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Al Shaimaa Hasan, Lan Luo, Chen Yan, Tian-Xia Zhang, Yoshishige Urata, Shinji Goto, Safwat A Mangoura, Mahmoud H Abdel-Raheem, Shouhua Zhang, Tao-Sheng Li
Cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs), one of the promising stem cell sources for myocardial repair, have been tested in clinical trials and resulted in beneficial effects; however, the relevant mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that CDCs favor heart repair by switching the macrophages from a pro-inflammatory phenotype (M1) into a regulatory anti-inflammatory phenotype (M2). Macrophages from mice were cultured with CDCs-conditioned medium or with fibroblasts-conditioned medium as a control...
2016: PloS One
Kai Li, Jiangming Yu, Youtao Xie, Mingyu You, Liping Huang, Xuebin Zheng
Ideal coatings for orthopedic implants should be able to induce excellent osseointegration with host bone tissue, which requires good osteogenic responses and limited inflammatory reactions. Cerium oxide (CeO2) ceramics have anti-oxidative properties and can be used to decrease mediators of inflammation, making them attractive for biomedical application. In this study, two kinds of CeO2 incorporated calcium silicate coatings (CS-10Ce and CS-30Ce) were prepared via plasma spraying technique, and the effects of CeO2 addition on the responses of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and RAW264...
October 20, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
Zhong'e Zhou, Yong Tang, Xian Jin, Chengjun Chen, Yi Lu, Liang Liu, Chengxing Shen
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are major inflammatory mediators in diabetes, affecting atherosclerosis progression via macrophages. Metformin slows diabetic atherosclerosis progression through mechanisms that remain to be fully elucidated. The present study of murine bone marrow derived macrophages showed that (1) AGEs enhanced proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)) mRNA expression, RAGE expression, and NFκB activation; (2) metformin pretreatment inhibited AGEs effects and AGEs-induced cluster designation 86 (CD86) (M1 marker) expression, while promoting CD206 (M2 marker) surface expression and anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) mRNA expression; and (3) the AMPK inhibitor, Compound C, attenuated metformin effects...
2016: Journal of Diabetes Research
Matthias Holzlechner, Katharina Strasser, Elitsa Zareva, Luise Steinhaeuser, Hanna Birnleitner, Andrea Beer, Michael Bergmann, Rudolf Oehler, Martina Marchetti-Deschmann
Tissue-resident immune cells differ from the corresponding blood cells in many functional aspects. Although the proteome of blood immune cells is well investigated there are almost no data on tissue-resident immune cells. Here we explored the potential of MALDI-TOF-MS imaging (MSI) to investigate these cells in colon tissue, which exhibits a strong immune infiltration. MSI identified several proteinaceous markers that colocalized with specific structures of the colon such as mucosa or muscularis mucosae in six patients...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
Eun-Ju Choi, Trishna Debnath, Yujiao Tang, Young-Bae Ryu, Sang-Ho Moon, Eun-Kyung Kim
BACKGROUND: Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) is widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions and has been used as a vegetable and in traditional medicine. In this study, the anti-atopic dermatitis activity of the ethanol extract of M. oleifera leaf was investigated in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: For the in vitro study, HaCaT human keratinocytes were used for cytokines and MAPKinase assay. In the in vivo study, M. oleifera leaf ethanolic extract (MO) was topically applied to BALB/c mice with Dermatophagoides farinae extract (DFE; house dust mite extract)- and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced atopic dermatitis (AD)...
October 12, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Zhijin Li, Fangfang Xu, Zhifa Wang, Taiqiang Dai, Chao Ma, Bin Liu, Yanpu Liu
Macrophages are involved in the full processes of tissue healing or regeneration and play an important role in the regeneration of a variety of tissues. Although recent evidence suggests the role of different macrophage phenotypes in adipose tissue expansion, metabolism, and remodeling, the spectrum of macrophage phenotype in the adipose tissue engineering field remains unknown. The present study established a rat model of adipose tissue regeneration using a tissue engineering chamber. Macrophage phenotypes were assessed during the regenerative process in the model...
October 2016: Artificial Organs
Kazunobu Asano, Zhiliang Wu, Piyarat Srinontong, Takahide Ikeda, Isao Nagano, Hirokuyi Morita, Yoichi Maekawa
Infectious microorganisms often modify host immunity to escape from immune elimination. Trichinella is a unique nematode of the helminth family, which parasitize the inside of host muscle cells without robust eliminative reactions. There are two main species in genus Trichinella, encapsulated (T. spiralis(Ts), T. britovi) and non-encapsulated (T. pseudospiralis(Tp)). It has already been established that Trichinella infection affects host immune responses in several experimental immune diseases in animal models; however, most of those studies were done using Ts infection...
