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C-type lectin

Gordon D Brown, Paul R Crocker
Lectins recognize a diverse array of carbohydrate structures and perform numerous essential biological functions. Here we focus on only two families of lectins, the Siglecs and C-type lectins. Triggering of intracellular signaling cascades following ligand recognition by these receptors can have profound effects on the induction and modulation of immunity. In this chapter, we provide a brief overview of each family and then focus on selected examples that highlight how these lectins can influence myeloid cell functioning in health and disease...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Aleksandra Bocian, Małgorzata Urbanik, Konrad Hus, Andrzej Łyskowski, Vladimír Petrilla, Zuzana Andrejčáková, Monika Petrillová, Jaroslav Legath
Snake venom is a rich source of peptides and proteins with a wide range of actions. Many of the venom components are currently being tested for their usefulness in the treatment of many diseases ranging from neurological and cardiovascular to cancer. It is also important to constantly search for new proteins and peptides with properties not yet described. The venom of Vipera berus berus has hemolytic, proteolytic and cytotoxic properties, but its exact composition and the factors responsible for these properties are not known...
October 19, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Amna K E Awadallah, Makarim Elfadil M Osman, Mariam A Ibrahim, Emerson S Bernardes, Marcelo Dias-Baruffi, Emadeldin Hassan E Konozy
Three isolectins denoted hereforth MBaL-30, MBaL-60, and MBaL-80 were isolated from seeds extract of Momordica balsamina by 30%, 60%, and 80% ammonium sulfate saturations, respectively. The native molecular weights of these lectins, as judged by gel filtration, were 108, 56, and 160 kDa, respectively. On SDS-PAGE, under reduced condition, 27 kDa band was obtained for all isolectins. The lectins hemagglutinating activities were variably inhibited by d-galactose (minimum inhibitory concentrations = 12.5mM, 50mM, and 0...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Molecular Recognition: JMR
Adam C Labonte, Sun-Sang J Sung, Lucas T Jennelle, Aditya P Dandekar, Young S Hahn
: The liver maintains an immunologically tolerant environment as a result of continuous exposure to food and bacterial constituents from the digestive tract. Hepatotropic pathogens can take advantage of this niche and establish lifelong chronic infections causing hepatic fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Macrophages (Mϕ) play a critical role in regulation of immune responses to hepatic infection and regeneration of tissue. However, the factors crucial for Mϕ in limiting hepatic inflammation or resolving liver damage have not been fully understood...
October 22, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Adam Pap, Katalin F Medzihradszky, Zsuzsanna Darula
Growing evidence on the diverse biological roles of extracellular glycosylation as well as the need for quality control of protein pharmaceuticals make glycopeptide analysis both exciting and important again after a long hiatus. High-throughput O-glycosylation studies have to tackle the complexity of glycosylation as well as technical difficulties and, up to now, have yielded only limited results mostly from single enrichment experiments. In this study, we address the technical reproducibility of the characterization of the most prevalent O-glycosylation (mucin-type core 1 structures) in human serum, using a two-step lectin affinity-based workflow...
October 20, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Daniela Damasceno, Martín Pérez Andrés, Wouter Bl van den Bossche, Juan Flores-Montero, Sandra de Bruin, Cristina Teodosio, Jacques Jm van Dongen, Alberto Orfao, Julia Almeida
Although major steps have been recently made in understanding the role of the distinct subsets of dendritic cells (DC)/antigen-presenting cells (APC), further studies are required to unravel their precise role, including in-depth immunophenotypic characterisation of these cells. Here, we used eight-colour flow cytometry to investigate the reactivity of a panel of 72 monoclonal antibodies (including those clustered in seven new Cluster of Differentiation, CD) on different subsets of APC in peripheral blood (PB) samples from five healthy adults...
September 2016: Clinical & Translational Immunology
Zhihao Jia, Huan Zhang, Shuai Jiang, Mengqiang Wang, Lingling Wang, Linsheng Song
C-type lectins (CTLs), a superfamily of Ca(2+)-dependent carbohydrate-recognition proteins, are involved in nonself-recognition and pathogen elimination, and play crucial roles in the innate immunity. In the present study, two single CRD C-type lectins, CgCLec-4 and CgCLec-5, were identified from oyster Crassostrea gigas. The open reading frame (ORF) of CgCLec-4 and CgCLec-5 encoded polypeptides of 152 and 150 amino acids, respectively. Both CgCLec-4 and CgCLec-5 contained one CRD with six conserved cysteines to form three disulfide bridges...
