macrophage-rhythms
#10
Shan Chen, Kevin K Fuller, Jay C Dunlap, Jennifer J Loros
Circadian rhythms govern immune cell function, giving rise to time-of-day variation in the recognition and clearance of bacterial or viral pathogens; to date, however, no such regulation of the host-fungal interaction has been described. In this report, we use murine models to explore circadian control of either fungal-macrophage interactions in vitro or pathogen clearance from the lung in vivo. First, we show that expression of the important fungal pattern recognition receptor Dectin-1 ( clec7a), from either bone marrow-derived or peritoneum-derived macrophages, is not under circadian regulation at either the level of transcript or cell surface protein expression...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274416/dectin-1-mediates-the-immunoenhancement-effect-of-the-polysaccharide-from-dictyophora-indusiata
#11
Chao Deng, Haitian Fu, Jingying Shang, Jinghua Chen, Xin Xu
The polysaccharides (DIP) extracted from Dictyophora indusiate has been found featuring great anti-cancer activity through enhancing organism immunity ability, and the DIP-induced macrophages activation might be mediated via TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway. In this work, we make further investigation of the effect of DIP on macrophages and whether there was another pathway to regulate the immunoenhancement effect of DIP. The results showed that DIP could activate macrophages, causing the enhancement of its phagocyte activity, and then increase the secretion of IL-1β and TNF-α...
December 20, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250064/p17-an-original-host-defense-peptide-from-ant-venom-promotes-antifungal-activities-of-macrophages-through-the-induction-of-c-type-lectin-receptors-dependent-on-ltb4-mediated-ppar%C3%AE-activation
#12
Khaddouj Benmoussa, Hélène Authier, Mélissa Prat, Mohammad AlaEddine, Lise Lefèvre, Mouna Chirine Rahabi, José Bernad, Agnès Aubouy, Elsa Bonnafé, Jérome Leprince, Bernard Pipy, Michel Treilhou, Agnès Coste
Despite the growing knowledge with regard to the immunomodulatory properties of host defense peptides, their impact on macrophage differentiation and on its associated microbicidal functions is still poorly understood. Here, we demonstrated that the P17, a new cationic antimicrobial peptide from ant venom, induces an alternative phenotype of human monocyte-derived macrophages (h-MDMs). This phenotype is characterized by a C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) signature composed of mannose receptor (MR) and Dectin-1 expression...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247123/taurine-chloramine-potentiates-phagocytic-activity-of-peritoneal-macrophages-through-up-regulation-of-dectin-1-mediated-by-heme-oxygenase-1-derived-carbon-monoxide
#13
Seung Hyeon Kim, Xiancai Zhong, Wonki Kim, Kyeojin Kim, Young-Ger Suh, Chaekyun Kim, Yeonsoo Joe, Hun Taeg Chung, Young-Nam Cha, Young-Joon Surh
Resolution of inflammation that occurs after microbial infection or tissue damage is an important physiologic process in maintaining or restoring host homeostasis. Taurine chloramine (TauCl) is formed by a reaction between taurine and hypochlorite in leukocytes, and it is especially abundant in activated neutrophils that encounter an oxidative burst. As neutrophils undergo apoptosis, TauCl is released to the extracellular matrix at the inflamed sites, thereby affecting coexisting macrophages in the inflammatory microenvironment...
December 15, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246954/immunoregulatory-activity-of-the-natural-product-laminarin-varies-widely-as-a-result-of-its-physical-properties
#14
Alyson J Smith, Bridget Graves, Robert Child, Peter J Rice, Zuchao Ma, Douglas W Lowman, Harry E Ensley, Kendal T Ryter, Jay T Evans, David L Williams
Ligation of Dectin-1 by fungal glucans elicits a Th17 response that is necessary for clearing many fungal pathogens. Laminarin is a (1→3, 1→6)-β-glucan that is widely reported to be a Dectin-1 antagonist, however, there are reports that laminarin is also a Dectin-1 agonist. To address this controversy, we assessed the physical properties, structure, purity, Dectin-1 binding, and biological activity of five different laminarin preparations from three different commercial sources. The proton nuclear magnetic resonance analysis indicated that all of the preparations contained laminarin although their molecular mass varied considerably (4400-34,400 Da)...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245916/laminarin-counteracts-diet-induced-obesity-associated-with-glucagon-like-peptide-1-secretion
#15
Liusong Yang, Lina Wang, Canjun Zhu, Junguo Wu, Yexian Yuan, Lulu Yu, Yaqiong Xu, Jingren Xu, Tao Wang, Zhengrui Liao, Songbo Wang, Xiaotong Zhu, Ping Gao, Yongliang Zhang, Xiuqi Wang, Qingyan Jiang, Gang Shu
Laminarin, a type of β-glucan isolated from brown seaweeds, exhibits verity of physiological activities, which include immunology modulation and antitumor function. To investigate the effect of laminarin on energy homeostasis, mice were orally administrated with laminarin to test food intake, fat deposition, and glucose homeostasis. Chronically, laminarin treatment significantly decreases high-fat-diet-induced body weight gain and fat deposition and reduces blood glucose level and glucose tolerance. Acutely, laminarin enhances serum glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) content and the mRNA expression level of proglucagon and prohormone convertase 1 in ileum...