October 10, 2016: Infection and Immunity
Line S Bisgaard, Christina K Mogensen, Alexander Rosendahl, Helena Cucak, Lars Bo Nielsen, Salka E Rasmussen, Tanja X Pedersen
Macrophages are heterogeneous and can polarize into specific subsets, e.g. pro-inflammatory M1-like and re-modelling M2-like macrophages. To determine if peritoneal macrophages (PEMs) or bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs) resembled aortic macrophages from ApoE-/- mice, their M1/M2 phenotype, inflammatory status, and lipid metabolism signatures were compared. oxLDL accumulation was similar in PEMs and BMDMs. On protein expression level, BMDMs showed an M2-like CD206(high)CD11c(low) profile, while cholesterol loading led to enhanced CD11c expression and reduced MCP-1 secretion...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
Silvia L Carvalho, Tatsuya Nagata, Bruna R Junqueira, Larissa G Zanardo, Ana C S Paiva, Claudine M Carvalho
Infectious cDNA clones are an important tool to study the molecular and cellular process of RNA virus infection. In vitro and in vivo transcription systems are the two main strategies used in the generation of infectious cDNA clones for RNA viruses. This study describes the first generation of a full-length infectious cDNA clone of Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV), a Carlavirus. The full-length genome was synthesized by Overlap Extension PCR of two overlapping fragments and cloned in a pUC-based vector under control of the SP6 RNA polymerase promoter...
October 11, 2016: Virus Genes
Nathalia M Pinheiro, Fernanda P R Santana, Rafael Ribeiro Almeida, Marina Guerreiro, Milton A Martins, Luciana C Caperuto, Niels O S Câmara, Lislaine A Wensing, Vânia F Prado, Iolanda F L C Tibério, Marco Antônio M Prado, Carla M Prado
Nicotinic α-7 acetylcholine receptor (nAChRα7) is a critical regulator of cholinergic anti-inflammatory actions in several diseases, including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Given the potential importance of α7nAChR as a therapeutic target, we evaluated whether PNU-282987, an α7nAChR agonist, is effective in protecting the lung against inflammation. We performed intratracheal instillation of LPS to generate acute lung injury (ALI) in C57BL/6 mice. PNU-282987 treatment, either before or after ALI induction, reduced neutrophil recruitment and IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC), and IL-10 cytokine levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (P < 0...
October 11, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Kadri Murat Gurses, Fusun Ozmen, Duygu Kocyigit, Nilgun Yersal, Elif Bilgic, Erkan Kaya, Cagla Zubeyde Kopru, Tolga Soyal, Suat Doganci, Lale Tokgozoglu, Petek Korkusuz
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory activity originating from the epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) may have a role in coronary artery disease (CAD) pathogenesis. The relationship between macrophage infiltration, polarization in the EAT, and netrin-1 gene expression was investigated. METHODS: Macrophage infiltration and polarization were examined by immunohistochemical methods and expression levels of netrin-1, Unc5b, and cytokines related with M1-macrophage subtype (IL-12 and IL-18) were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction in subcutaneous and epicardial adipose tissue obtained from patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting and non-coronary cardiac surgery...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Cardiology
Manishekhar Kumar, Jeannine M Coburn, David L Kaplan, Biman B Mandal
Macrophages, the key players in immunoregulation, are actively involved in tissue remodelling and vascularization. Recent advances in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine illustrate the importance of 'immuno-informed' biomaterials to regulate the microenvironment of biomedical implants. In the current study, silk-based 3D hydrogels were utilized to regulate cytokine delivery for macrophage, a type of immune cell, differentiation and polarization. Three different hydrogel variants, silk-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) (SP), silk-horseradish peroxidase (HRP) (SH) and silk-sonicated (SS) hydrogels were studied...
October 11, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yi Pang, Xuemei Dai, Anna Roller, Kathleen Carter, Ian Paul, Abhay J Bhatt, Rick C S Lin, Lir-Wan Fan
Perinatal infection is a well-identified risk factor for a number of neurodevelopmental disorders, including brain white matter injury (WMI) and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The underlying mechanisms by which early life inflammatory events cause aberrant neural, cytoarchitectural, and network organization, remain elusive. This study is aimed to investigate how systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation affects microglia phenotypes and early neural developmental events in rats. We show here that LPS exposure at early postnatal day 3 leads to a robust microglia activation which is characterized with mixed microglial proinflammatory (M1) and anti-inflammatory (M2) phenotypes...
2016: PloS One
Lifang Ye, Shu Liang, Chao Guo, Xizhong Yu, Juan Zhao, Hao Zhang, Wenbin Shang
AIMS: Insulin resistance is associated with a chronic inflammation in adipose tissue which is propagated by a phenotypic switch in adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) polarization. This study aimed to investigate whether berberine, the major alkaloid of rhizoma coptidis, can improve insulin resistance through inhibiting ATM activation and inflammatory response in adipose tissue. MAIN METHODS: High-fat-diet induced obese mice were administered oral with berberine (50mg/kg/day) for 14days...