October 17, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Syafiq Asnawi Zainal Abidin, Pathmanathan Rajadurai, Md Ezharul Hoque Chowdhury, Muhamad Rusdi Ahmad Rusmili, Iekhsan Othman, Rakesh Naidu
Tropidolaemus wagleri and Cryptelytrops purpureomaculatus are venomous pit viper species commonly found in Malaysia. Tandem mass spectrometry analysis of the crude venoms has detected different proteins in T. wagleri and C. purpureomaculatus. They were classified into 13 venom protein families consisting of enzymatic and nonenzymatic proteins. Enzymatic families detected in T. wagleri and C. purpureomaculatus venom were snake venom metalloproteinase, phospholipase A₂, ʟ-amino acid oxidase, serine proteases, 5'-nucleotidase, phosphodiesterase, and phospholipase B...
October 18, 2016: Toxins
Wei-Wei Shi, Yun-Sang Tang, See-Yuen Sze, Zhen-Ning Zhu, Kam-Bo Wong, Pang-Chui Shaw
Ricin is a type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP), containing a catalytic A chain and a lectin-like B chain. It inhibits protein synthesis by depurinating the N-glycosidic bond at α-sarcin/ricin loop (SRL) of the 28S rRNA, which thereby prevents the binding of elongation factors to the GTPase activation center of the ribosome. Here, we present the 1.6 Å crystal structure of Ricin A chain (RTA) complexed to the C-terminal peptide of the ribosomal stalk protein P2, which plays a crucial role in specific recognition of elongation factors and recruitment of eukaryote-specific RIPs to the ribosomes...
October 13, 2016: Toxins
Pavel Hanč, Oliver Schulz, Hanna Fischbach, Stephen R Martin, Svend Kjær, Caetano Reis E Sousa
DNGR-1 is receptor expressed by certain dendritic cell (DC) subsets and by DC precursors in mouse. It possesses a C-type lectin-like domain (CTLD) followed by a poorly characterized neck region coupled to a transmembrane region and short intracellular tail. The CTLD of DNGR-1 binds F-actin exposed by dead cell corpses and causes the receptor to signal and potentiate cross-presentation of dead cell-associated antigens by DCs. Here, we describe a conformational change that occurs in the neck region of DNGR-1 in a pH- and ionic strength-dependent manner and that controls cross-presentation of dead cell-associated antigens...
October 17, 2016: EMBO Journal
Yang Yang, Ben-Quan Wu, Yan-Hong Wang, Yun-Feng Shi, Jin-Mei Luo, Jun-Hui Ba, Hui Liu, Tian-Tuo Zhang
Macrophages play an important role in inflammatory responses; however, miRNA-mediated repolarization of macrophages is essential for fulfilling this function. To clarify a series of changes at the RNA level in alveolar macrophages under normal and inflammatory conditions, bronchial alveolar lavage liquid (BALF) was collected from healthy volunteers or patients with pneumonia. This approach, which differs from that used in previously, provides more accurate information about the states of macrophages in different lung microenvironments...
October 18, 2016: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
Robert L Hunter, Shen-An Hwang, Chinnaswamy Jagannath, Jeffrey K Actor
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) has long been known to persist in grossly normal tissues even in people with active lesions and granulomas in other parts of the body. We recently reported that post-primary TB begins as an asymptomatic infection that slowly progresses, accumulating materials for a massive necrotizing reaction that results in cavitation. This paper explores the possible roles of trehalose 6,6' dimycolate (TDM) or cord factor in the ability of MTB to persist in such lesions without producing inflammation...
September 28, 2016: Tuberculosis
Brice Nativel, Audrey Figuester, Jessica Andries, Cynthia Planesse, Joël Couprie, Philippe Gasque, Wildriss Viranaicken, Thomas Iwema
CD93 belongs to the group XIV C-type lectin like domain (CTLD) and is closely related to thrombomodulin (CD141). Although CD93 is known to be involved in the regulation of cell adhesion and phagocytosis, its role in innate immunity remains to be fully investigated. Critically, published data about CD141 suggest that CD93 CTLD could be involved in the control of inflammation. In order to address further functional and structural analyses, we expressed human CD93 CTLD with several disulfide bonds in an E. coli expression system...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Immunological Methods
Salvador Iborra, María Martínez-López, Francisco J Cueto, Ruth Conde-Garrosa, Carlos Del Fresno, Helena M Izquierdo, Clare L Abram, Daiki Mori, Yolanda Campos-Martín, Rosa María Reguera, Benjamin Kemp, Sho Yamasaki, Matthew J Robinson, Manuel Soto, Clifford A Lowell, David Sancho
C-type lectin receptors sense a diversity of endogenous and exogenous ligands that may trigger differential responses. Here, we have found that human and mouse Mincle bind to a ligand released by Leishmania, a eukaryote parasite that evades an effective immune response. Mincle-deficient mice had milder dermal pathology and a tenth of the parasite burden compared to wild-type mice after Leishmania major intradermal ear infection. Mincle deficiency enhanced adaptive immunity against the parasite, correlating with increased activation, migration, and priming by Mincle-deficient dendritic cells (DCs)...
