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Lu Zhao, Mengchen Shi, Lina Zhou, Hengchang Sun, Xiaona Zhang, Lei He, Zeli Tang, Caiqin Wang, Yinjuan Wu, Tingjin Chen, Mei Shang, Xinyi Zhou, Zhipeng Lin, Xuerong Li, Xinbing Yu, Yan Huang
BACKGROUND: Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) is the most widespread human liver fluke in East Asia including China and Korea. Clonorchiasis as a neglected tropical zoonosis, leads to serious economic and public health burden in China. There are considerable evidences for an etiological relation between chronic clonorchiasis and liver fibrosis in human beings. Liver fibrosis is a highly conserved and over-protected response to hepatic tissue injury. Immune cells including CD4+ T cell as well as dendritic cell (DC), and pro-fibrogenic cytokines like interleukin 4 (IL-4), IL-13 have been identified as vital manipulators in liver fibrogenesis...
March 5, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Elise Chiffoleau
Over the last decade, C-type lectin-like receptors (CTLRs), expressed mostly by myeloid cells, have gained increasing attention for their role in the fine tuning of both innate and adaptive immunity. Not only CTLRs recognize pathogen-derived ligands to protect against infection but also endogenous ligands such as self-carbohydrates, proteins, or lipids to control homeostasis and tissue injury. Interestingly, CTLRs act as antigen-uptake receptors via their carbohydrate-recognition domain for internalization and subsequent presentation to T-cells...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Hiroshi Sakagami, Mineko Tomomura
This review article summarizes the recent progress in dental applications of natural products. Catechin gel showed selective antimicrobial activity, whereas the alkaline extract of various plant species rich in lignin carbohydrate complex (LCC) showed much higher antiviral activity than lower molecular weight polyphenols. Mouthwash with the alkaline extract of a plant classified as OTC effectively reduced halitosis. Unexpectedly, many polyphenolic compounds purified from the natural kingdom showed much lower tumor-specificity against human oral squamous cell lines as compared with antitumor agents, although they showed apoptosis-inducing activity...
February 14, 2018: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
James S Griffiths, Aiysha Thompson, Matthew Stott, Ankita Benny, Natalie A Lewis, Philip R Taylor, Julian Forton, Sarah Herrick, Selinda J Orr, Eamon P McGreal
Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) experience chronic or recurrent bacterial and fungal lung infections. Many patients with CF cannot effectively clear Aspergillus from their lungs. This may result in IgE sensitization and the development of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, or invasive infections, such as Aspergillus bronchitis. Lung disease in patients with CF is associated with neutrophil-dominated inflammation and elevated levels of the serine protease, neutrophil elastase (NE). Various C-type lectin-like receptors (CLRs), including Dectin-1 and Dectin-2, are involved in the immune response to Aspergillus...
January 22, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Eugenia M Rapoport, Sergey V Khaidukov, Andrey M Gaponov, Galina V Pazynina, Svetlana V Tsygankova, Ivan M Ryzhov, Ivan M Belyanchikov, Panagiota Milona, Nicolai V Bovin, Kenneth C McCullough
Dendritic cells (DCs) play crucial roles in innate and adaptive immune response, for which reason targeting antigen to these cells is an important strategy for improvement of vaccine development. To this end, we explored recognition of DCs lectins by glycans. For selection of the glycan "vector", a library of 229 fluorescent glycoprobes was employed to assess interaction with the CD14low/-CD16+CD83+ blood mononuclear cell population containing the DCs known for their importance in antigen presentation to T-lymphocytes...
January 31, 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
Parisa Kalantari, Yoelkys Morales, Emily A Miller, Luis D Jaramillo, Holly E Ponichtera, Marcel A Wuethrich, Cheolho Cheong, Maria C Seminario, Joanne M Russo, Stephen C Bunnell, Miguel J Stadecker
The immunopathology caused by schistosome helminths varies greatly in humans and among mouse strains. A severe form of parasite egg-induced hepatic granulomatous inflammation, seen in CBA mice, is driven by Th17 cells stimulated by IL-1β and IL-23 produced by dendritic cells that express CD209a (SIGNR5), a C-type lectin receptor (CLR) related to human DC-SIGN. Here, we show that CD209a-deficient CBA mice display decreased Th17 responses and are protected from severe immunopathology. In vitro, CD209a augments the egg-induced IL-1β and IL-23 production initiated by the related CLRs Dectin-2 and Mincle...
January 30, 2018: Cell Reports
Matthew Zhou, Corleone S Delaveris, Jessica R Kramer, Justin A Kenkel, Edgar G Engleman, Carolyn R Bertozzi
The C-type lectins Dectin-1 and Dectin-2 contribute to innate immunity against microbial pathogens by recognizing their foreign glycan structures. These receptors are promising targets for immune stimulatory adjuvants in the context of vaccine development and cancer immune therapy. However, currently available agonist ligands are heterogeneous glycoconjugates and polysaccharides from natural sources. Here, we designed and synthesized the first chemically-defined ligands for Dectin-1 and -2. They comprised glycopolypeptides bearing mono-, di-, and trisaccharides and were built via polymerization of glycosylated N-carboxyanhydrides...
