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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908687/fertility-response-evaluation-of-artificial-insemination-methods-in-sheep-with-fresh-and-frozen-thawed-semen
#1
Reza Masoudi, Ahmad Zare Shahneh, Armin Towhidi, Hamid Kohram, Abbas Akbarisharif, Mohsen Sharafi
The aim of this study was to evaluate the fertility response of artificial insemination (AI) methods with fresh and frozen sperm in sheep. In experiment 1, one hundred and fifty fat tailed Zandi ewes were assigned into 3 equal groups and inseminated with three AI methods consisting of vaginal, laparoscopic and trans-cervical AI with fresh semen. In experiment 2, a factorial study (3 AI methods × 2 extenders) was used to analyze the effects of three AI methods and two freezing extenders containing soybean lecithin (SL) or Egg yolk (EY) on reproductive performance of 300 fat tailed Zandi ewes...
November 28, 2016: Cryobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901036/the-effects-of-policy-actions-to-improve-population-dietary-patterns-and-prevent-diet-related-non-communicable-diseases-scoping-review
#2
REVIEW
L Hyseni, M Atkinson, H Bromley, L Orton, F Lloyd-Williams, R McGill, S Capewell
Poor diet generates a bigger non-communicable disease (NCD) burden than tobacco, alcohol and physical inactivity combined. We reviewed the potential effectiveness of policy actions to improve healthy food consumption and thus prevent NCDs. This scoping review focused on systematic and non-systematic reviews and categorised data using a seven-part framework: price, promotion, provision, composition, labelling, supply chain, trade/investment and multi-component interventions. We screened 1805 candidate publications and included 58 systematic and non-systematic reviews...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899529/short-term-effects-of-trans-fatty-acids-from-ruminant-and-industrial-sources-on-surrogate-markers-of-cardiovascular-risk-in-healthy-men-and-women-a-randomized-controlled-double-blind-trial
#3
Thomas Radtke, Alexandra Schmid, Anja Trepp, Frieda Dähler, Michael Coslovsky, Prisca Eser, Matthias Wilhelm, Hugo Saner
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine short-term effects of trans fatty acid (TFA) intake from ruminant and industrial sources on surrogate markers of cardiovascular risk in the context of a balanced diet with 30-36% of daily energy from fat. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, double-blind, parallel-design study. METHODS: In this study, 142 healthy volunteers aged 45 to 69 years were randomly allocated to three different diets: either a diet enriched with 2% of daily energy intake from ruminant TFA (rTFA) or with industrial TFA (iTFA), or a diet without TFA (wTFA), for a duration of four weeks...
November 29, 2016: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899007/the-impact-of-interventions-to-promote-healthier-ready-to-eat-meals-to-eat-in-to-take-away-or-to-be-delivered-sold-by-specific-food-outlets-open-to-the-general-public-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
F C Hillier-Brown, C D Summerbell, H J Moore, A Routen, A A Lake, J Adams, M White, V Araujo-Soares, C Abraham, A J Adamson, T J Brown
INTRODUCTION: Ready-to-eat meals sold by food outlets that are accessible to the general public are an important target for public health intervention. We conducted a systematic review to assess the impact of such interventions. METHODS: Studies of any design and duration that included any consumer-level or food-outlet-level before-and-after data were included. RESULTS: Thirty studies describing 34 interventions were categorized by type and coded against the Nuffield intervention ladder: restrict choice = trans fat law (n = 1), changing pre-packed children's meal content (n = 1) and food outlet award schemes (n = 2); guide choice = price increases for unhealthier choices (n = 1), incentive (contingent reward) (n = 1) and price decreases for healthier choices (n = 2); enable choice = signposting (highlighting healthier/unhealthier options) (n = 10) and telemarketing (offering support for the provision of healthier options to businesses via telephone) (n = 2); and provide information = calorie labelling law (n = 12), voluntary nutrient labelling (n = 1) and personalized receipts (n = 1)...