October 1, 2016: Life Sciences
Carlo Perego, Stefano Fumagalli, Elisa R Zanier, Erika Carlino, Nicolò Panini, Eugenio Erba, Maria-Grazia De Simoni
Resident microglia and recruited macrophages are major contributors to the post-ischemic inflammatory response. Initially considered functionally homogeneous populations, data now suggest distinct but still controversial roles after brain injury. Using a model of conditional monocyte/macrophage depletion we studied the contribution of these myeloid cells to brain lesion progression after ischemia, and their influence on the ischemic inflammatory environment. Male CD11b-DTR transgenic mice, expressing the human diphtheria toxin receptor under the control of the CD11b promoter, were treated with diphtheria toxin to induce monocyte/macrophage depletion...
September 30, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
Genki Suenaga, Tokunori Ikeda, Yoshihiro Komohara, Koutaro Takamatsu, Tatsuyuki Kakuma, Masayoshi Tasaki, Yohei Misumi, Mitsuharu Ueda, Takaaki Ito, Satoru Senju, Yukio Ando
We hypothesized that tissue-resident macrophages in familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) patients will exhibit qualitative or quantitative abnormalities, that may accelerate transthyretin (TTR)-derived amyloid deposition. To evaluate this, we examined the number and subset of tissue-resident macrophages in heart tissue from amyloid-deposited FAP and control patients. In both FAP and control patients, tissue-resident macrophages in heart tissue were all Iba+/CD163+/CD206+ macrophages. However, the number of macrophages was significantly decreased in FAP patients compared with control patients...
2016: PloS One
H Geisshüsler, E Marti, M H Stoffel, K Kühni, A Stojiljkovic, C von Tscharner, B Vidondo, V Gerber, C Koch
Sarcoids are the most frequently observed skin tumours in equids and consist of cutaneous accumulations of transformed fibroblasts. Their aetiopathogenesis is closely linked to a presumably abortive infection by bovine papillomavirus (BPV) types 1 and 2. In cattle, dermal fibropapillomas induced by BPV1/2 usually regress spontaneously due to a local, cell-mediated, immune response; however, equids appear to lack an effective immune response to BPV1/2 and mechanisms of immune evasion have been postulated. As a consequence, equine sarcoids tend to persist and are prone to recur...
October 2016: Veterinary Journal
Ana Flávia Marçal Pessoa, Juliana Costa Florim, Hosana Gomes Rodrigues, Vinicius Andrade-Oliveira, Simone A Teixeira, Kaio Fernando Vitzel, Rui Curi, Niels Olsen Saraiva Câmara, Marcelo N Muscará, Marcelo Lazzaron Lamers, Marinilce Fagundes Santos
Oxidative stress aggravates several long-term complications in diabetes mellitus. We evaluated the effectiveness of the oral administration of antioxidants (vitamins E and C, 40 and 100 mg/kg b.w., respectively) on skin wound healing acceleration in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Mice were wounded 30 days after the induction of diabetes. Antioxidants were effective in preventing oxidative stress, as assessed by TBARS. The enzymes catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase were increased in diabetics on the 3rd day post-wounding; catalase and glutathione peroxidase remained still augmented in diabetics after 14th day postwounding, and the treatment with vitamins restored their activities to control...
September 29, 2016: Wound Repair and Regeneration
Weina Zhang, Lechuang Chen, Kai Ma, Yahui Zhao, Xianghe Liu, Yu Wang, Mei Liu, Shufang Liang, Hongxia Zhu, Ningzhi Xu
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a target of colon cancer therapy, but the effects of this therapy on the tumor microenvironment remain poorly understood. Our in vivo studies showed that cetuximab, an anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody, effectively inhibited AOM/DSS-induced, colitis-associated tumorigenesis, downregulated M2-related markers, and decreased F4/80+/CD206+ macrophage populations. Treatment with conditioned medium of colon cancer cells increased macrophage expression of the M2-related markers arginase-1 (Arg1), CCL17, CCL22, IL-10 and IL-4...
September 23, 2016: Oncotarget
Sam Famenini, Elizabeth A Rigali, Henry M Olivera-Perez, Johnny Dang, Michael To Chang, Ramesh Halder, Rammohan V Rao, Matteo Pellegrini, Verna Porter, Dale Bredesen, Milan Fiala
Monocyte/macrophages of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer disease (AD) are defective in phagocytosis and degradation amyloid-β 1-42 (Aβ1-42), but are improved by ω-3 fatty acids (ω-3). The hypothesis of this study was that active Aβ1-42 phagocytosis by macrophages prevents brain amyloidosis and thus maintains cognition. We studied the effects of self-supplementation with a drink with ω-3, antioxidants, and resveratrol on Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores, macrophage M1M2 phenotype (the ratio of inflammatory CD54+CD80 and proresolution markers CD163+CD206), and Aβ1-42 phagocytosis in patients initially diagnosed as having MCI or subjective cognitive impairment (SCI)...
September 27, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
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