January 25, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Yong Hyun Kim, Eui-Gil Jung, Kook-Il Han, Bharat Bhusan Patnaik, Hyun-Jung Kwon, Hyoun-Su Lee, Wan Jong Kim, Man-Deuk Han
The aim of this study was to determine, using murine RAW 264.7 macrophages, the immunomodulatory effect of extracellular β-glucan isolated from Pleurotus eryngii (PEBG) and its sulfated derivative (PEBG-S) on signaling molecules implicated in host innate immunity. β-Glucan was extracted and purified from the mycelial culture using optimal medium concentrations. It was then chemically converted to its sulfated form. Monosaccharide composition of β-glucan was characterized with p-aminobenzoic acid ethyl ester-derivatized sugars through highperformance liquid chromatography analysis...
2017: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Dimitra Lamprinaki, Gemma Beasy, Aleksandra Zhekova, Alexandra Wittmann, Steve James, Jo Dicks, Yoichiro Iwakura, Shinobu Saijo, Xiaomin Wang, Chung-Wai Chow, Ian Roberts, Tamas Korcsmaros, Ulrike Mayer, Thomas Wileman, Norihito Kawasaki
The human fungal microbiota known as mycobiota is increasingly recognized as a critical factor in human gut health and disease. Non-pathogenic commensal yeasts such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae promote homeostasis in the gut, whereas dysbiosis of the gut mycobiota is associated with inflammation. Glycan-binding receptors (lectins) are key host factors in host-mycobiota interaction in the gut. They are expressed on immune cells such as dendritic cells (DCs) and recognize fungal polysaccharides. This interaction is imperative to mount appropriate immune responses for immune homeostasis in the gut as well as clearance of fungal pathogens...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
Ruixiang Blake Zheng, Sabine A F Jégouzo, Maju Joe, Yu Bai, Huu-Anh Tran, Ke Shen, Jörn Saupe, Li Xia, Md Faiaz Ahmed, Yu-Hsuan Liu, Pratap Subhashrao Patil, Ashish Tripathi, Shang-Cheng Hung, Maureen E Taylor, Todd L Lowary, Kurt Drickamer
An array of homogenous glycans representing all the major carbohydrate structures present in the cell wall of the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other mycobacteria has been probed with a panel of glycan-binding receptors expressed on cells of the mammalian innate immune system. The results provide an overview of interactions between mycobacterial glycans and receptors that mediate uptake and survival in macrophages, dendritic cells and sinusoidal endothelial cells. A subset of the wide variety of glycan structures present on mycobacterial surfaces interact with cells of the innate immune system through the receptors tested...
October 19, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
Ni Liang, Yan-Ping Yang, Wei Li, Ya-Yun Wu, Zi-Wei Zhang, Yun Luo, Yi-Ming Fan
The activation of NLRP3, NLRC4 and AIM2 inflammasomes is pivotal for innate immunity against some pathogenic fungi, but their role in the pathogenesis of Malassezia folliculitis (MF) remains unclear. The objective of the study was to determine the expression of 4 canonical inflammasomes (NLRP1, NLRP3, NLRC4 and AIM2) and their priming-associated molecules (TLR2, TLR4, Dectin-1, Dectin-2 and NFκB) in MF lesion. Expression of NLRP1, NLRP3, NLRC4, AIM2, caspase-1, IL-1β, TLR2, TLR4, Dectin-1, Dectin-2 and NFκB was detected by immunohistochemistry in skin lesion of 23 MF patients and normal skin of 12 healthy subjects...
February 2018: Mycoses
Andréa G Dos Santos, Érica A Mendes, Rafael P de Oliveira, Ana M C Faria, Aurizangela O de Sousa, Carlos P Pirovani, Fernanda F de Araújo, Andréa T de Carvalho, Marliete Carvalho Costa, Daniel Assis Santos, Quimi V Montoya, Andre Rodrigues, Jane L Dos Santos
The intensive use of pesticides to control pests in agriculture has promoted several issues relating to environment. As chemical pesticides remain controversial, biocontrol agents originating from fungi could be an alternative. Among them, we highlight biocontrol agents derived from the fungi genus Trichoderma, which have been documented in limiting the growth of other phytopathogenic fungus in the roots and leaves of several plant species. An important member of this genus is Trichoderma asperelloides, whose biocontrol agents have been used to promote plant growth while also treating soil diseases caused by microorganisms in both greenhouses and outdoor crops...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Theodore J Kottom, Deanne M Hebrink, Paige E Jenson, Paige L Marsolek, Marcel Wüthrich, Huafeng Wang, Bruce Klein, Sho Yamasaki, Andrew H Limper
Pneumocystis is an important fungal pathogen that causes life-threatening pneumonia in patients with AIDS and malignancy. Lung fungal pathogens are recognized by C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), which bind specific ligands and stimulate innate immune responses. The CLR Dectin-1 was previously shown to mediate immune responses to Pneumocystis spp. For this reason, we investigated a potential role for Dectin-2. Rats with Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) exhibited elevated Dectin-2 mRNA levels. Soluble Dectin-2 carbohydrate-recognition domain fusion protein showed binding to intact Pneumocystis carinii (Pc) and to native Pneumocystis major surface glycoprotein/glycoprotein A (Msg/gpA)...