November 29, 2016: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895698/combinations-of-bio-active-dietary-constituents-affect-human-white-adipocyte-function-in-vitro
#5
Ines Warnke, Johan W E Jocken, Rotraut Schoop, Christine Toepfer, Regina Goralczyk, Joseph Schwager
BACKGROUND: Specific bio-active dietary compounds modulate numerous metabolic processes in adipose tissue (AT), including pre-adipocyte proliferation and differentiation. AT dysfunction, rather than an increased fat mass per se, is strongly associated with the development of insulin resistance and is characterized by impaired adipogenesis, hypertrophic adipocytes, inflammation, and impairments in substrate metabolism. A better understanding of mechanisms underlying AT dysfunction may provide new strategies for the treatment of obesity-associated metabolic diseases...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866151/genotyping-by-sequencing-based-investigation-of-the-genetic-architecture-responsible-for-a-7-fold-increase-in-soybean-seed-stearic-acid
#6
Crystal B Heim, Jason D Gillman
Soybean oil is highly unsaturated but oxidatively unstable, rendering it non-ideal for food applications. Until recently, the majority of soybean oil underwent partial chemical hydrogenation, which produces trans fats as an unavoidable consequence. Dietary intake of trans fats and most saturated fats are conclusively linked to negative impacts on cholesterol levels and cardiovascular health. Two major soybean oil breeding targets are : 1) to reduce or eliminate the need for chemical hydrogenation, and 2) to replace the functional properties of partially hydrogenated soybean oil...
November 18, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865509/effect-of-incremental-amounts-of-camelina-oil-on-milk-fatty-acid-composition-in-lactating-cows-fed-diets-based-on-a-mixture-of-grass-and-red-clover-silage-and-concentrates-containing-camelina-expeller
#7
A Halmemies-Beauchet-Filleau, K J Shingfield, I Simpura, T Kokkonen, S Jaakkola, V Toivonen, A Vanhatalo
Camelina is an ancient oilseed crop that produces an oil rich in cis-9,cis-12 18:2 (linoleic acid, LA) and cis-9,cis-12,cis-15 18:3 (α-linolenic acid, ALA); however, reports on the use of camelina oil (CO) for ruminants are limited. The present study investigated the effects of incremental CO supplementation on animal performance, milk fatty acid (FA) composition, and milk sensory quality. Eight Finnish Ayrshire cows (91 d in milk) were used in replicated 4 × 4 Latin squares with 21-d periods. Treatments comprised 4 concentrates (12 kg/d on an air-dry basis) based on cereals and camelina expeller containing 0 (control), 2, 4, or 6% CO on an air-dry basis...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865506/synthesis-of-the-suspected-trans-11-cis-13-conjugated-linoleic-acid-isomer-in-ruminant-mammary-tissue-by-fads3-catalyzed-%C3%AE-13-desaturation-of-vaccenic-acid
#8
Cyrielle Garcia, Cécile Duby, Daniel Catheline, Pablo G Toral, Laurence Bernard, Philippe Legrand, Vincent Rioux
The octadecadienoic conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomer with trans-11 and cis-13 double bonds (trans-11,cis-13 CLA) has been described in ruminant milk. For now, this specific CLA is suspected to derive exclusively from ruminal biohydrogenation of dietary α-linolenic acid. However, in rodents, the fatty acid desaturase 3 (FADS3) gene was recently shown to code for an enzyme able to catalyze the unexpected Δ13-desaturation of vaccenic acid, producing a Δ11,13-CLA with all the structural characteristics of the trans-11,cis-13 isomer, although no commercial standard exists for complete conclusive identification...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864043/maternal-trans-fat-intake-during-pregnancy-or-lactation-impairs-memory-and-alters-bdnf-and-trkb-levels-in-the-hippocampus-of-adult-offspring-exposed-to-chronic-mild-stress
#9
Camila Simonetti Pase, Karine Roversi, Katiane Roversi, Luciana Taschetto Vey, Verônica Tironi Dias, Tatiana Emanuelli, Thiago Duarte, Marta Duarte, Marilise Escobar Bürger
This study aimed to assess the influence of maternal dietary fat intake during pregnancy or lactation on memory of adult offspring after chronic mild stress (CMS) exposure. Female Wistar rats were supplemented daily with soybean oil/fish oil (SO/FO) or hydrogenated vegetable fat (HVF) by oral gavage (3.0g/kg body weight) during pregnancy or lactation. On post-natal day (PND) 60, half of the animals were exposed to CMS following behavioral assessments. While the adult offspring born under influence of SO/FO and HVF supplementations during pregnancy showed higher levels of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids (FA) series DHA and ARA metabolites, respectively, in the hippocampus, adult offspring born from supplemented dams during lactation showed higher levels of their precursors: ALA and LA...
