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C-type lectin

Ahmed El-Shamy, Andrea D Branch, Thomas D Schiano, Peter D Gorevic
The complement system bridges innate and adaptive immunity against microbial infections, with viral infection being a major trigger. Activation of the classical, alternative, and lectin pathways have been reported in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and/or cryoglobulinemia. HCV infection leads to dysregulation of complement-mediated immune responses. Clinical and experimental evidence support involvement of complement in intra- and extrahepatic manifestations of HCV infection, such as liver fibrosis and type II cryoglobulinemia...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Justyna Agier, Joanna Pastwińska, Ewa Brzezińska-Błaszczyk
BACKGROUND: Mast cells (MCs) are long-lived immune cells of the connective tissue which play a key role in development and amplification of inflammatory process initiated inter alia by allergic reactions or microbial infections. They reside in strategic locations in the body that are notably exposed to deleterious factors disturbing homeostasis, which enables them to become one of the first-line defense strategy. MCs have developed a wide range of various mechanisms to deal with invading intruders and harmful endogenic factors...
June 16, 2018: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
Julia Wimmershoff, Kathrin Kuehni-Boghenbor, Adrian C Sewell, Anna Oevermann, Hany Farwanah, Nadia Robert, Stefan Hoby, Christian Wenker, Michael H Stoffel
  This study reports the occurrence of the lysosomal storage disease GM2 gangliosidosis (Sandhoff disease) in two 11-mo-old captive-bred, male and female mongoose siblings ( Mungos mungo). The clinical signs and the pathological findings reported here were similar to those reported in other mammalian species. Light microscopy revealed an accumulation of stored material in neurons and macrophages accompanied by a significant neuronal degeneration (swelling of neuronal soma, loss of Nissl substance, and neuronal loss) and gliosis...
June 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Hari P Dulal, Yoshiyuki Adachi, Naohito Ohno, Yoshiki Yamaguchi
Dectin-1 is a C-type lectin-like pattern recognition receptor that recognizes β(1-3)-glucans present on non-self pathogens. It is of great importance in innate immunity to understand the mechanism whereby Dectin-1 senses β(1-3)-glucans and induces intracellular signaling. In this study, we characterize the ligand binding and ligand-induced oligomerization of murine Dectin-1 using its C-type lectin-like domain (CTLD). Interaction of CTLD with laminarin, a β-glucan ligand, induced a tetramer of CTLD, as evidenced by size exclusion chromatography and multi-angle light scattering...
April 20, 2018: Glycobiology
Neha M Sahasrabudhe, Kristiaan Lenos, Joost C van der Horst, Ernesto Rodríguez, Sandra J van Vliet
Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer type worldwide. It is characterized by a high expression of aberrantly glycosylated ligands, such as the Tn antigen (GalNAcα1-Ser/Thr), which is a major ligand for the C-type lectin macrophage galactose-type lectin (MGL). We have previously determined that a high level of MGL ligands in colorectal tumors is associated with lower disease-free survival in patients with late stage disease, which we could attribute to the presence of oncogenic BRAFV600E mutations...
June 27, 2018: Biological Chemistry
Begoña Echeverria, Sonia Serna, Silvia Achilli, Corinne Vivès, Julie Pham, Michel Thépaut, Cornelis H Hokke, Franck Fieschi, Niels-Christian Reichardt
Here we describe a strategy for the rapid preparation of pure positional isomers of complex N-glycans to complement an existing array comprising a larger number of N-glycans and smaller glycan structures. The expanded array was then employed to study context-dependent binding of structural glycan fragments by monoclonal antibodies and C-type lectins. A partial enzymatic elongation of semi-protected core structures was combined with the protecting group aided separation of positional isomers by preparative HPLC...
June 12, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
Fatemeh Askarian, Theresa Wagner, Mona Johannessen, Victor Nizet
Early recognition of pathogens by the innate immune system is crucial for bacterial clearance. Many pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) such as Toll-like (TLRs) and (NOD)-like (NLRs) receptors have been implicated in initial sensing of bacterial components. The intracellular signaling cascades triggered by these receptors result in transcriptional upregulation of inflammatory pathways. Although this step is crucial for bacterial elimination, it is also associated with the potential for substantial immunopathology, which underscores the need for tight control of inflammatory responses...