February 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Ko Sato, Kazuyoshi Kawakami
Cryptococcus neoformans is a yeast-type opportunistic fungal pathogen with a capsule structure consisting of polysaccharides, such as glucuronoxylomannan and galactoxylomannan, and infects the lungs via an air-borne route. Most healthy individuals undergo asymptomatic infection with granulomatous lesions in the lungs caused by C. neoformans. However, immunocompromised hosts with severely impaired cellular immunity, such as those with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), often suffer from disseminated infection into the central nervous system, leading to life-threatening meningoencephalitis...
2017: Medical Mycology Journal
Huafeng Wang, Taek-Jin Lee, Scott J Fites, Richard Merkhofer, Robert Zarnowski, Tristan Brandhorst, Kevin Galles, Bruce Klein, Marcel Wüthrich
The development of vaccines against fungi and other intracellular microbes is impeded in part by a lack of suitable adjuvants. While most current vaccines against infectious diseases preferentially induce production of antibodies, cellular immunity is essential for the resolution of fungal infections. Microbes such as fungi and Mycobacterium tuberculosis require Th17 and Th1 cells for resistance, and engage the C-type lectin receptors including Dectin-2. Herein, we discovered a novel Dectin-2 ligand, the glycoprotein Blastomyces Eng2 (Bl-Eng2)...
August 2017: PLoS Pathogens
B R Brown, E J Lee, P E Snow, E E Vance, Y Iwakura, N Ohno, N Miura, X Lin, G D Brown, C A Wells, J R Smith, R R Caspi, H L Rosenzweig
Uveitis (intraocular inflammation) is a leading cause of loss of vision. Although its aetiology is largely speculative, it is thought to arise from complex genetic-environmental interactions that break immune tolerance to generate eye-specific autoreactive T cells. Experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU), induced by immunization with the ocular antigen, interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein (IRBP), in combination with mycobacteria-containing complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), has many clinical and histopathological features of human posterior uveitis...
December 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Tzu-Hsuan Chang, Juin-Hua Huang, Hsiu-Chao Lin, Wen-Yu Chen, Yu-Hsiang Lee, Li-Chung Hsu, Mihai G Netea, Jenny P-Y Ting, Betty A Wu-Hsieh
Inflammasome is an intracellular protein complex that serves as cytosolic pattern recognition receptor (PRR) to engage with pathogens and to process cytokines of the interleukin-1 (IL-1) family into bioactive molecules. It has been established that interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is important to host defense against Histoplasma capsulatum infection. However, the detailed mechanism of how H. capsulatum induces inflammasome activation leading to IL-1β production has not been studied. Here, we showed in dendritic cells (DCs) that H...
July 2017: PLoS Pathogens
Si Min Chen, Hui Shen, Teng Zhang, Xin Huang, Xiao Qi Liu, Shi Yu Guo, Jing Jun Zhao, Chun Fang Wang, Lan Yan, Guo Tong Xu, Yuan Ying Jiang, Mao Mao An
Candida glabrata is the second most common pathogen of severe candidiasis in immunocompromised hosts, following C. albicans. Although C. glabrata and C. albicans belong to the same genus, they are phylogenetically distinct. C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), acting as pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs), play critical roles in host defense against C. albicans infections. However, our understanding of the specific roles of CLRs in host defense against C. glabrata is limited. Here, we explored the potential roles of the C-type lectins Dectin-1 and Dectin-2 in host defense against C...
June 28, 2017: Virulence
Hadar Feinberg, Sabine A F Jégouzo, Maximus J Rex, Kurt Drickamer, William I Weis, Maureen E Taylor
Dectin-2, a C-type lectin on macrophages and other cells of the innate immune system, functions in response to pathogens, particularly fungi. The carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD) in dectin-2 is linked to a transmembrane sequence that interacts with the common Fc receptor γ subunit to initiate immune signaling. The molecular mechanism by which dectin-2 selectively binds to pathogens has been investigated by characterizing the CRD expressed in a bacterial system. Competition binding studies indicated that the CRD binds to monosaccharides with modest affinity and that affinity was greatly enhanced for mannose-linked α1-2 or α1-4 to a second mannose residue...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Wataru Sato, Ken-Ichi Ishibashi, Daisuke Yamanaka, Yoshiyuki Adachi, Naohito Ohno
Kawasaki disease (KD) is an inflammatory disease that was identified by Professor Tomisaku Kawasaki in 1961. Candida albicans-derived substances, such as C. albicans water-soluble fraction (CAWS) , induce coronary arteritis similar to KD in mice. CAWS functions as a pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) by acting as a ligand for dectin-2. A gut-associated immunological system has developed specifically to segregate advantageous and detrimental stimuli, and the microbial flora has been found to markedly affect the development and severity of diseases...
2017: Medical Mycology Journal
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