November 15, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862118/prevention-of-hepatic-fibrosis-with-liver-microsomal-triglyceride-transfer-protein-deletion-in-liver-fatty-acid-binding-protein-null-mice
#10
Elizabeth P Newberry, Yan Xie, Susan M Kennedy, Mark J Graham, Rosanne M Crooke, Hui Jiang, Anping Chen, Daniel S Ory, Nicholas O Davidson
: Blocking hepatic very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) secretion via genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of microsomal triglyceride (TG) transfer protein (Mttp) causes hepatic steatosis, yet the risks for developing hepatic fibrosis are poorly understood. Here we report that liver-specific Mttp knockout mice (Mttp-LKO) exhibit both steatosis and fibrosis, which is exacerbated by a high trans fat, fructose diet. When crossed into germline Liver fatty acid binding protein null mice (Mttp-LKO, L-Fabp (-/-) , ie DKO mice) hepatic steatosis was greatly diminished and fibrosis prevented, on both low and high fat diets...
November 14, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862054/determination-of-target-fat-soluble-micronutrients-in-rainbow-trout-s-muscle-and-liver-tissues-by-liquid-chromatography-with-diode-array-tandem-mass-spectrometry-detection
#11
Virginia Pérez Fernández, Salvatore Ventura, Pierpaolo Tomai, Roberta Curini, Alessandra Gentili
This paper describes an analytical approach, based on liquid chromatography-diode array detection-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-MS/MS), for characterizing the fat-soluble micronutrient fraction in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Two different procedures were applied to isolate the analytes from liver and muscle tissue: overnight cold saponification to hydrolyze bound forms and to simplify the analysis; matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) to avoid artifacts and to maintain unaltered the naturally occurring forms...
November 12, 2016: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859835/differentiation-of-focal-indeterminate-marrow-abnormalities-with-multiparametric-mri
#12
Jun Seung Baik, Joon-Yong Jung, Won-Hee Jee, Chang-Woo Chun, Sun Ki Kim, Seung Han Shin, Yang Guk Chung, Chan-Kwon Jung, Stephan Kannengiesser, YoHan Sohn
PURPOSE: To explore magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parameters from intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted imaging (IVIM-DWI), multiecho Dixon imaging (ME-Dixon), and dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging (DCE) for differentiating focal indeterminate marrow abnormalities MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-two patients with 14 benign and 28 malignant focal marrow abnormalities were included. The following were independently analyzed by two readers: signal intensity (SI), contour, and margin on conventional MR images; SI on b-800 images (SIb-800 ), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), IVIM parameters (Dslow, Dfast , and f), fat fraction (Ff), and DCE parameters (time-to-signal intensity curve pattern, iAUC, K(trans) , kep , and ve )...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853932/non-conjugated-cis-trans-18-2-in-beef-fat-are-mainly-%C3%AE-9-desaturation-products-of-trans-18-1-isomers
#13
P Vahmani, D C Rolland, K E Gzyl, M E R Dugan
Human liver cells (HepG2) were cultured with individual trans (t) 18:1 including t6-, t12-, t13-, t14-, t15- and t16-18:1, and retention times of their Δ-9 desaturation products were determined using 100-m biscyanopropyl-polysiloxane and SLB-IL111 columns. Corresponding peaks were found in beef adipose tissues known to have different delta-9 desaturase activities. Further lines of evidence indicating the presence of Δ-9 desaturation products of t-18:1 isomers in beef fat were developed by analysis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) fractionated using Ag(+)-TLC, and by GC/MS...
November 16, 2016: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834316/fatty-acid-intake-in-relation-to-reproductive-hormones-and-testicular-volume-among-young-healthy-men
#14
Lidia Mínguez-Alarcón, Jorge E Chavarro, Jaime Mendiola, Manuela Roca, Cigdem Tanrikut, Jesús Vioque, Niels Jørgensen, Alberto M Torres-Cantero
Emerging evidence suggests that dietary fats may influence testicular function. However, most of the published literature on this field has used semen quality parameters as the only proxy for testicular function. We examined the association of fat intake with circulating reproductive hormone levels and testicular volume among healthy young Spanish men. This is a cross-sectional study among 209 healthy male volunteers conducted between October 2010 and November 2011 in Murcia Region of Spain. Participants completed questionnaires on lifestyle, diet, and smoking, and each underwent a physical examination, and provided a blood sample...