November 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238325/probiotic-bacteria-alter-pattern-recognition-receptor-expression-and-cytokine-profile-in-a-human-macrophage-model-challenged-with-candida-albicans-and-lipopolysaccharide
#16
Victor H Matsubara, Karin H Ishikawa, Ellen S Ando-Suguimoto, Bruno Bueno-Silva, Atlas E M Nakamae, Marcia P A Mayer
Probiotics are live microorganisms that confer benefits to the host health. The infection rate of potentially pathogenic organisms such as Candida albicans, the most common agent associated with mucosal candidiasis, can be reduced by probiotics. However, the mechanisms by which the probiotics interfere with the immune system are largely unknown. We evaluated the effect of probiotic bacteria on C. albicans challenged human macrophages. Macrophages were pretreated with lactobacilli alone (Lactobacillus rhamnosus LR32, Lactobacillus casei L324m, or Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM) or associated with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS), followed by the challenge with C...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232689/a-computational-model-for-regulation-of-nanoscale-glucan-exposure-in-candida-albicans
#17
Michael J Wester, Jia Lin, Aaron K Neumann
Candida albicans is a virulent human opportunistic pathogen. It evades innate immune surveillance by masking an immunogenic cell wall polysaccharide, β-glucan, from recognition by the immunoreceptor Dectin-1. Glucan unmasking by the antifungal drug caspofungin leads to changes in the nanostructure of glucan exposure accessible to Dectin-1. The physical mechanism that regulates glucan exposure is poorly understood, but it controls the nanobiology of fungal pathogen recognition. We created computational models to simulate hypothetical physical processes of unmasking glucan in a biologically realistic distribution of cell wall glucan fibrils...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209318/the-major-chromoblastomycosis-etiologic-agent-fonsecaea-pedrosoi-activates-the-nlrp3-inflammasome
#18
Raffael Júnio Araújo de Castro, Isaque Medeiros Siqueira, Márcio Sousa Jerônimo, Angelina Maria Moreschi Basso, Paulo Henrique de Holanda Veloso Junior, Kelly Grace Magalhães, Luiza Chaves Leonhardt, Stephan Alberto Machado de Oliveira, Pedro Henrique Bürgel, Aldo Henrique Tavares, Anamélia Lorenzetti Bocca
Fonsecaea pedrosoi is the main etiologic agent of chromoblastomycosis (CBM), one of the most prevalent subcutaneous mycosis in tropical and subtropical countries. CBM is a poorly characterized chronic infection that commonly starts after transcutaneous inoculation of conidia and saprophytic hyphae of F. pedrosoi. Recently, we have shown that unlike conidia, hyphae and muriform cells (the parasitic morphotype) of F. pedrosoi promotes an intense inflammatory response pattern in vivo, which comprises the production of an inflammasome-derived cytokine, IL-1β...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208681/hemitam-a-single-tyrosine-motif-that-packs-a-punch
#19
REVIEW
Björn Bauer, Alexander Steinle
Innate immune cells sense danger through a plethora of germline-encoded receptors that recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or cellular molecules that are exposed only by stressed, infected, malignant, or dead cells. Many of these danger-sensing receptors belong to the C-type lectin-like superfamily (CLSF) and therefore are called C-type lectin-like receptors (CTLRs). Certain activating CTLRs, namely, CLEC-2, Dectin-1, DNGR-1, NKp80, and NKp65, which are encoded by genes that are clustered together in a subregion of the mammalian natural killer gene complex (NKC), use a single copy tyrosine signaling module termed the hemi-immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (hemITAM)...
December 5, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202301/spleen-tyrosine-kinase-inhibition-ameliorates-airway-inflammation-through-modulation-of-nlrp3-inflammosome-and-th17-treg-axis
#20
Divyesh Patel, Sagar Gaikwad, Naveen Challagundla, Manish Nivsarkar, Reena Agrawal-Rajput
Repeated exposure to the fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigates triggers spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) signalling through dectin-1 activation, which is associated with deleterious airway inflammation. β-Glucan-induced dectin-1 signalling activates the NLRP3 inflammasome, which in turn rapidly produces IL-1β, a master regulator of inflammation. IL-1β expression results in Th17/Treg imbalance, pulmonary inflammation, and bystander tissue injury. This study reports that 3,4 methylenedioxy-β-nitrostyrene (MNS), a potent SYK inhibitor, markedly decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and increased the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines in vitro...
December 1, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
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