October 5, 2016: Immunity
Angela Berzi, Stefania Ordanini, Ben Joosten, Daria Trabattoni, Alessandra Cambi, Anna Bernardi, Mario Clerici
DC-SIGN, a C-type lectin mainly expressed by DCs, mediates antigen uptake and can induce specific immune responses, depending on the ligand involved. Owing to these properties, DC-SIGN is an attracting target for approaches aimed at tailoring the immune response towards specific immunologic outcomes. A multivalent DC-SIGN ligand (Polyman26), containing at its core a fluorescent "rod-like" spacer and able to inhibit DC-SIGN mediated HIV infection in nanomolar concentration, has been recently developed by our group...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
Maria Goiko, John R de Bruyn, Bryan Heit
The plasma membrane is a heterogeneous environment characterized by anomalous diffusion and the presence of microdomains that are molecularly distinct from the bulk membrane. Using single particle tracking of the C-type lectin CD93, we have identified for the first time the transient trapping of transmembrane proteins in cage-like microdomains which restrict protein diffusion. These cages are stabilized by actin-dependent confinement regions, but are separate structures with sizes and lifespans uncorrelated to those of the underlying actin corral...
October 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
Xue-Peng Li, Yong-Hua Hu
In this study, we examined the expression patterns and the functions of the tongue sole Cynoglossus semilaevis CD94, CsCD94. CsCD94 is composed of 209 amino acid residues and shares 43.0-50.2% overall identities with known teleost CD94 sequence. CsCD94 has a C-type lectin-like domain. Expression of CsCD94 occurred in multiple tissues and was upregulated during bacterial infection. Recombinant CsCD94 (rCsCD94) exhibited apparent binding and agglutinating activities against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner...
October 5, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
ChangGeng Yang, Ming Jiang, Fan Wu, Lijuan Yu, Juan Tian, Wei Liu, Xing Lu, Hua Wen
C-type lectin, which plays an important role in fish innate immunity, was cloned from tilapia and its functional characterization under low-temperature stress is reported. Its ORF is 453 bp, encoding 150 amino acids, and has a 5'UTR of 83 bp, a 3'UTR of 559 bp, and a poly (A) tail. The tilapia C-type lectin genomic DNA was acquired with a length of 5714 bp, containing six exons and five introns. Its promoter sequence was cloned and has a length of 2251 bp. The highest promoter activity occurs in the regulatory region (-900 bp to -450 bp)...
October 4, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Phillip L van der Peet, Masahiro Nagata, Sayali Shah, Jonathan M White, Sho Yamasaki, Spencer J Williams
Mincle (macrophage-inducible C-type lectin) is a C-type lectin receptor that provides the capacity for immune sensing of a range of pathogen- and commensal-derived glycolipids. Mincle can recognize mycolic and/or corynomycolic acid esters of trehalose, glycerol and glucose from mycobacteria and corynebacteria. While simple straight-chain long fatty acids (e.g. behenic acid) can substitute for mycolic acid on trehalose and glycerol and maintain robust signalling through Mincle, glucose monobehenate has been reported to be much less active than glucose monocorynomycolate (GMCM)...
October 4, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Kirsteen M Tullett, Ingrid M Leal Rojas, Yoshihito Minoda, Peck S Tan, Jian-Guo Zhang, Corey Smith, Rajiv Khanna, Ken Shortman, Irina Caminschi, Mireille H Lahoud, Kristen J Radford
DC-based vaccines that initiate T cell responses are well tolerated and have demonstrated efficacy for tumor immunotherapy, with the potential to be combined with other therapies. Targeting vaccine antigens (Ag) directly to the DCs in vivo is more effective than cell-based therapies in mouse models and is therefore a promising strategy to translate to humans. The human CD141(+) DCs are considered the most clinically relevant for initiating CD8(+) T cell responses critical for killing tumors or infected cells, and they specifically express the C-type lectin-like receptor CLEC9A that facilitates presentation of Ag by these DCs...
May 19, 2016: JCI Insight
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