October 28, 2016: Asian Journal of Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830932/oleogels-a-promising-structured-oils-for-decreasing-saturated-fatty-acid-concentrations-production-and-food-based-applications
#15
Halime PehlivanoĞlu, Mehmet Demirci, Omer Said Toker, Nevzat Konar, Salih Karasu, Osman Sagdic
Oils and fats are widely used in the food formulations in order to improve nutritional and some quality characteristics of food products. Solid fats produced from oils by hydrogenization, interesterification and fractionation processes are widely used in different foodstuffs for these aims. In recent years, consumer awareness of relation between diet and health has increased which can cause worry about solid fat including products in terms of their high saturated fatty acid and trans fatty acid contents. Therefore, different attempts have been carried out to find alternative ways to produce solid fat with low saturated fatty acid content...
November 10, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821191/nutritional-management-of-hyperapob
#16
Valérie Lamantia, Allan Sniderman, May Faraj
Plasma apoB is a more accurate marker of the risk of CVD and type 2 diabetes (T2D) than LDL-cholesterol; however, nutritional reviews targeting apoB are scarce. Here we reviewed eighty-seven nutritional studies and present conclusions in order of strength of evidence. Plasma apoB was reduced in all studies that induced weight loss of 6-12 % using hypoenergetic diets (seven studies; 5440-7110 kJ/d; 1300-1700 kcal/d; 34-50 % carbohydrates; 27-39 % fat; 18-24 % protein). When macronutrients were compared in isoenergetic diets (eleven studies including eight randomised controlled trials (RCT); n 1189), the diets that reduced plasma apoB were composed of 26-51 % carbohydrates, 26-46 % fat, 11-32 % protein, 10-27 % MUFA, 5-14 % PUFA and 7-13 % SFA...
November 8, 2016: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811060/il-10-prevents-aging-associated-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance-in-skeletal-muscle
#17
Sezin Dagdeviren, Dae Young Jung, Randall H Friedline, Hye Lim Noh, Jong Hun Kim, Payal R Patel, Nicholas Tsitsilianos, Kunikazu Inashima, Duy A Tran, Xiaodi Hu, Marilia M Loubato, Siobhan M Craige, Jung Yeon Kwon, Ki Won Lee, Jason K Kim
Altered energy balance and insulin resistance are important characteristics of aging. Skeletal muscle is a major site of glucose disposal, and the role of aging-associated inflammation in skeletal muscle insulin resistance remains unclear. To investigate, we examined glucose metabolism in 18-mo-old transgenic mice with muscle-specific overexpression of IL-10 (M(IL10)) and in wild-type mice during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamping. Despite similar fat mass and energy balance, M(IL10) mice were protected from aging-associated insulin resistance with significant increases in glucose infusion rates, whole-body glucose turnover, and skeletal muscle glucose uptake (∼60%; P < 0...
November 3, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803009/meps-call-for-legal-limits-on-trans-fats
#18
Rory Watson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780312/interrelationships-of-child-appetite-weight-and-snacking-among-hispanic-preschoolers
#19
E Rudy, K W Bauer, S O Hughes, T M O'Connor, K Vollrath, A Davey, N E M Correa, T-A Chen, J O Fisher
BACKGROUND: Snacking among US preschoolers has increased in recent decades, raising questions about whether snacking contributes to dietary excess. OBJECTIVES: This research aimed to characterize snacking contributions to dietary excess and to evaluate associations with appetite and weight among preschool-aged children. METHODS: This study is a cross-sectional, observational study of 187 Hispanic low-income preschoolers. Three 24-h dietary recalls were used to assess snacking frequency and parameters of dietary excess including energy, saturated fat, trans fats and added sugars...
October 25, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779892/examining-diet-related-care-practices-among-adults-with-type-2-diabetes-a-focus-on-glycemic-index-choices
#20
Hayford M Avedzi, Nonsikelelo Mathe, Stephanie Bearman, Kate Storey, Jeffrey A Johnson, Steven T Johnson
We examined self-care dietary practices and usual intakes among adults with Type 2 diabetes in Alberta, Canada, using data from the Healthy Eating and Active Living for Diabetes study. Participants completed a modified Fat/Sugar/Fruit/Vegetable Screener and answered questions about the number of days per week they followed specific diabetes self-care dietary recommendations. Capillary blood samples were collected to assess glycemic control measured by hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). ANOVA was used to examine differences in dietary self-care, intakes, and glycemic control across categories of days/week of practicing recommended dietary behaviour...
October 25, 2016: Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research
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