June 8, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
Jun Ni, Yun Peng, Fu-Lan Yang, Xun Xi, Xing-Wei Huang, Chun He
Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of C-type lectin domain family 3 member A (CLEC3A) and its clinical significance in breast invasive ductal cancer (IDC) as well as its effect on breast cancer (BC) cell proliferation and metastasis. In this study, the level of CLEC3A expression in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) datasets was analyzed. Materials and methods: Clinical collected samples and BC cells were measured using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Mahendravarman Mohanraj, Ponarulselvam Sekar, Horng-Huei Liou, Shwu-Fen Chang, Wan-Wan Lin
Microglial activation has long been recognized as a hallmark of neuroinflammation. Recently, the bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine has been reported to exert neuroprotective effects against several neurodegenerative disorders. Trehalose-6,6'-dibehenate (TDB) is a synthetic analogue of trehalose-6,6'-dimycolate (TDM, also known as the mycobacterial cord factor) and is a new adjuvant of tuberculosis subunit vaccine currently in clinical trials. Both TDM and TDB can activate macrophages and dendritic cells through binding to C-type lectin receptor Mincle; however, its action mechanism in microglia and their relationship with neuroinflammation are still unknown...
June 6, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Rachel B Brouillette, Elisabeth K Phillips, Radhika Patel, Wadie Mahauad-Fernandez, Sven Moller-Tank, Kai J Rogers, Jacob A Dillard, Ashley L Cooney, Luis Martinez-Sobrido, Chioma Okeoma, Wendy Maury
Lassa virus (LASV) is an Old World arenavirus responsible for hundreds of thousands of infections in West Africa every year. LASV entry into a variety of cell types is mediated by interactions with glycosyltransferase LARGE-modified O-linked glycans present on the ubiquitous receptor, α-dystroglycan (αDG). Yet, cells lacking αDG are permissive to LASV infection, suggesting that alternative receptors exist. Previous studies demonstrate that phosphatidylserine (PtdSer)-binding receptors, Axl and Tyro3 along with C-type lectin receptors, mediate αDG-independent entry...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Virology
Monica Sassi, Geetha Kutty, Gabriela A Ferreyra, Lisa R Bishop, Yueqin Liu, Ju Qiu, Da Wei Huang, Joseph A Kovacs
The major surface glycoprotein (Msg) is the most abundant surface protein of Pneumocystis species. Given that Msg is present on both the cyst and trophic form of Pneumocystis, and dendritic cells play a critical role in initiating host immune responses, we undertook studies to examine activation of bone marrow-derived myeloid dendritic cells by Msg purified from P. murina. Incubation of dendritic cells with Msg did not lead to increased expression of CD40, CD80, CD86, or MHCII, or increased secretion of any of 10 cytokines...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Kae Yi Tan, Nget Hong Tan, Choo Hock Tan
The eastern Russell's viper (Daboia siamensis) causes primarily hemotoxic envenomation. Applying shotgun proteomic approach, the present study unveiled the protein complexity and geographical variation of eastern D. siamensis venoms originated from Guangxi and Taiwan. The snake venoms from the two geographical locales shared comparable expression of major proteins notwithstanding variability in their toxin proteoforms. More than 90% of total venom proteins belong to the toxin families of Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor, phospholipase A2 , C-type lectin/lectin-like protein, serine protease and metalloproteinase...
June 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Daniela Lucchesi, Simona Georgiana Popa, Veronica Sancho, Laura Giusti, Monia Garofolo, Giuseppe Daniele, Laura Pucci, Roberto Miccoli, Giuseppe Penno, Stefano Del Prato
BACKGROUND: High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) can exert anti-atherogenic effects. On top of removing excess cholesterol through reverse cholesterol transport, HDLs play beneficial actions on endothelial function and integrity. In particular, HDLs are strong determinant of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) number and function. To gain further insights into such an effect we characterized in vitro functionality of circulating "early" EPCs obtained from 60 type 2 diabetes individuals with low HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and 59 with high HDL-C levels...
June 5, 2018: Cardiovascular Diabetology
Katsue Suzuki-Inoue
Podoplanin is a type-I transmembrane sialomucin-like glycoprotein expressed on the surface of several kinds of tumor cells. The podoplanin receptor is a platelet activation receptor known as C-type lectin-like receptor 2 (CLEC-2), which has been identified as a receptor for the platelet-activating snake venom protein rhodocytin. CLEC-2 is highly expressed in platelets and megakaryocytes and expressed at lower levels in liver Kupffer cells. Podoplanin is expressed in certain types of tumor cells, including squamous cell carcinomas, seminomas, and brain tumors...
June 4, 2018: Platelets
Nolan C Worstell, Akshi Singla, Panatda Saenkham, Thushara Galbadage, Preeti Sule, Dongheon Lee, Alec Mohr, Joseph Sang-Il Kwon, Jeffrey D Cirillo, Hung-Jen Wu
A single glycan-lectin interaction is often weak and semi-specific. Multiple binding domains in a single lectin can bind with multiple glycan molecules simultaneously, making it difficult for the classic "lock-and-key" model to explain these interactions. We demonstrated that hetero-multivalency, a homo-oligomeric protein simultaneously binding to at least two types of ligands, influences LecA (a Pseudomonas aeruginosa adhesin)-glycolipid recognition. We also observed enhanced binding between P. aeruginosa and mixed glycolipid liposomes...
May 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
Phanthipha Runsaeng, Pattamaporn Kwankaew, Prapaporn Utarabhand
C-type lectins are a member of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that can interact with pathogen-associated molecular patterns of invading microorganisms by using their conserved motifs in carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD). The binding can trigger various immune responses in both direct and indirect mechanisms. Hereby, an ultimate C-type lectin with dual CRDs each of which containing a different motif was identified from hepatopancreas of Fenneropenaeus merguiensis (mentioned as FmLC6). The full-length cDNA of FmLC6 consisted of 1148 bp comprising one 1005 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a signal peptide and a mature protein of 317 residues...
May 26, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Du Xue, Wang Guang-Hua, Su Yan-Li, Zhang Min, Hu Yong-Hua
C-type lectin (CTL) is an immune receptor and is received extensive attention of its important roles in immune response and immune escape. Some CTL, such as CTL4, has been well characterized in human and several other mammals, but much less documentation exists about the immunological function of CTL4 in lower vertebrates. In the present study, a C-type lectin domain family 4 member, SsCTL4, which is also high homology with CD209 antigen-like protein, from the teleost fish black rockfish (Sebastes schlegelii) was identified and examined at expression and functional levels...
August 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Jong-Won Kim, James Budzak, Yu Liu, Sabine A F Jégouzo, Kurt Drickamer, Maureen E Taylor
Blood dendritic cell antigen 2 (BDCA-2) is a C-type lectin found on the surface of plasmacytoid dendritic cells. It functions as a glycan-binding receptor that down-regulates production of type I interferons and thus plays a role in oligosaccharide-mediated immunomodulation. The carbohydrate-recognition domain in BDCA-2 binds selectively to galactose-terminated bi-antennary glycans. Because the plasmacytoid dendritic cells function in a plasma environment rich in glycoproteins, experiments have been undertaken to identify endogenous ligands for BDCA-2...
May 23, 2018: Glycobiology
Yuriko Hashiguchi, Rikio Yabe, Soo-Hyun Chung, Masanori A Murayama, Kaori Yoshida, Kenzo Matsuo, Sachiko Kubo, Shinobu Saijo, Yuumi Nakamura, Hiroyuki Matsue, Yoichiro Iwakura
IL-36α (gene symbol Il1f6 ), a member of the IL-36 family, is closely associated with inflammatory diseases, including colitis and psoriasis. In this study, we found that Il1f6 -/- mice developed milder psoriasiform dermatitis upon treatment with imiquimod, a ligand for TLR ligand 7 (TLR7) and TLR8, whereas Il1f6 -/- mice showed similar susceptibility to dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis to wild-type mice. These effects were observed in both cohoused and separately housed conditions, and antibiotic treatment did not cancel the resistance of Il1f6 -/- mice to imiquimod-induced dermatitis...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Jessie H Bird, Ashna A Khan, Naoya Nishimura, Sho Yamasaki, Mattie S M Timmer, Bridget L Stocker
The macrophage inducible C-type lectin (Mincle) is a pattern recognition receptor that recognises trehalose dimycolate (TDM), and trehalose dibehenate (TDB) and related trehalose diesters, and thus represents a promising target for the development of vaccine adjuvants based on the trehalose glycolipid scaffold. To this end, we report on the synthesis of a series of long-chain α-branched, β-modified trehalose monoesters and diesters to explore how glycolipid structure affects signalling through Mincle. Key steps in our synthetic strategy include a Fráter-Seebach α-alkylation to install the C20 aliphatic lipid on a malic acid derivative, and the formation of a β, γ-epoxide as an intermediate from which modifications to the β-position of the lipid can be made...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
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